AHSGE Social Studies Ch.7 Exansion and Industrialzation 1865-1914
Friday, February 5, 2010Agree Disagree 1. The Bessemer Agree Disagree____ ____ Process involved ____ ____ blowing air through molten gold to burn away impurities. ____ ____ 2. The last major ____ _____ Native American conflict occurred at Wounded Knee.
Friday, February 8, 2010Agree Disagree 1. Henry Ford Agree Disagree____ ____ used the assembly ____ ____ line to make the Model T.____ ____ 2. John D. Rockefeller ____ _____ believed the wealthy had a responsibility to use it for the betterment of the poor.
Friday, February 9, 2010Agree Disagree 1. Theodore Roosevelt Agree Disagree____ ____ passed the Food and ____ ____ Drug Act after reading The Jungle.____ ____ 2. Clayton Antitrust Act ____ _____ gave the government the power to investigate companies for unfair business practices .
Friday, February 10, 2010Agree Disagree 1. W.E.B. Dubois Agree Disagree ____ ____ organized the ____ ____ the Niagara Movement.____ ____ 2. Plessy vs. Ferguson ____ _____ was a Supreme Court case that ended segregation in America .
AHSGE Chapter 7 Expansion and IndustrializationThe RailroadsPromontory Point, Utah – town where the Union Pacific and Central Pacificrailroads met completing the transcontinental railroad.How important were the railroads for expansion in the U.S.?Railroads became the chiefmeans of nationaltransportationduring the second half ofthe 19th century.
Conflicts with Native Americans Reservations – see previous notesWhat was the significance of the buffalo to the Native Americans?Buffalos were the main source of food for Native Americans living on the Great Plains. White settlers killed many buffalo for their hides and left the meat to rot taking away the livelihood of the Native Americans.
Important Indian Battles and Congressional Action Battle of the Little Bighorn – Sioux warriors surrounded U.S. Army General George Custer and killed every soldier under his command. Dawes Act (General Allotment Act)– In an attempt to assimilate Native Americans into the mainstream of society, Congress dissolved reservations and gave each Native American family 160 acres to farm. Any excess land had to be sold to the government at low prices plunging the Native Americans deeper into poverty.
With white settlers ability to move to the west with the development of the Transcontinental Railroad, possibility of free land with the Homestead Act and the Discovery of gold in California. War with the Native Americans was almost inevitable.
Wounded Knee Wovoka– Sioux prophet who developed a religious ritual called the Ghost Dance (Sioux believed this dance would bring back the buffalo and return the Native American tribes to their land.) This frightened white settlers. Sitting Bull– Sioux leader whom the U.S. Army believed was using the Ghost Dance to start a Native American uprising.
Wounded Knee– After trying to arrest Sitting Bull a fight broke out and he was killed by the U.S. Army. They then pursued the Sioux men, women and children to their camp at Wounded Knee Creek. The Sioux were massacred by the U.S. army (around 350 killed). This marked the end of U.S. Army battles with Native Americans.
CHUNK #1 The Bessemer Process Turn to page 92. Read The Bessemer Process, and answer the following questions.Setting When? –Characters Who? -Plot What is it? –Outcome What could now be done? –
Important Development used in Continental Expansion The Bessemer Process– process by which steel could be made faster and more efficiently. Bessemer, Alabama (important steel center) is named after man who invented process. Revolver– type of pistol which had a cylinder containing several chambers allowing for more rapid firing. Became a standard for personal protection in the West.
Steel Plow– Invented by John Deere. The plow was strong enough to cut thorough the though prairie sod of the Midwest and the Plains. Windmill– Farmers in the Plains used the wind’s power to pump water (which was 100 feet underground) to the surface.
Barbed Wire– Wire with barbed points that gave farmers a cheap and efficient way to fence in their land. Transcontinental Railroad– Provided the easiest way to move people and products to the major cities. Towns developed along the railroads which lead to the settlement of the west. All of these inventions helped in the settlement of the Great Plains.
Farming in the 1870s and 1880s Grange– Cooperative formed by local farmers to protect their interests from industries cutting into their farming revenues (profits). Populist Movement started by farmers who wanted higher prices for their crops and livestock. Populists Party– formed to address the concerns offarmers and other reformers.
Alabama Agriculture and Industry Boll WeevilInsect that destroyed the cotton crops of Alabama.Forced farmers to diversify their crops. Birmingham, Alabama – known for steel and iron making. Mobile, Alabama – known for its important shipping industry. Many investors came to Alabama and started large textile industries due to the states’ ready supply of cotton.
Review3. Describe the Dawes Act.5. Name the important developments listed in the PowerPoint that were used in the Continental Expansion.
Important Industrial Inventions Industrial Revolution– During the 1880s the U.S. used its natural resources and spirit of invention to begin the process of industrialization. Transatlantic Cable – first telegraph cable beneath the Atlantic Ocean. It allowed the U.S. to hear of developments in Europe immediately through telegraph messages. Alexander Graham Bell – first telephone transmission.
Move to the Cities Many people left their farms and moved to the city for higher wages (more money) as the industrialization continued in the U.S. They were looking for jobs. Waves of immigrants from Europe also came in search of work. A population explosion created many opportunities and caused many problems in the cities.
Henry Ford – In 1913, the first moving automobile assembly line was introduced improving the way items were made in America. Suburbs began to develop inassociation with the growingavailability of the automobile.
