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05 Tissue Notes

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Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Chapter 5 Tissues Four major tissue types
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  • 3. Epithelial Tissues General characteristics -
    • cover organs and the body
    • forms the inner lining of body cavities
    • line hollow organs
    • has a free surface
    • have a basement membrane- anchored to this
    • lack blood vessels- avascular
    • cells readily divide (Mitosis  )
    • cells tightly packed
  • 4. Classified according to cell shape and number of cell layers
    • Squamous- squashed
    • Cuboidal- cube/circle
    • Columnar- columns
    • Simple- one layer
    • Stratified- 2 or more
  • 5. Epithelial Tissues
    • Simple squamous –
      • single layer of flat cells
      • substances pass easily through
      • line air sacs (alveoli)
      • form walls of capillaries
    • Simple cuboidal –
      • single layer of cube-shaped cells
      • line kidney tubules
      • cover ovaries
  • 6. Epithelial Tissues
    • Simple columnar –
      • single layer of elongated cells
      • sometimes possess cilia
      • line uterus, stomach, small
      • and large intestine
      • sometimes possess microvilli
      • often have goblet cells
    • Pseudostratified columnar –
      • single layer of elongated cells
      • appear striated or layered
      • often have cilia
      • often have goblet cells
      • line respiratory passageways
  • 7. Epithelial Tissues
    • Stratified squamous –
      • many cell layers
      • top cells are flat
      • can accumulate keratin
      • outer layer of skin
      • line oral cavity, throat, vagina, and anal canal (unkeratinized)
    • Stratified cuboidal –
      • 2-3 layers
      • cube-shaped cells
      • line ducts of mammary glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, and the pancreas
  • 8. Epithelial Tissues
    • Stratified columnar –
      • top layer of elongated cells
      • cube-shaped cells in deeper layers
      • line vas deferens, male urethra
    • Transitional –
      • many cell layers
      • cube-shaped and elongated cells, change due to tension
      • line urinary bladder, ureters, and part of urethra
  • 9. Connective Tissues General characteristics -
    • most abundant tissue type
    • many functions
      • bind structures
      • provide support and protection
      • serve as frameworks
      • fill spaces
      • store fat
      • produce blood cells
      • protect against infections
      • help repair tissue damage
    • have a matrix
    • have varying degrees of vascularity
    • have cells that usually divide
  • 10. Connective Tissue Major Cell Types
    • Fibroblasts
      • fixed cell
      • most common cell
      • large, star-shaped
      • produce fibers
    • Macrophages
      • wandering cell
      • phagocytic
      • important in defense
    • Mast cells
      • fixed cell
      • release heparin - prevents blood clotting
      • release histamine - promotes some of the reactions associated with inflammation and allergies
  • 11. Connective Tissue Fibers
    • Collagenous fibers
      • thick
      • composed of collagen
      • great tensile strength
    • Elastic fibers
      • elastic
      • vocal cords, air passages
  • 12. Connective Tissues
    • Loose connective tissue
      • bind skin to structures
      • beneath most epithelia
      • between muscles
    • Adipose tissue
      • cushions, insulates & store fats
      • beneath skin
      • around kidneys
      • behind the eyes
      • on the surface of the heart
  • 13. Connective Tissues
    • Dense connective tissue
      • bind body parts together
      • tendons, ligaments, dermis
      • poor blood supply
  • 14. Connective Tissues
    • Cartilage
      • chondrocytes- cartilage cells
      • poor blood supply
    • Hyaline cartilage
      • most abundant
      • ends of bones
      • nose, respiratory passages
      • embryonic skeleton
    • Elastic cartilage
      • flexible
      • external ear, larynx
    • Fibrocartilage
      • very tough
      • shock absorber
      • intervertebral discs
      • pads of knee and pelvic girdle
  • 15. Connective Tissues
    • Blood
      • fluid matrix called plasma
      • red blood cells –transport O 2
      • white blood cells - defense
      • platelets - clotting
    • Bone
      • osteocytes- bone cells
      • supports & protects
      • forms blood cells
      • attachment for muscles
      • skeleton
  • 16. Muscle Tissues
    • General characteristics
      • muscle cells called muscle fibers
      • contractile
      • three types
        • skeletal
        • smooth
        • cardiac
    • Skeletal muscle
      • attached to bones
      • striated
      • voluntary
    • Smooth muscle
      • walls of organs
      • skin
      • walls of blood vessels
      • involuntary
      • not striated
    • Cardiac muscle
      • heart wall
      • involuntary
      • striated
      • intercalated discs
  • 17. Nervous Tissues
    • found in brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
    • nerve cells are called neurons
    • neuroglial cells are supporting cells
    • sensory reception
    • conduction of nerve impulses