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22 Reproductive

22 Reproductive






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    22 Reproductive 22 Reproductive Presentation Transcript

    • Ch. 22 Reproductive Systems
    • Specialized jobs of the Male Reproductive system: - produce and maintain the male sex cells - to transport these cells to the female - to secrete male sex hormones Primary sex organs (gonads) are the 2 testes - sperm cells are formed here - male sex hormones are formed Accessory sex organs - are the other structures of the male repro. system - internal reproductive organs - external reproductive organs
    • Male Reproductive Organs
    • Male Reproductive Organs posterior view
    • Descent of Testes Usually a month or two before birth, these organs descend to the lower abdominal cavity and pass through the abdominal wall into the scrotum. Gubernaculum
    • Structure of the Testis
    • Spermatogenesis
    • Meiosis
      • Includes two successive divisions
        • First meiotic division
          • Separates homologous chromosomes
        • Second meiotic division
          • Each cell emerges with one member of each homologous pair (haploid)
    • Meiosis I
      • Prophase I
        • chromosomes thicken, nulcear membrane disappears
        • Homologous chromosomes pair up side by side and intertwine ( synapsis )
      • Metaphase I
        • Chromosome pairs line up midway
      • Anaphase I
        • Homologous chromosome pairs separate (apart)
      • Telophase I
    • Crossing Over
      • mixes up traits
      • red is from Mom
      • green is from Dad
    • Meiosis II
      • Very similar to a mitotic division
      • Prophase II
      • Metaphase II
      • Anaphase II
      • Telophase II
        • Potential to produce 4 gametes
          • Males  4 sperm cells
          • Females  1 large cell; 3 polar bodies cast away (849)
    • Oogenesis
    • Crossing Over
      • the genetic information in sperm cells and egg cells varies from cell to cell
    • Structure of a Sperm Cell
    • Male Internal Accessory Organs
      • epididymis
      • vas deferens
      • seminal vesicle
      • prostate gland
      • bulbourethral glands
    • Epididymis
      • Promotes maturation of sperm cells
      • Stores sperm until ready to exit the body
    • Vas Deferens
      • muscular tube
      • about 45 cm
      • dilates into the ampulla near termination
      • extends from epididymis to ejaculatory duct
    • Seminal Vesicle
      • secretes fructose (energy for sperm)
      • secretes prostaglandins (for female contractions)
      • contents empty into ejaculatory duct
    • Prostate Gland
      • surrounds beginning of urethra, just inferior to the urinary bladder
      • secretes an alkaline fluid that neutralizes the sperm-cell containing fluid
      • secretion enhances motility of sperm cells
      • neutralizes the acidic secretions of the vagina
      • If swollen puts pressure on urethra, making it hard for urine or sperm to exit
    • Bulbourethral Gland
      • AKA Cowper’s gland
      • inferior to the prostate gland
      • secrete mucouslike fluid
      • lubricates the end of the penis
      • View Human Atlas (Prostate Cancer)
    • Semen
      • sperm cells
      • secretions of seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands
      • slightly alkaline (7.5)
      • prostaglandins
      • nutrients
      • 120 million sperm cells per milliliter (release 2-5 mL)
    • Male External Reproductive Organs
      • scrotum
      • penis
    • Scrotum
      • pouch of skin and subcutaneous tissue
      • dartos muscle – smooth muscle in subcutaneous tissue; contracts to cause wrinkling of the scrotum; relaxes to move away from the body
        • **Sperm are housed away from the body because they must be 5 ºF cooler in order to survive**
      • medial septum divides scrotum into two chambers
      • each chamber houses a testis and epididymis
    • Penis
      • 3 columns of erectile tissue
        • Pair of corpora cavernosa
        • Single corpus spongiosum
          • Urethra passes through this tissue
    • Hormonal Control of Male Reproductive Functions
      • Figure 22.17 hypothalamus controls maturation of sperm cells and development of male secondary sex characteristics
      • negative feedback controls concentration of testosterone
    • Hormonal Control of Male Reproductive Functions
