Transcript of "Gap & weed managment with glyphosate"
cropprotection EMEA cropprotection EMEAGood Agricultural Practice and weed management using Glyphosate Richard Garnett Monsanto Weed Workshop, Prague 16th June, 2011
cropprotection EMEA• Glyphosate benefits – We sometimes forget the revolution it triggered• Good Agricultural Practice – Legal & practical background• Best weed management practices – Sustainable weed control• Minimise risk of off‐target contamination – Water & other sensitive areas 2
cropprotectionUniquely wide range of uses EMEA• Broad spectrum – broad‐leaved weeds & grasses – annual & perennial weeds – revolutionised control of couch grass (Elymus repens; Elytrigia repens)• Agricultural weed control – arable, grassland, fruit & vines, horticulture – crop selectivity • by timing e.g. pre‐plant, pre‐harvest • by placement e.g directed spray – new developments • “no‐till”, “conservation tillage (CT)” • “harvest aid” • Vegetation management – streets, roads & railways – parks & home gardens – forestry 3
cropprotectionSummary of the benefits EMEAExcellent broad‐spectrum weed control: glyphosate moves throughout the plant and controls the growing shoots and roots, thus providing long‐term control of a very wide range of species from annual to perennial grasses and broadleaves, invasive species , as well as weeds resistant to selective products in arable crops.Cost effective weed control: one application can control perennial weeds for many years and application of glyphosate can be made in low water volumes meaning fewer fills and very efficient spraying operation compared with expensive mechanical techniques that require a large amount of manpower, machines and transport. Improved establishment of crops plants, shrubs and trees: Weed competition can mean at best slow/ suppressed growth, at worst death, of planted crops/ shrubs/ trees. Application of glyphosate to fully control existing weed/ plant cover gives a clean start, optimising establishment and growth of any newly sown/ planted crop/ tree.Increase yield and quality: removal of weed competition can increase yield by up to 30‐60% (dense perennial weeds), 10% with lower populations and 3‐7% by ripening of green crops and removing annual weeds reducing grain losses at harvest. By facilitating earlier harvest grain/ seed quality is maintained compared to later harvesting and seed contains less other material requiring less cleaning and growers can get a better price.Increased harvesting efficiency and lower fuel use: studies have shown that crops treated with glyphosate 7‐ 10 days before harvest are more uniform and drier at harvest, so there is less material to be harvested reducing the load on the combine harvester, reducing fuel use by 25% in wheat and 35% in oilseed rape and increasing the speed of harvest, so harvest can be completed earlier.Reduced soil erosion: Many traditional practices for weed control rely on repeated cultivation 4
cropprotection EMEAGOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE 5
cropprotection EMEA Good agricultural practiceGood Agricultural Practices (GAP) are "practices that address environmental, economic and social sustainability for on‐farm processes, and result in safe and quality food and non‐food agricultural products" (FAO COAG 2003 GAP paper). Four pillars of GAP: • economic viability • environmental sustainability •social acceptability •food safety and qualityGlyphosate GAP promotes application of glyphosate products according to the label recommendations, maximizing return on investment for the customer (efficient weedmanagement, yield optimization,harvest facilitation,…) and minimizing impact on the environment , non target areas, the health of people directly or indirectly related to the application and the health of people consuming directly or indirectly treated foodcommodities.
cropprotectionEU Legal/regulatory framework EMEA* DIR 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive o Sustainable use of water o Good water quality status by 2015 ‐Progressive reduction of emissions of PS ‐Phasing out emissions of PHS* DIR 2009/128 /EC Sustainable Use of Pesticides Directive o Reduce impact of PPP on human health and environment o Achieve more sustainable use of pesticides o Monitor report Status and Progress o National action plans * REG1107/2009/EC Pesticide Authorisation Directive o Clear links to water legislation (Article 4, point 3,e (i), Article 21, point 1,…) oProduct authorization – Annex I renewal
cropprotectionGood Agricultural Practice for good EMEAweed management1) Know the weed population and dynamics in the fields2) Adapt weed management & tillage to the production system3) Plan to use mixtures/sequences with herbicides with different modes of action, and mechanical methods, to prevent increases in any weed species4) Use quality products from recognized suppliers to ensure optimum and consistent performance whilst respecting the environment5) Read the label and follow the recommendations : the right dose (weed population) at the right time (weed growth stage) with the right application equipment and in good weather conditions6) Control weeds when they are most susceptible7) Verify herbicide efficacy & take action if necessary to prevent weeds from seeding8) Follow up poor efficacy with supplier or manufacturer9) Clean equipment before moving from field to field to minimize spread of weed seed 8
