Maize cultivation systems; weedcontrol and economical aspectsHilfred HuitingRommie van der Weide, Yu Tong Qiu, Piet Bleeke...
Outline Why reduced tillage? Which reduced tillage systems? Research and results Preliminary conclusions Future aspects
Why reduced tillage?
Economic advantages tillage reduction Fuel savings (15 up to 80%) Labor savings (up to 60%) Decreased machinery costs (aft...
Erosion risks enhanced by conventional tillage
Environmental advantages tillage reduction CO2, N2O, CH4 emission reduction Extra carbon storage in the soil: up to 200 kg...
Creating More CompetetiveFazenda Frank’anna farm, BrazilAlternatives and Tecnologies:  Started no tillage systemFarming   ...
Soil organic matter %, Fazenda Frank’anna
Which reduced tillage system?
In NL non inversion tillage in specific cases  Erosion only regional     Slopes, wind  If necessary loosening the soil aft...
Ridge tillage of maize in Canada/USA
Ridge tillageCrop residue previous year   After sowing the new crop
Ridge tillage Maize plantingequipment used
Physical weed control in case of cropresidues
No till and direct seeding:       Loosening the soil through:       • increased soil fauna       • rooting (cover) crops  ...
Research:setup and results
2009: start multiple year experiment maizePrevious: several years grassland at marine loam soil(Lelystad, NL). Experiment ...
Trial overview, spring 2011
Experiment objectives Investigate practicability of reduced tillage systems as developed in the US and Canada in Dutch con...
No tillage machinery (Evers Hunter) Aim: grow maize without soil cultivation
Strip tillage machinery (Dutch Pol/Kuipers)  Aim: grow maize in permanent grassland/on less  supportive soil; apply manure...
Mechanical weed control                    Harrowing,                  powered harrow
Mechanical weed control             Blades and finger weeders
Mechanical weed control                  Rotary strip cultivation
Mechanical weed control                          Ridging up
Results 2009Cultivation       Weed      Rel. fresh yield   Rel. dry yield   % (weed)                  control     (53.0 t/...
Results 2009Cultivation         Weed      Rel. dry yield      Balance        Balance                    control    (18.9 t...
Results 2010Cultivation         Weed      Rel. dry yield      Balance        Balance                    control    (17.5 t...
Weed cover %; different cover crops                              Oilseed    No/    grass/Cultivation Treatment   Rye    ra...
Preliminaryconclusions
Preliminary conclusions More or less comparable yields if cover crop was killed with Roundup prior to maize planting    No...
Future outlook  Reduced tillage systems will  gain importance in Europe:  economic en environmental  contraints.  Optimisi...
Thank you for your attention,discussion and (further) support!© Wageningen UR
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Hilfred_Huiting_Prague11

  1. 1. Maize cultivation systems; weedcontrol and economical aspectsHilfred HuitingRommie van der Weide, Yu Tong Qiu, Piet Bleeker, Marleen RiemensMonsanto Weed Workshop ”North”, 13-15 June 2011
  2. 2. Outline Why reduced tillage? Which reduced tillage systems? Research and results Preliminary conclusions Future aspects
  3. 3. Why reduced tillage?
  4. 4. Economic advantages tillage reduction Fuel savings (15 up to 80%) Labor savings (up to 60%) Decreased machinery costs (after initial investments) Increased supporting power of the soil In time nutrient savings
  5. 5. Erosion risks enhanced by conventional tillage
  6. 6. Environmental advantages tillage reduction CO2, N2O, CH4 emission reduction Extra carbon storage in the soil: up to 200 kg.ha-1.y-1 C Increased drought tolerance (1% o.s. = 150,000 liters/ha) Better water infiltration and less erosion: >90% at no till >60% at non inversion tillage Improved surface water quality through decreased superficial emission of nutrients and pesticides
  7. 7. Creating More CompetetiveFazenda Frank’anna farm, BrazilAlternatives and Tecnologies: Started no tillage systemFarming Sustainable in 1976 In Brasil Comparison ploughing and no-till Ploughing No-tillYield for 1 lt of fuel 50 kg 123 kgYield for 1 kg of NPK 15 kg 26 kg
  8. 8. Soil organic matter %, Fazenda Frank’anna
  9. 9. Which reduced tillage system?
