AHSGE Chapter 4 Growth of a New NationLand Acquisitions and ExplorationsTreaty of Paris 1783 – Gave the UnitedStates all the land east to the MississippiRiver, to Canada in the North and to thenorthern border of Spanish Florida.
Land Ordinance of 1785 – Land areafrom Ohio River to the Mississippi Riverwould be made into new states. Whenrequired population reached, theterritory could apply for statehood.
Northwest Ordinance – Creation of 3 to5 states in the Northwest Territory.Prohibited slavery in the territory andguaranteed freedom of religion, trial byjury and access to free public education.
Louisiana Purchase – bought fromFrance. More than doubled the size ofthe United States.
Reservations – tiny parcels of land where Native American’s were forced to live because of westward expansion. Louis and Clark Expedition – Expedition to find a water route to the Pacific Ocean. Sacajawea – Shoshonewoman who was translatorand guide for Louis and Clark. 1819 – Year Alabama became a state.
President James MonroeCountry experienced politicalunity during his presidency.Era of Good Feelings – name forMonroe’s presidency because of national unityand optimistic mood of the country.Monroe Doctrine – policy that stated theUnited States would not interfere in theinternal affairs of European countries andwould oppose any European intervention in thecountries in Latin and South America.
Important InventionsEli Whitney (cotton gin) – inventor of amachine that separated the seeds fromthe cotton.Interchangeable parts – in muskets,each part was produced with suchprecision that it could fit with all theother parts. Became the basis forindustrial development in the U.S.
Henry Clay’s American SystemHenry Clay was a prominent senatorfrom Kentucky.American System – plan to propose a (1) protective tariff (a tax on importsto keep American manufacturing growing).Protective Tariff of 1816 – raised tariffs onimports by 20%.(2) Internal Improvements – bettercanals and roadways funded by thefederal government’s tariff revenue.
(3) A Strong National Bank - 1st Bank of U.S. charter not renewed. States started issuing their own bank notes (paper money). Many different bank notes made commerce difficult. Clay encouraged Congress to charter 2nd Bank of the United States to stabilize money and hold government funds.
What did Clay wish to accomplish with his vision? The tariff would protect the growing industries in the Northeast. The money from the tariff would pay for improvements in roads and canals. A strong national bank would stabilize this flow of commerce.
Roads and CanalsNational Road – Congress approved andfunded road which stretched east towest from Maryland to Virginia.
President Andrew Jackson First man to rise fromchildhood poverty to thepresidency. Representedthe “Common Man”. Jacksonian Democracy –during his term property qualifications for voting were dropped.
Spoils System – The policy of allowingfriends and supporters to have highpositions in government.Doctrine of Nullification – came aboutwhen South Carolina protested the hightariffs imposed on British goods. Statedthat if Congress passed a bill that washarmful to a state, that state was notobligated to enforce it.
The Indian Removal ActIndian Removal Act – Jackson’s order for theforced removal of five Native AmericanNations to Oklahoma in order to make roomfor white settlers.Trail of Tears – The forced march of theCherokee Nation to reservations in Oklahoma(800 miles). Many died from disease,starvation and exposure.
The Trails to the WestOregon Trail – Trail to Pacific Coast.Mormon Trail – Trail to Utah thatMormons took to escape persecution fortheir religious beliefs (polygamy – morethan one wife).
California Trail – Trail taken by minersin search of gold in California due to theCalifornia Gold Rush of 1849(migration of people to California).
Texas Independence Stephen Austin – brought a group of settlers to settle Texas. General Antonio Santa Anna – Mexicangeneral who became dictatorand did away with MexicanConstitution and tightenedhis control of U.S. settlers
Sam Houston – Leader of forces to gain back controlover Santa Anna. The Alamo – SpanishMission where SantaAnna’s troops foughtSam Houston’s men killing all of them.
Battle of San Jacinto – Battle where Texansdefeated Santa Anna and took him hostage.In exchange for his freedom he wouldrecognize the Republic of Texas.Texans applied to be annexed(added) to the United States.
The Mexican –American WarManifest Destiny – The belief that it wasGod’s will for the United States to expandfrom the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.New Mexico – the area between Texas andCalifornia that President Polk wanted to buy.
Mexican-American War – Mexicanpresident refused to meet to talk aboutselling New Mexico. Polk order GeneralZachary Taylor to move his troops intothe disputed territory. Mexican troopscrossed Rio Grande River and attackedTaylor’s forces. Congress declared war.U.S. marched into Mexico City and theMexicans surrendered.
Mexico gave up ½ its land and sold theterritories of California and New Mexico to the U.S. This fulfilled the country’s Manifest Destiny.
Literature in the United StatesNoah Webster – produced the first AmericanDictionary.Ralph Waldo Emerson – essayist and poetknown for his eloquent speech an poeticlanguage and a leader in the transcendentalmovement. This movement believed truthcould be found beyond the physical world andthat all humans share in the spiritual unity ofcreation.
Henry David Thoreau – writer andnaturalist who wrote Walden and “CivilDisobedience”.Walt Whitman – poet who emphasizedthe great worth of each individual.Nathaniel Hawthorne – novelist whowrote about sin, punishment andatonement. The Scarlet Letter and TheHouse of Seven Gables.
Washington Irving – First American writer togain international fame. Wrote short stories“Rip Van Winkle” and “The Legend of SleepyHollow”.Edgar Allen Poe – master of the short story.Famous for his mysterious and macabre talessuch as “The Tell-Tale Heart” and the poem“The Raven”.James Fenimore Cooper – novelist whobecame known as the first great Americanwriter. Wrote The Last of the Mohicans.
Emily Dickinson – one of the mostinfluential poets of the U.S. Wroteabout love, death and immorality.Herman Melville – based his novels onhis experiences in the U.S. Navy.Wrote Moby Dick.Henry Wadsworth Longfellow – usedsimple styles and themes in his writings. Wrote “Paul Revere’s Ride”.
Social Reform Movements Horace Mann – advocated the education of both men and womenthrough public funding. Dorothea Dix – improvement of mental institutions and prisons. Temperance Movement – movement to moderate the use of alcohol.
Abolition Movement – movement to abolish(put an end to) slavery.Harriet Tubman – hero of theabolition movement who helpedhundreds of slaves to escape through theUnderground Railroad (a network of peoplewho helped slaves escape to the north andCanada).Frederick Douglas – former slave who wasvery well spoken. Became the most prominentAfrican American speaker for abolition.
Suffragettes – women who supportedthe right to vote. 19th amendment –gave women the rightto vote.
Harriet Beecher Stowe – helped theabolitionist cause with the publishingof her book Uncle Tom’s Cabin( a fictional account of the horrors ofslavery.).Sojourner Truth – illiterate former slave whowas a very eloquent and charismatic speakerfor abolition.William Lloyd Garrison - white abolitionistwho was the founder of the anti-slaverynewspaper The Liberator.
Women’s Rights Movement – movement togive women the same rights as men. Startedby Elizabeth Cady Stanton (organized thefirst womens rights convention) and Susan B.Anthony (supported the temperance,abolition and women’s rightsmovements).Seneca Falls Convention – meeting forwomen’s rights where “Declaration ofSentiments and Resolutions” was written.Believed men and women were created equal.