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07 Skeletal
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07 Skeletal

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  • 1. Chapter 7 Skeletal System
  • 2. Bone Classification
    • Long Bones
    • Short Bones
    • Flat Bones
    • Irregular Bones
    • Sesamoid Bones
  • 3. Parts of a Long Bone
    • epiphysis
      • distal
      • proximal
    • articular cartilage
    • diaphysis
    • periosteum
    • compact bone
    • spongy bone
    • medullary cavity
    • endosteum
    • marrow
      • red
      • yellow
  • 4. Compact and Spongy Bone
  • 5. Microscopic Structure of Compact Bone
    • osteocyte
      • bone cell
    • osteon
    • central canal
      • w/ blood vessels
      • w/ nerves
    • perforating canal
      • w/ blood vessels
      • w/ nerves
  • 6. Skeletal Organization
    • Axial Skeleton
      • head
      • neck
      • trunk
    • Appendicular Skeleton
      • upper limbs
      • lower limbs
      • pectoral girdle
      • pelvic girdle
  • 7. The only ‘floating’ bone
  • 8. Vertebral Column
    • cervical vertebrae (7)
    • thoracic vertebrae (12)
    • lumbar vertebrae (5)
    • sacrum (5 fused)
    • coccyx (tailbone)
  • 9. Cervical Vertebrae
    • Atlas – 1 st ; supports head
    • Axis – 2 nd ; dens pivots to turn head
  • 10. Thoracic Vertebrae
    • long spinous processes
    • rib facets
  • 11. Lumbar Vertebrae
    • large bodies
    • thick, short spinous processes
  • 12. Sacrum
    • five fused vertebrae
    • posterior wall of pelvic cavity
  • 13. Coccyx
    • tailbone
    • four fused vertebrae
  • 14. Thoracic Cage
    • Protects viscera
    • Role in breathing
    • Ribs
      • True ribs (7)
      • False ribs (5)
        • floating (2)
    • Costal cartilages
    • Sternum
      • Manubrium
      • Body
      • Xiphoid process
    • Thoracic vertebrae
  • 15. Facial Skeleton Frontal (1) Parietal (2) Temporal (2) Occipital (1) Maxillary (2) Mandible (1) Zygomatic (2) Lacrimal (2) Nasal (2) Sphenoid (1) Ethmoid (1)
  • 16. Facial Skeleton Frontal (1) Parietal (2) Temporal (2) Occipital (1) Maxillary (2) Mandible (1) Zygomatic (2) Lacrimal (2) Nasal (2) Sphenoid (1) Ethmoid (1) Vomer (1)
  • 17. Skull Sphenoid (1) Ethmoid (1)
  • 18. Infantile Skull Fontanels – fibrous membranes; “soft spots”
  • 19. Pectoral Girdle
    • shoulder girdle
    • clavicles
    • scapulae
    • supports upper limbs
  • 20. Upper Limb
    • Humerus
    • Radius
    • Ulna
      • Olecranon process
      • Ulnar nerve
    • Carpals
    • Metacarpals
    • Phalanges
  • 21. Wrist and Hand
    • Carpals (16)
      • trapezium
      • trapezoid
      • capitate
      • scaphoid
      • pisiform
      • triquetrum
      • hamate
      • lunate
    • Metacarpals (10)
    • Phalanges (28)
      • proximal phalanx
      • middle phalanx
      • distal phalanx
  • 22. Pelvic Girdle
    • Coxae (2)
    • supports trunk of body
    • protects viscera
  • 23. Coxae
    • hip bones
    • acetabulum
    • ilium
    • ischium
      • ischial tuberosity
    • pubis
  • 24. Male and Female Pelvis
    • Female
      • iliac bones more flared
      • broader hips
      • pubic arch angle greater
      • sacral curvature shorter and flatter
      • lighter bones
  • 25. Lower Limb
    • Femur
      • Longest bone of body
    • Patella
    • Tibia
      • Medial malleolus
    • Fibula
      • Bears no weight
      • Lateral malleolus
    • Tarsals
    • Metatarsals
    • Phalanges
  • 26. Ankle and Foot
    • Tarsals (14)
      • calcaneus*
      • talus*
      • navicular
      • cuboid
      • lateral cuneiform
      • intermediate cuneiform
      • medial cuneiform
    • Metatarsals (10)
    • Phalanges (28)
      • proximal
      • middle
      • distal
  • 27. Ankle and Foot
  • 28. Bone Development
    • Intramembranous Ossification
      • bones originate within sheetlike layers of connective tissues
      • broad, flat bones  skull bones (except mandible)
    • Endochondral Ossification
      • bones begin as hyaline cartilage
      • most bones of the skeleton
  • 29. Endochondral Ossification
  • 30. Homeostasis of Bone Tissue
    • Bone Resorption – action of osteoclasts
    • Bone Deposition – action of osteo b lasts; “bone b uilders”
  • 31. Bone Function
    • Support and Protection
      • gives shape to head, etc.
      • supports body’s weight
      • protects lungs, etc.
    • Body Movement
      • interacts with muscles
      • bones act as rigid bar of a lever
    • Blood Cell Formation
      • hematopoiesis
      • red marrow
    • Inorganic Salt Storage
      • calcium
      • phosphate
      • magnesium
      • sodium
      • potassium