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Chapter Two: Colonizing America
Test Study Guide
1. Where did the Spanish settle in America?
a. In Mexico, Central America, South America, and the
southwestern United States.
2. What were two advantages the Spanish had over the Native Americans?
a. The Spanish had guns and cannons. The Native Americans
were also weakened by diseases.
3. Who were conquistadors? Spanish conquerors
4. Who was Francisco Pizarro? He was a conquistador.
What Native American people did he conquer? He took over the Incan
5. What was the main goal of the Spanish colonies? To set up Catholic
missions and convert the Native Americans to Christianity.
6. Who were Peninsulares? This was the top group in Spanish society.
They were people who were born in Spain and served as government
7. Who were Creoles? They were people born in the Spanish colonies with
8. Why were the French interested in America? They were interested in the
9. What did the French name the area they claimed in the Mississippi River
region? Louisiana (Fill in the Blank)
10.What was the Reformation? The movement in which people broke away
from the Catholic Church and started new churches.
11.What is a Protestant? A non-Catholic Christian.
12.Why did King Henry VIII become angry with the Catholic Church? What did
he do in response? He wanted a divorce and the pope would not grant
him one. He broke England away from the Catholic Church and started
the Church of England.
13.What were joint-stock companies? Companies owned by several investors
who were looking to make a profit. These companies financed
colonization. (Fill in the Blank)
14.What was the first settlement in America? What happened to this settlement?
Roanoke. It disappeared.
15.What was the first permanent English settlement in America? What company
started this settlement? Jamestown. It was started by the Virginia
16.What crop became important in Virginia? Tobacco
17.Who created the colony of Maryland? George Calvert (Lord Baltimore)
What was its purpose? It was a refuge for Catholics. (Fill in the Blank)
18.Who were the Separatists? Puritans who wanted to break away from the
Church of England and start a new church.
19.Who were the Pilgrims? Separatist who left England
20.What was the name of the Pilgrims’ ship? The Mayflower
21.Who was Squanto? Native American who helped the Pilgrims survive.
22.What is the Thanksgiving Holiday based upon? The feast shared between
the Pilgrims and the Native Americans.
23.Who was John Winthrop? Owner of the Massachusetts Bay Company and
he started the Massachusetts colony.
24.List 2 characteristics of the Massachusetts Bay colony. 1. No separation
between church and state. 2. Other religions were not accepted.
25.What settlement did Roger Williams start? Providence
26.What types of freedoms were allowed in Rhode Island? Freedom of religion
27.Who started the colony of Connecticut? Why did he do this? Thomas
Hooker. He wanted more farmland and also did not like the government
28.Who was John Mason? He started New Hampshire
29.What was the name of their major settlement? New Amsterdam
30.Who were Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkley? They started New
31.Who was William Penn? He started Pennsylvania and Delaware
32.Who were the Quakers? A religious group that believed people should be
guided by their “inner light” not by ministers or the church.
33.What was the major settlement in South Carolina? Charles Town
34.What crop became important in South Carolina? Rice
35.What characteristics of the English colonies would lead to revolution in 1776?
Self government and religious freedom
Part Two: Identification: The following term will appear on the test as
Identification. Write complete sentences on the term selected.
House of Burgesses – It was an elected assembly that proposed laws. It
was the first representative assembly in America.