Chapter One: Converging Cultures
Section Four: European Cultures
A. European Society
a. For hundreds of years, Europe was ruled by the ___________ Empire.
b. When the Roman Empire fell apart around 500 A.D., Europe was left
disorganized and ________________.
c. This period is known as the __________________ Ages.
1. The _____________ Plague occurred during this time.
2. Bad ______________ conditions caused an increase in rats.
3. The plague virus was passed from ________, to rats, then to humans.
d. To organize society, the system of _____________________ was
e. Feudalism - a system in which a ___________ gives out parts of his
lands to nobles in exchange for their loyalty.
f. These lands were farmed by _______________ or serfs.
g. The central authority in the Middle Ages was the _______________
B. Causes of Exploration
a. Europe began coming out of its isolation around ______________.
1. The Crusades
i. Series of ____________ Wars, lasting hundreds of years.
ii. The European Christians attempted to take the Holy Lands
(Middle East) from the __________________.
iii. The Crusades were a failure, yet had many _________________
effects on Europe.
iv. The Crusades brought Europe out of isolation and into _____________
with other parts of the world.
v. They exposed Europeans to Asian goods such as _____________ and
vi. Europeans soon wanted to find a _______________, easier,
way to get to Asia.
2. New States Emerge
vii. Feudalism began to _________________.
viii. Powerful rulers _________________ who united many
kingdoms into strong and powerful countries.
ix. Soon, ____________ strong countries existed: Portugal,
France, Spain, and England.
x. These countries would ________________ for trade and power.
3. The Renaissance
xi. Literally means _______________.
xii. A new interest in art, culture, _________________, science, etc.
xiii. This emphasis on experimentation and __________________
fueled the desire for exploration.
4. New Technology
xiv. Exploration became possible because of new ________________.
xv. These inventions made navigation ________________.
CHUNK # 3 xvi. pg. 36 – 37. Graphic Organizer - Read New Technology and name
and describe the four new types of technology used to navigate
ships in the early 1400’s).
xvii. Exploration became ______________ because of ne inventions.
xviii. These inventions made _____________ easier and Europeans
began exploring the World.
67543256 C. Portuguese Exploration
a. ________________ led the way in exploration.
b. Prince Henry, or Henry the Navigator is considered the ________________
c. He set up a navigation __________________.
d.d. Brought together _____________________ and navigators to plan
e. Goal: To find a _______________________ route to Asia.
f. Vasco da Gama – explorer who found the route by ______________
around Africa to India.