      • hypothalamus controls maturation of sperm cells and development of male secondary sex characteristics
      • negative feedback controls concentration of testosterone
    • Actions of Testosterone
      • increased growth of body hair
      • sometimes decreased growth of scalp hair
      • enlargement of larynx and thickening of vocal cords
      • thickening of skin
      • increased muscular growth
      • thickening and strengthening of the bones
    • Organs of the Female Reproductive System
      • specialized to produce and maintain female sex cells
      • transport these cells to the site of fertilization
      • to provide a favorable environment for a developing offspring
      • to move the offspring to the outside
      • to produce female sex hormones
      • Primary sex organs (ovaries)
        • Produce eggs and sex hormones
      • Accessory sex organs
        • Internal and external reproductive organs
    • Transverse Section of Female Pelvic Cavity
    • Ovaries
      • Several ligaments help hold each ovary in position
      • Descend like the male testes do
      • Of the several million oocytes formed, only a million or so remain at birth and around 400,000 at puberty
      • Fewer than 400-500 will be released
    • Ovary Attachments
    • Oogenesis
    • Oogenesis
      • Distribution of the cytoplasm is unequal
        • Secondary oocyte
        • First polar body
      • If fertilized, the oocyte divides unequally to produce a tiny second polar body and a large fertilized egg cell or zygote
      • Will develop into an embryo (2 nd – 8 th weeks)
      • Polar bodies allow for production of an egg cell that has a massive amount of cytoplasm and organelles required to get through first few cell divisions
    • Ovulation
      • Release of an egg cell
      • Usually propelled to the opening of a nearby uterine tube
      • If it is not fertilized it degenerates
      • Watch Human Atlas Ectopic Pregnancy
    • Female Internal Accessory Organs
      • uterine (fallopian) tubes
      • uterus
      • vagina
    • Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes
      • Place egg should be fertilized!
      • Near each ovary, a uterine tube expands to form a funnel-shaped infundibulum
        • Partially encircles the ovary medially
        • Infundibulum bears a number of irregular, branched extension called fimbriae
        • Generally does not touch the ovary
          • One of the larger ovarian fimbria connects directly
    • Uterus
      • Receives the embryo that develops from an egg cell that has been fertilized and sustains its development
      • Hollow muscular organ, like an inverted pear
      • Usually bent forward over the urinary bladder
      • Upper 2/3 is the body
      • Lower 1/3 is the cervix
      • Layers of the uterine wall
        • Endometrium - inner lining
        • Myometrium - muscular layer; smooth muscle
        • Perimetrium - outer layer
    • Uterine Wall
    • Vagina
      • Fibromuscular tube about 9 cm long that extends from the uterus to the outside
      • Open channel for offspring during birth
      • Posterior to the urinary bladder and urethra & anterior to the rectum
    • Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Functions
      • Figure 22.31 estrogens inhibit LH and FSH during most of the reproductive cycle
    • Effects of Estrogens
      • development of breasts and ductile system of the mammary glands
      • increased adipose tissue in breasts, thighs, and buttocks
      • increases vascularization of skin
    • Mammary Glands
    • Surgical Methods of Birth Control
    • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
      • silent infections
      • most are bacterial and can be cured
      • herpes, warts, and AIDS are viral and cannot be cured
      • many cause infertility
      • AIDS causes death
      • symptoms of STDs include
        • burning sensation during urination
        • pain in lower abdomen
        • fever or swollen glands
        • discharge from vagina or penis
        • pain, itch, or inflammation in genital or anal area
        • sores, blisters, bumps or rashes
        • itchy runny eyes
    • Terms to Know on Page 868
      • Amenorrhea
      • Endometritis (endometriosis)
      • Epididymitis
      • Hysterectomy
      • Mastitis
      • Ovariectomy
      • Orchiectomy
      • Prostatectomy
      • itis - means inflamed
      • ectomy - removal of an organ surgically