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Prague 14th June 2011Field experience with RR maize in Czech Republic Josef Soukup V. Venclová, M. Jursík, J. Holec, J. Janků, L. Procházka Czech University of Life Sciences Prague firstname.lastname@example.org
Content of the presentation:Maize in CZEnvironmental conditions and weedoccurence in CZPrinciples and issues of weed controlin maizeExperience with Roundup Readysystem in maizeField visit - trial with RR maize
Corn production: 2/3 of the area or 8.4 MhaSilage: 36% of the area or 4.7 Mha Source: European Confederation of Maize Production
Water erosion most endangered strongly endangered moderat. endangered slightly endangered not endangered (www.vumop.cz)
„Cross Compliance“ requirementsGAEC – Good Agricultural and Env. ConditionsGAEC 1, GAEC 2 – Soil erosion Maize and other wide-row crops may not be grown in fields strongly endangered by erosion In field moderately endangered by erosion, only soil conservation tillage may be used Plant residues should cover 30% of soil surface No-till or reduced tillage should be used
Mulch as a protective measure against water erosion
Maize sowing in mulchusing no-till sowing machine
Weed control in maize dependes on site conditionsGeographical distribution of weeds Mediterranean, Central/West/North EuropeClimatic / weather conditions evaporation, drought periodes soil moisture – weed emergence, herbicide uptakeFarming practices share of maize in crop rotations soil tillage systems
Natural conditions vs. Lowland, warmer regions weed occurence in CZ Amaranthus retroflexus Echinochloa crus-galli Polygonum lapathifolium Agropyron repens Chenopodium album Polygonum convolvulusHigher altitudes, colder climate Abutilon Theophrasti Chenopodium album ... Agropyron repens Polygonum lapathifolium Polygonum convolvulus Polygonum aviculare Matricaria sp. oceanic continental climate ...
Most frequent weeds in CZ(conventional: after herbicide application) conventional farming Survey by Kolarova and Tyser, 2008-2009
Most frequent weeds in CZ(organic: after mechanical weed control) organic farming Survey by Kolarova and Tyser, 2008-2009
Weeds of various life cycles can occur in maize...Summer annuals (Chenopodium album, Polygonum lapathifolium, Amaranthus spp., Echinochloa crus-galli, Solanum sp., Mercurialis annua, Abutilon, Panicum, ...)Winter annuals (Matricaria spp., Stellaria media, Galium aparine, Thlaspi arvense, Capsella bursa pastoris, ...)Spring annuals (Polygonum convolvulus, P. aviculare, Geleopsis tetrahit, Sinapis arvensis, Avena fatua, ...)Perennial (Agropyron repens, Cirsium arvense, Concolvulus arvensis, Sonchus arvensis, Equisetum arvense,...)
Emergence of summer annual weeds (CZ) 450,0 Driving factors: 400,0 - temperatures A. retroflexus - soil moisture 350,0p o č e No. of emerged tlin (m 2 ) - seed dormancy t v ze š lý c h ro s plants 300,0 - photoperiodism 250,0 - soil tillage E. crus-galli - ... 200,0 Ch. album 150,0 S. nigrum M. annua 100,0 50,0 D. stramonium 0,0 3 4 5 6 7 .7 .8 .9 0 1 3. 2. 2. 1. 1. .1 .1 31 30 29 29 28 3-4 months weed emergence Jursík et al. 2007, adapted
Patterns of weed emergence in maize:- many factors involved- cumulative temperatures seem to be the main factor- soil moisture and photosensitivity are the sources of seasonal variability- very hard to predict the best time for weed control in maizeSousa et al.: Predicting weed emergence in maize crops under two contrasting climaticconditions. Weed Res. 3, 251-260, 2009.
Influence of temperature on crop – weed interactionsTemperature influences:• weed community composition• symetry of competition• photosynthesis and biomass accumulation
Impact of soil mostureEveness of weed emergenceEfficacy of soil active herbicides
Daily precipitations beforethe application of PRE herbicides (May 1st - May 15th, 2010) rainfall period application 12.5.2010 sowing date 12.5. 2010
2010 – plots after pre-emergenceapplication of acetochlor + terbuthylazinetillage with plough no till - mulch good effect of pre-emergence herbicides in 2010
Daily precipitations beforethe application of PRE herbicides (April 15th - May 15th, 2011) application date 28.4. dry period sowing date 28.4.2011
2011 – plots after pre-emergenceapplication of acetochlor + terbuthylazinetillage with plough reduced tillage failure of pre-emergence herbicides in 2011
Critical period in maize-weeds competition „period for exclusion of weed competition“relative yield [%] 100 weeds occurr until ... 80 weeds occurr from ... 60 4 . – 8. maize leaves 40 20 critical period 0 time scale (maize growth stage)
Most popular herbicides in CZPre-emergence acetochlor + terbuthyazine terbuthyazine + S-metolachlor isoxaflutole
Increasing requirementson safety of plant protection products... Result of Review Programme of existing pesticides, 2001-2009Regulation 1107/2009 EC on placing on the market of plantprotection products 2009/128Directive 2009/128 EC on the sustainable use of pesticides
Most popular herbicides in CZPost-emergence terbuthylazine + S-metolachlor nicosulfuron rimsulfuron + dicamba foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron mesotrione, tembotrione terbuthyazine + S-metolachlor + mesotrione isoxaflutole + thiencarbazone
Do we need Roundup Ready?RR allows application flexibility accordingweed pressure – important premise of IWM,eliminates crop injuries (phytotoxicity),provides efficient and cheap solutions againstgrasses – both annual and perennial,enriches number of herbicide modes of actionused in maize,exhibits a very good environmental profile.
RR - no problem with crop injury2,4 D Slight crop injury (phytotoxicity) 5-15% is very common for many post-emergence herbicidesbromoxynil rimsulfuron
Use of herbicides in conservation tillage (no-till, mulch) Roundup Ready Conventional pre-em
Five years experince withRoundup Ready technology in maize 3 years small plot experiments (2007-2009) sensitivity of individual weed species impact on composition of weed community efficacy and selectivity of various herbicide treatmens in RR system 2 years large plot experiment (2010-2011) efficacy of various herbicide treatments performance of RR in various soil tillage systems impact of technology on NTOs
Differences in sensitivity to glyphosate in different weed species Amaranthus retroflexus Echinochloa crus-galli 100 100 1 1 80 80 60 60 responseresponse 40 40 20 20 0 0 0 0.1 1 10 100 1000 0 0.1 1 10 100 1000 dose dose
Summary – species sensitivity to glyphosateHigh differences in sensitivity to glyphosate betweentested species were foundAMARE, SOLPS – very sensitive (ED90 ≅ 400 - 500 g ha-1)CHEAL, MERAN – medium sens. (ED90 ≅ 700 g ha-1)ECHCG, POLLA – low sensitivity (ED90 ≅ 1300 g ha-1)Regeneration occured when ED90 / ED50 > 2.8(in ECHCG, MERAN)Intended registered rate (2+2 or 3+3 lt/ha) of Roundupis sufficient for control of all tested annual speciesThe herbicide dose should be chosen according themost tolerant species to avoid the weed shift
Experience with NK603 maize some conclusinsAll RR treatments (split; with acetochlor)showed comparable or better weed controleffects than conventional herbicidesStable affect through the yearsNo problems with herbicide selectivity wereobservedBetter control of perennial weeds and grassesSecond weed flush was not a serious problemBetter reliability in soil conservation tillagesystems