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05 Tissue Notes
05 Tissue Notes
05 Tissue Notes
05 Tissue Notes
05 Tissue Notes
05 Tissue Notes
05 Tissue Notes
05 Tissue Notes
05 Tissue Notes
05 Tissue Notes
05 Tissue Notes
05 Tissue Notes
05 Tissue Notes
05 Tissue Notes
05 Tissue Notes
05 Tissue Notes
05 Tissue Notes
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05 Tissue Notes

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  • 1.  
  • 2. Chapter 5 Tissues Four major tissue types <ul><li>Epithelial </li></ul><ul><li>Connective </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul>
  • 3. Epithelial Tissues General characteristics - <ul><li>cover organs and the body </li></ul><ul><li>forms the inner lining of body cavities </li></ul><ul><li>line hollow organs </li></ul><ul><li>has a free surface </li></ul><ul><li>have a basement membrane- anchored to this </li></ul><ul><li>lack blood vessels- avascular </li></ul><ul><li>cells readily divide (Mitosis  ) </li></ul><ul><li>cells tightly packed </li></ul>
  • 4. Classified according to cell shape and number of cell layers <ul><li>Squamous- squashed </li></ul><ul><li>Cuboidal- cube/circle </li></ul><ul><li>Columnar- columns </li></ul><ul><li>Simple- one layer </li></ul><ul><li>Stratified- 2 or more </li></ul>
  • 5. Epithelial Tissues <ul><li>Simple squamous – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>single layer of flat cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>substances pass easily through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>line air sacs (alveoli) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>form walls of capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simple cuboidal – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>single layer of cube-shaped cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>line kidney tubules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cover ovaries </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Epithelial Tissues <ul><li>Simple columnar – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>single layer of elongated cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sometimes possess cilia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>line uterus, stomach, small </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and large intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sometimes possess microvilli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>often have goblet cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pseudostratified columnar – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>single layer of elongated cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>appear striated or layered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>often have cilia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>often have goblet cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>line respiratory passageways </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Epithelial Tissues <ul><li>Stratified squamous – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many cell layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>top cells are flat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can accumulate keratin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>outer layer of skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>line oral cavity, throat, vagina, and anal canal (unkeratinized) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stratified cuboidal – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-3 layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cube-shaped cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>line ducts of mammary glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, and the pancreas </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Epithelial Tissues <ul><li>Stratified columnar – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>top layer of elongated cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cube-shaped cells in deeper layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>line vas deferens, male urethra </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transitional – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many cell layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cube-shaped and elongated cells, change due to tension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>line urinary bladder, ureters, and part of urethra </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Connective Tissues General characteristics - <ul><li>most abundant tissue type </li></ul><ul><li>many functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bind structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide support and protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>serve as frameworks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fill spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>store fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produce blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protect against infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help repair tissue damage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>have a matrix </li></ul><ul><li>have varying degrees of vascularity </li></ul><ul><li>have cells that usually divide </li></ul>
  • 10. Connective Tissue Major Cell Types <ul><li>Fibroblasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fixed cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most common cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>large, star-shaped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produce fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Macrophages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wandering cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phagocytic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>important in defense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mast cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fixed cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>release heparin - prevents blood clotting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>release histamine - promotes some of the reactions associated with inflammation and allergies </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Connective Tissue Fibers <ul><li>Collagenous fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>composed of collagen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>great tensile strength </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elastic fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>elastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vocal cords, air passages </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Connective Tissues <ul><li>Loose connective tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bind skin to structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beneath most epithelia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>between muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adipose tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cushions, insulates &amp; store fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beneath skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>around kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>behind the eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on the surface of the heart </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Connective Tissues <ul><li>Dense connective tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bind body parts together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tendons, ligaments, dermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poor blood supply </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Connective Tissues <ul><li>Cartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chondrocytes- cartilage cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poor blood supply </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hyaline cartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most abundant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ends of bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nose, respiratory passages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>embryonic skeleton </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elastic cartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>external ear, larynx </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fibrocartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very tough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shock absorber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intervertebral discs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pads of knee and pelvic girdle </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Connective Tissues <ul><li>Blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fluid matrix called plasma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>red blood cells –transport O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>white blood cells - defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>platelets - clotting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>osteocytes- bone cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supports &amp; protects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forms blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attachment for muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skeleton </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Muscle Tissues <ul><li>General characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>muscle cells called muscle fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contractile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>three types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>skeletal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>smooth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cardiac </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attached to bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>striated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>walls of organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>walls of blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>involuntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not striated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>heart wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>involuntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>striated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intercalated discs </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. Nervous Tissues <ul><li>found in brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves </li></ul><ul><li>nerve cells are called neurons </li></ul><ul><li>neuroglial cells are supporting cells </li></ul><ul><li>sensory reception </li></ul><ul><li>conduction of nerve impulses </li></ul>

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