14 Blood
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Transcript

  • 1. Blood
  • 2. Blood
    • Functions
      • transports vital substances
      • distributes heat
    • Blood Cells
      • form mostly in red bone marrow
      • red blood cells
      • white blood cells
      • platelets (cell fragments)
  • 3. Blood Volume
      • varies with
        • body size
        • changes in fluid concentration
        • changes in electrolyte concentration
        • amount of adipose tissue
      • about 8% of body weight
      • about 5 liters
  • 4. Blood Composition
  • 5. Origin of Blood Cells
  • 6. Red Blood Cells
    • erythrocytes
    • biconcave
    • one-third hemoglobin
      • oxyhemoglobin
        • oxygenated
      • deoxyhemoglobin
        • deoxygenated
    • can readily squeeze through capillaries
    • lack nuclei and mitochondria
  • 7. Red Blood Cell Count
    • number of RBCs in a cubic millimeter of blood
      • **Do not memorize these numbers**
    • 4,600,000 – 6,200,000 in males
    • 4,200,000 – 5,400,000 in adult females
    • 4,500,000 – 5,100,000 in children
    • reflects blood’s oxygen carrying capacity
  • 8. Red Blood Cell Production
    • low blood oxygen causes kidneys and liver to release erythropoietin which stimulates RBC production
  • 9. Life Cycle of Red Blood Cell
    • circulate for about 120 days
    • macrophages in spleen and liver destroy worn out RBCs
    • hemoglobin is broken down into heme and globin
    • iron returns to red bone marrow to be reused
    • eventually biliverdin converted into bilirubin (orangish-yellowish)
    • heme breaks down into iron and biliverdin (greenish pigment)
  • 10. White Blood Cells
    • leukocytes
    • protect against disease
    • granulocytes
      • neutrophils
      • eosinophils
      • basophils
    • agranulocytes
      • lymphocytes
      • monocytes
  • 11. Neutrophils
    • first to arrive at infections
    • phagocytic
    • 54% - 62% of leukocyte
    • elevated in bacterial infections
  • 12. Eosinophils
    • moderate allergic reactions
    • defend against parasitic worm infestations
    • 1% - 3% of leukocytes
    • elevated in worm infestations and allergic reactions
  • 13. Basophils
    • release histamine
    • release heparin
    • less than 1% of leukocytes
  • 14. Monocytes
    • largest blood cell
    • leave bloodstream to become macrophages
    • 3% - 9% of leukocytes
  • 15. Lymphocytes
    • about the size of RBC
    • T cells (directly attack)
    • B cells (make antibodies)
    • important in immunity
    • 25% - 33% of leukocytes
  • 16. Diapadesis
    • leukocytes squeeze through capillary walls to enter tissue space outside the blood vessel
  • 17. Blood Platelets
    • thrombocytes
    • cell fragments of megakaryocytes
    • 130,000 – 360,000 per cubic millimeter of blood
    • helps control blood loss from broken vessels; clotters
  • 18. Blood Plasma
    • straw colored
    • liquid portion of blood
    • 55% of blood
  • 19. Plasma Proteins
    • Albumins
      • most numerous plasma proteins
      • originate in liver
      • help maintain osmotic pressure of blood
    • Fibrinogen
      • originate in liver
      • plays key role in blood coagulation
    • Alpha and Beta Globulins
      • originate in liver
      • transport lipids and fat-soluble vitamins
    • Gamma Globulins
      • originate in lymphatic tissues
      • constitute the antibodies of immunity
  • 20. Gases and Nutrients
    • Gases
      • oxygen
      • carbon dioxide
      • nitrogen
    • Nutrients
      • amino acids
      • simple sugars
      • nucleotides
      • lipids
      • lipoproteins
  • 21. Hemostasis
    • stoppage of bleeding
    • Blood Vessel Spasm
      • triggered by pain receptors, platelet release, or serotonin
      • smooth muscle in vessel contracts
    • Platelet Plug Formation
      • triggered by exposure of platelets to collagen
      • platelets adhere to rough surface to form a plug
    • Blood Coagulation
      • triggered by cellular damage and blood contact with foreign surfaces
      • blood clot forms
  • 22. Platelet Plug Formation
  • 23. Blood Clots
    • After forming, blood clot retracts and pulls the edges of a broken vessel together
    • Platelet-derived growth factor stimulates smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts to repair damaged blood vessels
    • Plasmin digests blood clots
    • **thrombus – abnormal blood clot
    • **embolus – blood clot moving through blood
  • 24. ABO Blood Group
  • 25. Agglutination
  • 26. Preferred and Permissible Blood Types for Transfusion
  • 27. Genotypes of Blood Types Genotype Blood Type (Antigen) Antibody A A A o A B B B B o B A A B AB None o o O A and B D D D - Rh + None - - Rh - None
  • 28. How Rare Is Your Blood? Blood Group and Rh Type How Many Have It? Frequency O Positive One in 3 37.4% O Negative One in 15 6.6% A Positive One in 3 35.7% A Negative One in 16 6.3% B Positive One in 12 8.5% B Negative One in 67 1.5% AB Positive One in 29 3.4% AB Negative One in 167 0.6%
  • 29. Rh factor
    • Discovered in Rhesus monkeys
    • If you have the factor then you are positive
    • If you don’t, you are negative
    • One is not necessarily better than the other
    • However, if a woman is negative it can cause complications with the 2 nd pregnancy on (see next slide)
  • 30. Have no fear: they have developed a shot called Rhogam that they can give to women with negative blood to prevent this from hurting the baby.