  10. 10. In NL non inversion tillage in specific cases Erosion only regional Slopes, wind If necessary loosening the soil after a crop No till virtually absent Cultivation in various ways, often in combination with a powered tool (harrow or cultivator)
  11. 11. Ridge tillage of maize in Canada/USA
  12. 12. Ridge tillageCrop residue previous year After sowing the new crop
  13. 13. Ridge tillage Maize plantingequipment used
  14. 14. Physical weed control in case of cropresidues
  15. 15. No till and direct seeding: Loosening the soil through: • increased soil fauna • rooting (cover) crops Soil coverage for: • erosion prevention • weed control • possibilities for precision spraying
  16. 16. Research:setup and results
  17. 17. 2009: start multiple year experiment maizePrevious: several years grassland at marine loam soil(Lelystad, NL). Experiment in total 180 plots on 2 ha.Start with main treatments (in 3 replicates): Ploughing Ploughing with a caterpillar tractor Non inversion tillage Ridge till No till Experimental strip, e.g. strip tillageSub treatments: 5 green manure crops in fallow 2 weed control strategies
  18. 18. Trial overview, spring 2011
  19. 19. Experiment objectives Investigate practicability of reduced tillage systems as developed in the US and Canada in Dutch conditions; Investigate the interaction of tillage system, weed control method and green manure crop choice; Investigate the consequences for weed control, crop protection and economical and environmental aspects.
  20. 20. No tillage machinery (Evers Hunter) Aim: grow maize without soil cultivation
  21. 21. Strip tillage machinery (Dutch Pol/Kuipers) Aim: grow maize in permanent grassland/on less supportive soil; apply manure directly
  22. 22. Mechanical weed control Harrowing, powered harrow
  23. 23. Mechanical weed control Blades and finger weeders
  24. 24. Mechanical weed control Rotary strip cultivation
  25. 25. Mechanical weed control Ridging up
  26. 26. Results 2009Cultivation Weed Rel. fresh yield Rel. dry yield % (weed) control (53.0 t/ha) (18.9 t/ha) coverPloughing Chem. 100 100 6 Mech. 104 100 20N.I. tillage Chem. 105 107 3 Mech. 104 107 29Ridge tillage Chem. 102 106 20 Mech. 100 103 37No till Chem. 90 88 2 Mech. 91 90 35Strip till Chem. 100 106 11Strip till no R Mech. 86 87 40Strip till no R Mow. 39 43 75N.I. till no R Mech. 98 99 22
  27. 27. Results 2009Cultivation Weed Rel. dry yield Balance Balance control (18.9 t/ha) without labour with labourPloughing Chem. 100 € 2,675 € 2,087 Mech. 100 € 2,734 € 2,135N.I. tillage Chem. 107 € 2,938 € 2,337 Mech. 107 € 2,773 € 2,162Ridge tillage Chem. 106 € 2,652 € 1,976 Mech. 103 € 2,650 € 1,963No till Chem. 88 € 2,265 € 1,726 Mech. 90 € 2,870 € 2,337Strip till Chem. 106 € 3,299 € 2,738Strip till (avg.) Mech. 77 € 1,922 € 1,368
  28. 28. Results 2010Cultivation Weed Rel. dry yield Balance Balance control (17.5 t/ha) without labour with labourPloughing Chem. 100 € 2,466 € 1,878 Mech. 101 € 2,555 € 1,956N.I. tillage Chem. 105 € 2,623 € 2,022 Mech. 96 € 2,308 € 1,696Ridge tillage Chem. 95 € 2,441 € 1,765 Mech. 95 € 2,531 € 1,845No till Chem. 92 € 2,428 € 1,888 Mech. 89 € 2,491 € 1,958Strip till Chem. 93 € 2,655 € 2,094Strip till (avg.) Mech. 74 € 2,105 € 1,551
  29. 29. Weed cover %; different cover crops Oilseed No/ grass/Cultivation Treatment Rye rape weedy clover Hairy vetchplough chem. 0.3 0.3 0.3 2.3 1.3 mech. 0.3 0.3 2.0 1.3 2.3NI tillage chem. 1.7 2.0 2.3 3.7 7.3 mech. 1.7 2.0 7.0 4.6 5.0Ridge till chem. 5.6 2.9 2.6 10.7 5.0 mech. 3.3 7.6 6.0 8.3 5.7No till chem. 2.7 3.7 5.7 6.3 7.4 mech. 2.3 3.3 3.7 5.0 6.0
  30. 30. Preliminaryconclusions
  31. 31. Preliminary conclusions More or less comparable yields if cover crop was killed with Roundup prior to maize planting No till / strip till resulted in yield reduction during the first years. For organic farming non inversion tillage instead of ploughing is possible, but: Mechanical equipment should be adapted to cover crop residues on the soil surface (e.g. moving harrows). Weed management difficult at organic no till and strip till; difficult to avoid yield losses. Factor 2-3 more weeds left in case of non inversion tillage compared to ploughing in the second year. Cover crop choice influences weed pressure (less after rye and oilseed rape).
  32. 32. Future outlook Reduced tillage systems will gain importance in Europe: economic en environmental contraints. Optimising opportunities needed and longer term comparison Yields, weeds and economics as well as environmental effects. Optimal incorporation of precision techniques (sowing, fertilising, crop protection)
  33. 33. Thank you for your attention,discussion and (further) support!© Wageningen UR
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