This is amazing. Try to read the paragraph below, then consider what it actually says. The brain is a wonderful thing isn’...
Interesting Brain facts <ul><li>The adult human brain weighs about 3 pounds </li></ul><ul><li>Einstein’s was 2.7 pounds </...
<ul><li>The world record for time without sleep is 264 hours or 11 days by Randy Gardner in 1965! </li></ul><ul><li>Uncons...
General Functions  of the Nervous System <ul><li>Words to KNOW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ne...
<ul><li>Cell Types of Neural Tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>neuroglial cells </li></ul></ul>
Divisions of the  Nervous System <ul><li>Central Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spi...
Divisions Nervous System
Divisions of Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>Sensory Division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>picks up sensory information and del...
MIGRAINES <ul><li>Read Clinical Application 10.1 </li></ul><ul><li>70% are women; perhaps hormonal influences </li></ul><u...
Neuron Structure
Myelination of Axons <ul><li>White Matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contains myelinated axons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>faste...
Dendrite Axon terminal Schwann cell nucleus Node of Ranvier Axon Myelin  Nucleus Cell Body Quiz Friday over neurons!!!
Multiple Sclerosis Clinical Application 10.2 <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blurred vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Classification of Neurons <ul><li>Bipolar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>two processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eyes, ears, nose ...
Classification of Neurons <ul><li>Sensory Neurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carry impulse to CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mo...
Regeneration of A Nerve Axon
The Synapse Nerve impulses pass from neuron to neuron at  synapses
Synaptic Transmission <ul><li>Impulse travels away on axon </li></ul><ul><li>Synaptic knob becomes permeable to Calcium io...
Synaptic Transmission <ul><li>Neurotransmitters are released via exocytosis into the synaptic cleft </li></ul><ul><li>Neur...
Neurotransmitters
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10 Neurons & Intro to Nervous

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10 Neurons & Intro to Nervous

  1. 1. This is amazing. Try to read the paragraph below, then consider what it actually says. The brain is a wonderful thing isn’t it? Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn’t mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a total mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe and the biran fguiers it out aynawy…WOW!
  2. 2. Interesting Brain facts <ul><li>The adult human brain weighs about 3 pounds </li></ul><ul><li>Einstein’s was 2.7 pounds </li></ul><ul><li>The human brain has about 100 billion neurons </li></ul><ul><li>The human spinal cord has about 13,500,000 neurons </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The world record for time without sleep is 264 hours or 11 days by Randy Gardner in 1965! </li></ul><ul><li>Unconsciousness will occur 8-10 seconds after loss of blood supply to the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons multiply at a rate of 250,000 neurons per minute during early pregnancy </li></ul>
  4. 4. General Functions of the Nervous System <ul><li>Words to KNOW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuroglial cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dendrites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synapses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Nervous System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sensory receptors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>effectors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Cell Types of Neural Tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>neuroglial cells </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Divisions of the Nervous System <ul><li>Central Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>peripheral nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cranial nerves (12) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>spinal nerves (31) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Divisions Nervous System
  8. 8. Divisions of Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>Sensory Division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>picks up sensory information and delivers it to the CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motor Division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carries information to muscles and glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems of the Motor Division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic – carries information to skeletal muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomic – carries information to smooth muscle, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cardiac muscle, and glands; “automatic” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. MIGRAINES <ul><li>Read Clinical Application 10.1 </li></ul><ul><li>70% are women; perhaps hormonal influences </li></ul><ul><li>Actually a response to changes in the diameters of blood vessels in the face, head and neck; constricting and dilating </li></ul><ul><li>Classic  4-6 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Common  3-4 days </li></ul><ul><li>Familial Hemiplegic  few hours to days; also paralyzes one side of the body </li></ul>
  10. 10. Neuron Structure
  11. 11. Myelination of Axons <ul><li>White Matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contains myelinated axons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>faster impulses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gray Matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contains unmyelinated structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cell bodies, dendrites </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Dendrite Axon terminal Schwann cell nucleus Node of Ranvier Axon Myelin Nucleus Cell Body Quiz Friday over neurons!!!
  13. 13. Multiple Sclerosis Clinical Application 10.2 <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blurred vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>numb legs or arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can lead to paralysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>myelin destroyed in various parts of CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hard scars (scleroses) form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nerve impulses blocked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>muscles do not receive innervation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be related to a virus </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Classification of Neurons <ul><li>Bipolar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>two processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eyes, ears, nose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unipolar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ganglia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multipolar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most neurons of CNS </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Classification of Neurons <ul><li>Sensory Neurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carry impulse to CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most are unipolar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some are bipolar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interneurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>link neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multipolar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motor Neurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>multipolar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carry impulses away from CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carry impulses to effectors </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Regeneration of A Nerve Axon
  17. 17. The Synapse Nerve impulses pass from neuron to neuron at synapses
  18. 18. Synaptic Transmission <ul><li>Impulse travels away on axon </li></ul><ul><li>Synaptic knob becomes permeable to Calcium ions, they flood in </li></ul><ul><li>Allows synaptic vesicles to fuse with the membrane </li></ul>
  19. 19. Synaptic Transmission <ul><li>Neurotransmitters are released via exocytosis into the synaptic cleft </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitters float over to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron (dendrite) </li></ul><ul><li>Impulse continues </li></ul><ul><li>Reuptake occurs with leftover neurotrans- mitters or they are broken down </li></ul>
  20. 20. Neurotransmitters
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