14 Blood


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14 Blood

  1. 1. Blood
  2. 2. Blood <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transports vital substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distributes heat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>form mostly in red bone marrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>red blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>white blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>platelets (cell fragments) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Blood Volume <ul><ul><li>varies with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>body size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>changes in fluid concentration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>changes in electrolyte concentration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>amount of adipose tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about 8% of body weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about 5 liters </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Blood Composition
  5. 5. Origin of Blood Cells
  6. 6. Red Blood Cells <ul><li>erythrocytes </li></ul><ul><li>biconcave </li></ul><ul><li>one-third hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>oxyhemoglobin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>oxygenated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>deoxyhemoglobin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>deoxygenated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>can readily squeeze through capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>lack nuclei and mitochondria </li></ul>
  7. 7. Red Blood Cell Count <ul><li>number of RBCs in a cubic millimeter of blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>**Do not memorize these numbers** </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4,600,000 – 6,200,000 in males </li></ul><ul><li>4,200,000 – 5,400,000 in adult females </li></ul><ul><li>4,500,000 – 5,100,000 in children </li></ul><ul><li>reflects blood’s oxygen carrying capacity </li></ul>
  8. 8. Red Blood Cell Production <ul><li>low blood oxygen causes kidneys and liver to release erythropoietin which stimulates RBC production </li></ul>
  9. 9. Life Cycle of Red Blood Cell <ul><li>circulate for about 120 days </li></ul><ul><li>macrophages in spleen and liver destroy worn out RBCs </li></ul><ul><li>hemoglobin is broken down into heme and globin </li></ul><ul><li>iron returns to red bone marrow to be reused </li></ul><ul><li>eventually biliverdin converted into bilirubin (orangish-yellowish) </li></ul><ul><li>heme breaks down into iron and biliverdin (greenish pigment) </li></ul>
  10. 10. White Blood Cells <ul><li>leukocytes </li></ul><ul><li>protect against disease </li></ul><ul><li>granulocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>neutrophils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eosinophils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>basophils </li></ul></ul><ul><li>agranulocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lymphocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monocytes </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Neutrophils <ul><li>first to arrive at infections </li></ul><ul><li>phagocytic </li></ul><ul><li>54% - 62% of leukocyte </li></ul><ul><li>elevated in bacterial infections </li></ul>
  12. 12. Eosinophils <ul><li>moderate allergic reactions </li></ul><ul><li>defend against parasitic worm infestations </li></ul><ul><li>1% - 3% of leukocytes </li></ul><ul><li>elevated in worm infestations and allergic reactions </li></ul>
  13. 13. Basophils <ul><li>release histamine </li></ul><ul><li>release heparin </li></ul><ul><li>less than 1% of leukocytes </li></ul>
  14. 14. Monocytes <ul><li>largest blood cell </li></ul><ul><li>leave bloodstream to become macrophages </li></ul><ul><li>3% - 9% of leukocytes </li></ul>
  15. 15. Lymphocytes <ul><li>about the size of RBC </li></ul><ul><li>T cells (directly attack) </li></ul><ul><li>B cells (make antibodies) </li></ul><ul><li>important in immunity </li></ul><ul><li>25% - 33% of leukocytes </li></ul>
  16. 16. Diapadesis <ul><li>leukocytes squeeze through capillary walls to enter tissue space outside the blood vessel </li></ul>
  17. 17. Blood Platelets <ul><li>thrombocytes </li></ul><ul><li>cell fragments of megakaryocytes </li></ul><ul><li>130,000 – 360,000 per cubic millimeter of blood </li></ul><ul><li>helps control blood loss from broken vessels; clotters </li></ul>
  18. 18. Blood Plasma <ul><li>straw colored </li></ul><ul><li>liquid portion of blood </li></ul><ul><li>55% of blood </li></ul>
  19. 19. Plasma Proteins <ul><li>Albumins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most numerous plasma proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>originate in liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help maintain osmotic pressure of blood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fibrinogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>originate in liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plays key role in blood coagulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alpha and Beta Globulins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>originate in liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transport lipids and fat-soluble vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gamma Globulins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>originate in lymphatic tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>constitute the antibodies of immunity </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Gases and Nutrients <ul><li>Gases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>simple sugars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nucleotides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lipoproteins </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Hemostasis <ul><li>stoppage of bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Vessel Spasm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>triggered by pain receptors, platelet release, or serotonin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>smooth muscle in vessel contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Platelet Plug Formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>triggered by exposure of platelets to collagen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>platelets adhere to rough surface to form a plug </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood Coagulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>triggered by cellular damage and blood contact with foreign surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blood clot forms </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Platelet Plug Formation
  23. 23. Blood Clots <ul><li>After forming, blood clot retracts and pulls the edges of a broken vessel together </li></ul><ul><li>Platelet-derived growth factor stimulates smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts to repair damaged blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Plasmin digests blood clots </li></ul><ul><li>**thrombus – abnormal blood clot </li></ul><ul><li>**embolus – blood clot moving through blood </li></ul>
  24. 24. ABO Blood Group
  25. 25. Agglutination
  26. 26. Preferred and Permissible Blood Types for Transfusion
  27. 27. Genotypes of Blood Types Genotype Blood Type (Antigen) Antibody A A A o A B B B B o B A A B AB None o o O A and B D D D - Rh + None - - Rh - None
  28. 28. How Rare Is Your Blood? Blood Group and Rh Type How Many Have It? Frequency O Positive One in 3 37.4% O Negative One in 15 6.6% A Positive One in 3 35.7% A Negative One in 16 6.3% B Positive One in 12 8.5% B Negative One in 67 1.5% AB Positive One in 29 3.4% AB Negative One in 167 0.6%
  29. 29. Rh factor <ul><li>Discovered in Rhesus monkeys </li></ul><ul><li>If you have the factor then you are positive </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t, you are negative </li></ul><ul><li>One is not necessarily better than the other </li></ul><ul><li>However, if a woman is negative it can cause complications with the 2 nd pregnancy on (see next slide) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Have no fear: they have developed a shot called Rhogam that they can give to women with negative blood to prevent this from hurting the baby.