cropprotectionOptimal use ‐ plant factors EMEAEfficacy is generally determined by weed species, growth stage, growth activity, stress• Species: some are less susceptible to Roundup – Perennials: Legumes, Equisetum, Ivy (Hedera), nettles (Urtica), volunteer potatoes, – Annuals: Polygonums, annual nettle, – Thick waxy cuticles, hairy surfaces…• Growth stage/ timing – weeds must be green and growing (uptake and translocation). – Optimum: flowering/ pre‐die‐back = movement of sugars to roots = best control of most weeds, particularly those hard to kill – Watch out: extension phase of growth = upward sugar transport = poor control in most grasses • worst in ryegrass, black‐grass, bromes & some perennial BLW’s (Convolvulus, Conyza etc).• Growth activity/stress – No / poor metabolism = no transport – Hot / freezing, water‐logging, disease, covering 9
cropprotectionOptimal use – climatic factors EMEAFactors which favour good growing conditions favour best efficacy• Temperatures ⊕ moderate temperatures favour efficacy, 15‐25◦C. ⊕ low temperatures/ light frost => slow, but good kill. – hard/long‐term frosts = plant shuts down, floppy => poor performance – high temperatures = scorch, stress, plant shut‐down => poor performance• Moisture: in soil, relative humidity, dew, fog, rainfall ⊕ Good soil moisture content ⊕ high humidity => good control (as long as run‐off is minimal) ⊕ spray in morning on dew/ fog (as long as dries out in day) – rainfall challenges performance most when growing conditions are poor• Light ⊕ best results in morning‐lunchtime in high light intensity, long days – do not bury (cultivate/ apply lime or manure) <5 days after treatment as shut out light = no translocation• Wind – avoid application in conditions which facilitate drift 10
cropprotectionOptimum use – application EMEAApply the right dose of glyphosate for the target weeds• dose rate/ water volume: hydraulic, 80‐ 250 L/ha, CDA 10l/ha ⊕ lower water volumes = higher concentration = better performance – low rates = low concentration of glyphosate/surfactant = poor – high water volumes >250L/ha = low concentration = poor ⊕ care on application: calibration, medium‐coarse low drift nozzles (droplet size200 ‐ 400 microns), spray pressure• Special application techniques – selective wipers: 1:1 to 1:20 dilutions – injection, cut stump, painted: neat, 10‐20%• Additives – ideal @ 0.3‐0.5% surfactant v/v : decide if extra adjuvant needed, or higher dose rate – chose adjuvant by target ⊕ tallow‐amines best on grasses ⊕ Biactive surfactants best on broad leaved weeds or crops ⊕ Ammonium sulphate best for speed and enhanced activity 11
cropprotectionOptimum use – water quality EMEAHard water• Hard water can reduce the efficacy of glyphosate sprays by locking on to the glyphosate, (chelating), thus reducing the effective dose rate. • Hardness is measured as the total ppm of the positively charged ions (cations), Calcium, Magnesium, Iron & Manganese – Borehole & artesian wells may have naturally hard or very hard water.• High water volumes and low dose rates are most affected.pH has little effect • Note: high pH may indicate hard water 12
cropprotectionOptimum use – in practice EMEA• balance the various factors, they won’t all be ideal!• take care with rainfastness – evening applications, dew falling – broadleaved species, sub‐label; rates• take care with weed control under stress – product cannot overcome all ills • maximise performance and efficiency of product use 13
cropprotectionRoundup Label revision EMEAGeneral statement addressing good agricultural practicesAny weed population may contain plants more tolerant or naturally resistant to certain herbicides, which may lead to poor control using those products. Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup branded herbicides, is a Group G herbicide based on the mode of action classification of the Herbicide Resistant Action Committee (HRAC). In general there is low risk for the development of weed resistance to glyphosate and group G herbicides.A strategy for preventing and managing herbicide resistance should be adopted based on local needs and integrated weed management. This includes the proper use of herbicides, integrating different modes of action and/or using other cultural or mechanical practices:follow label recommendations, particularly to ensure the treatment is made at the correct weed growth stage, under suitable climatic conditions and at the correct dosage. optimize the use of the range of agronomic tools which are part of normal crop or landscape management programs to manage weed growth. minimize the risk of spreading weed infestations. Ensure farm equipment is clean of soil and vegetation when moving between fields. good spraying practice should always be followed to attain effective weed control: spray equipment must be checked periodically (e.g. by authorized people). dose and spray accurately – calibrate the sprayer and make the correct amount of spray mix for the area to be treated. use the correct nozzles to maximize coverage of the weeds with minimum spray drift apply only under appropriate weather conditions, e.g. weeds are not stressed due to high temperatures, frost, drought or waterlogged. no rain falls during application or within one hour after application. suitable wind speed. monitor the weed control during the cropping season to look out for potential problems.Further information can be obtained from HRAC (http://www.hracglobal.com/ ), your distributor, your official extension service or your local Monsanto representative. 14