CHUNK #2 Robber Barons Turn to page 96. Read Famous Robber Barons and Their Monopolies, and answer the following questions.John D. Rockefeller - Owned . - Monopoly in the oil industry because he was the only supplier of oil from .Andrew Carnegie - Owned a that controlled the and owned the railroads and steam ships. - Monopoly in the production of steel and competition.Cornelius Vanderbilt - Owned the railroad.
Negative Aspects of Urbanization Monopoly – only one supplier for a particular industry. Robber Barons – the name for some 19th century capitalists because they became wealthy by exploitation and ruthlessness. John D. Rockefeller – owned the Standard Oil Company.
` Andrew Carnegie – owned a steel company that controlled the iron and coal mines and owned railroads and steam ships. Gospel of Wealth – belief by Andrew Carnegie that the wealthy had a responsibility to use it for the betterment of the poor. Gave much of his wealth away. Cornelius Vanderbilt – owned the Central Railroad. Social Darwinism – Only the strongest business will survive.
Labor Unions Labor Unions – organizations of workers who put pressure on industries to improve working conditions. Strike – the refusal to work until certain conditions are met. American Federation of Labor (AFL) – worked to organize strikes in entire industries (car manufacturing).
Immigrants Racism – prejudice. Nativism – favoring one’s nation or region. 1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act – prohibited Chinese from immigrating to the U.S.
1921 – The Emergency Quota Act – Law limiting the number of legal immigrants to 3% of the total population of each nationality from Southern and Eastern Europe. 1924 – National Origins Act of 1924 – Changed quota of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe to 2% and prohibited all immigration from Asia.
The Progressive Movement Progressivism – developed in response to the growing corruption in big business. It championed the causes of whoever was being oppressed by society. Muckrakers – journalists who wrote stories about the abuses of big business on workers and consumers.
The Jungle by Upton Sinclair – exposed the miserable working conditions and dangerous food quality in meat processing plants in Chicago. The History of the Standard Oil Company by Ida Tarbell – exposed the ruthless practices of the Standard Oil Company it its quest to gain a monopoly in the oil company. Horace Mann – pushed for the public education of men and women in the early 19th century.
Review3. Why were quota acts passed in the early 1920’s?5. What is Progressivism?
CHUNK #3 Important Amendments to the ConstitutionGist – Turn to page 98. Read Important Amendments to the Constitution, and described the four amendments in the space provided that gives the “gist” or summary of the selection.16th Amendment -17th Amendment -18th Amendment -19th Amendment -
Important Amendments to the Constitution The Progressive Movement gained a lot of momentum in the early 1900s and lead to the passage of new amendments.Progressive Amendments – led to the reform of government and businesses. 16th – Congress now had the power to collect taxes on business and individuals.
17th – The election of senators by states instead of the state legislatures. 18th – Prohibited the making, selling or transporting of alcoholic beverages. 19th – Gave women the right to vote.
President Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt was a progressive president who initiated several reforms while in office. National Parks System – protected huge amounts of land from development. Sherman Antitrust Act – Act passed by Congress that declared the formation of trusts in order to monopolize business was illegal.
Northern Securities Trust – a group of smaller railroad companies formed to set prices and eliminated smaller competitors. Prosecuted by Roosevelt for violating the Sherman Antitrust Act. Square Deal – a verbal contract with the American people to maintain equality for individuals and for businesses. Food and Drug Act – passed after Roosevelt read The Jungle. Protected the health of U.S. consumers
Election of 1912 Woodrow Wilson – established a reform program called New Freedom. His goal was to ensure that there was competition in the marketplace. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) – A commission that had the power to investigate companies for unfair business practices.
Clayton Antitrust Act - Act passed by Congress during Woodrow Wilson’s administration that banned businesses from controlling prices from competition. This act made sure that businesses could not use antitrust laws to break up labor unions.
Review3. What was the Square Deal and whose presidency is it associated with?5. What did President Wilson’s reform program call for?
Race Relations After Reconstruction Ku Klux Klan – increased their terrorizing of blacks. Lynchings were commonplace and schools were burned. Because of this many blacks left the South and moved to the North in what is known as the Black Exodus.Booker T. Washington – foundedthe Tuskegee Institute in Alabama.He believed in the separation ofraces.
Tuskegee Institute – school which provided training in the industrial and agricultural fields. Became an important center for technical education in the South George Washington Carver – student at Tuskegee Institute. He became famous for his agricultural experimentationwith peanuts, soybeans andcottons. His contributionsenabled farmers in the Southto grow different kinds of crops forprofit besides cotton.
W.E.B. Dubois – First black PH.D. graduate from Harvard University. He disagreed with Booker T. Washington’s philosophy. He believed blacks should pursue white collar jobs not settle low paying jobs. Niagara Movements – organized by W.E.B. Dubois.Meeting of black intellectualsthat outlined an agenda for blackprogress in the United States.
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) – organization of black and white intellectuals who adopted the goals of the Niagara movement as their own. Powerful organization that helped change the minds of many people about race relations. Plessy v Ferguson – Supreme Court decision that stated segregation (separation of races) was legal as long as facilities and services were equal. (Separate but equal).
Review What was the goal of the NAACP? What kind of impact did Plessy v Ferguson have on society?