1 AHSGE CHAPTER 1 Crusades• Crusades – Holy _______to regain the Holy Land from the __________.• Results – created a _________for Asian spices and silks.• Routes –___________routes took too long. ______________ began looking for a sea route to Asia.• Prince Henry of Portugal – (Henry the Navigator) _______________a school for _______________(the science of sailing ships).• Henry’s Navigation School used – ____________(strong sailing ship), _______________ (instrument to determine location byusing the stars), ___________magnetized needle which points north. Renaissance and Reformation• Renaissance – (rebirth) great cultural________________ and ________________changes during the 14th through 17th centuries.• What did the Renaissance encourage people to do and why was this important? It encouraged people to read literature like the bible and the early _________________of the church with a critical eye. People wanted to ______________the church by abolishing any________________ practices that were not found in the Bible.• Martin Luther – Began the _____________ Reformation.• Protestant Reformation – movement to_____________ the Catholic Church. Many broke away from the Catholic Church to form their own_______________.• How did the Catholic Church feel about the Protestant Reformation and what did they do? To _____________the Catholic faith many _______________were sent to the New World in search of ______________among the Native Americans. Columbus and the Columbian Exchange• Christopher Columbus – An Italian ______________representing Spain in search of a new _________route to Asia.
2• Why was his voyage important? It marked the beginning of ____________efforts by European ____________in the Americas.• Columbian Exchange – A mixture of European and Western ________________cultures.• What were some of the good items exchanged? Europe brought teas, sugar, coffee, horses, and ________________. New World offered ____________, potatoes, corn and chocolate.• What were some of the bad things exchanged? Europeans brought _______________diseases. These diseases killed almost 80% of ______________Americans because their immune systems were not able to _________them off. European Rivalry and Exploration in the New World• What did the New World offer European people that Europe did not? _______________ for wealth, power, adventure and more territory.• What did Spain and Portugal seek? Gold, ___________ and conversions to the Catholic faith.• What did France and England seek? France was mainly ___________in the fur trade. England wanted to ____________ permanent settlements (13 original colonies). Explorers of the New World• Bartolomeo Dias – First to sail around the tip of __________ (Cape of Good____________).• Vasco Da Gama – First European to find a sea route to __________(by sailing around tip of Africa).• Amerigo Vespucci – First to realize the New __________ was an entirely new continent. ___________is named after him.• Vasco De Balboa – First to reach the _____________Ocean.• Ferdinand Magellan – Led first expedition that ____________ around the_____________. He died in route. Spanish Colonization of the Americas• Conquistadors –_____________explorers (conquerors).• Hernando Cortez – conquered the _________Empire.
3• Francisco Pizarro – conquered the_ ___________Empire.• Francisco Coronado – explored the area of present day New _________in search of ____________Cities of Gold.• Hernando De Soto – explored present day ___________, Alabama, and Mississippi.• Ponce De Leon – explored Florida looking for The ________of Youth.• St. Augustine – First ______________city in North America. ____________to control Spanish trade. French, Dutch, and English Colonization• The French settle where? Lands around the St. ____________and Mississippi River (Louisiana).• The Dutch Settle? Around the __________River (New York area).• The English settle? Eastern ___________of North America. Southern Colonies• Sir Walter Raleigh – Sponsored the first English ____________ at colonizing the present-day United States in Roanoke near present-day ___________ Carolina.• The Lost Colony –What the Roanoke colony was called because it________________.• Jamestown – The first _____________English colony.• Joint Stock Company – a private company that ____________ shares to investors.• House of Burgesses – the first example of a ___________government in the United States.• Southern Colonies – Virginia, North____________, South Carolina and Georgia.• Plantations – large _________devoted to one main crop.• Indentured Servants – people who became __________for 5-7 years to pay for their ____________to America.• Triangular Trade Route – a trade route between the__________, the American colonies, and West Africa. ____________(sugar), rum, slaves.
4 New England Colonies• New England Colonies –Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island and New _____________.• Puritans and Pilgrims – people who had ____________from the Church of England and sought ____________freedom in the New World.• Mayflower Compact – An agreement that ____________just and equal laws for all. Helped ____________ to democracy. Middle Colonies• Middle Colonies – New York, New Jersey, ____________, Maryland, and Pennsylvania.• Quaker –___________ religious group.• William Penn – founder of_______________.• Religious group that settle in Maryland? Roman ____________• Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – City of___________ love and the largest ___________in the thirteen colonies. Social and Economic Life in the ColoniesProprietors – wealthy ____________who financed the colonies.Mercantilism – the main ___________system in the colonies. A nation’spower is _____________by its gold reserves. Belief thata_________________ needs to export more than it imports.