cropprotectionRoundup Label revisionSpecific statement for countries with confirmed cases EMEAof weed resistance Glyphosate, the active substance in Roundup branded herbicides, belongs to HRAC Group G (inhibition of the EPSPS synthase). HRAC Group G resistant weed biotypes of (chose line as apropriate for country) – Lolium rigidum in France – Lolium rigidum in Italy – Conyza bonariensis, Conyza canadensis, Conyza sumatrensis, Lolium multiflorum and Lolium rigidum in Spain – Lolium xxxxx in Portugal – Lolium rigidum, Conyza bonariensis and Plantago lanceolata in South Africa have been identified. Weed biotypes resistant to HRAC Group G herbicides should be effectively managed utilizing another herbicide from a different Group, or by using other cultural or mechanical practices. Since the occurrence of new glyphosate resistant weeds cannot be determined until after product use and scientific confirmation, Monsanto is not responsible for any losses that may result from the failure of this product to control glyphosate resistant weed biotypes. Please consult your distributor, your official extension service or your local Monsanto representative for further information. 15
cropprotection EMEAMINIMISING RISK OF NON‐TARGET CONTAMINATION 16
cropprotectionSources of emissions to water EMEA Source: http://glenbrookzerowaste.wordpress.com 35% diffuse sources 15% ~ 50% Point sources ~ 5% drift ; 30% run off unclear… Can largely be avoided Can be reduced Difficult Source : www.topps‐life.org to reduce
cropprotection Point Source Management EMEATransport Key areas of focus are: * handling of PPP and the spray equipment mainly before Storage and after spraying * Spillage of PPP concentrate or dilute spray (filling, transport, spraying, cleaning)Spraying * Management of residual spray solutions (in field, on farm) and empty packagesRemnants * Poor field practice, (eg over‐spraying ditches, wells)
cropprotectionPoint Source prevention EMEAEuropean Crop Protection Association TOPPS project TRANSPORT ‐ STORAGE DURING SPRAYINGTransport • Use unloading space adapted to retain spills • Do not spray directly on equipment • Absorbing materials should be available (spills) • Do not spray when sprayer is stationairy • Storage in locked, contained area • Stop immediately for leaksStorage BEFORE SPRAYING AFTER SPRAYING ‐ REMNANTSSpraying • Plan M&L sites in advance • Dilute the remnant spray with water •Disconnect water supply and spray solution and spray solution over the target area •Avoid tank overflow (3x) • Mix and load carefully • Use spray lance to clean spry • fill in contained area (spill collection) equipment in field (vary location)Remnants • or vary locations in field • On farm, clean in area where washing •Set‐up Sprayer correctly water is collected for treatment •Check for leakage and proper functioning • After use park sprayer under roof to • Plan safest way to get to field protect from rain • Use authorized recycling schemes to dispose empty packages
cropprotectionDiffuse Sources EMEAKey areas of focus are: Spray drift Run off ‐ Erosion
cropprotection Managing Spray drift EMEA•Hydraulic nozzles ‐ Air induction nozzles – End nozzles • Formulation composition may influence drift prone(10‐ 50%) fraction but other factors are more important • Drift control agents; first meters only; depends on nozzle type Dv0.5 values for Roundup with and without adjuvants applied through a flat fan nozzle 400 • Spray pressure in middle of recommended range 350 300 250 •Lowering boom height (nozzle spacing and angle) : 200 150 100 50 Change in boom height Effect on drift Source 0 75 cm ‐ 50 cm ‐33% IMAG,DLO Holterman and Van de 50 cm ‐ 30 cm ‐34% Zande,1996 Hewitt, 2004 •Air assisted sprayers for pre‐harvest use : (75 ‐95%) • Shielded Sprayers
cropprotectionRun off EMEA What? * Run off is the water flow that occurs when soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess water from rain, meltwater, or other sources flows over the land. Can carry eroded soil particles containing sorbed glyphosate. * Major diffuse source * Influencing factors : soil type – slope – tillage conditions (CT!) – drainage – application timing – weather conditions ‐ land scape mitigation measures Vegetated Buffers * High infiltration capacity * High macrofaunal activity * Reduces water flow (sedimentation) * High in organic matter : adsorption * Efficiency influenced by: • length and width of strip • soil hydraulic properties • age‐nature of vegetation • soil type
cropprotectionSummary EMEA• Benefits: Glyphosate changed agriculture • Good Agricultural Practice achieves the best for the user – Achieves best weed control – Is most cost‐effective – Reduces non‐target contamination• Good Agricultural Practice is the basis of the sustainable use of Glyphosate – Reduces the risk of restrictions of use 27
cropprotectionThank you for your attention EMEA 28
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