Overview of the Energy Water Nexus    Texas Alliance of Groundwater Districts                      Carey King   Center for...
Water and energy are linked in a fundamental                   way  • Water treatment and supply require energy  • Water i...
Takeaways• Marginal energy resource life-cycles often have increased ability to affect or be affected by   – Water quantit...
Water for Electricity
US hydropower exemplifies water limiting an            energy resource            US Hydropower Performance and Capacity  ...
Determining the factors that lead to thispattern: climate, competing water uses                           US Hydropower   ...
Power plant water consumption varies by cooling type                         1,000 (gal/MWh)   Cooling                    ...
Power plant water withdrawal varies by 100X 50,000 (gal/MWh)     40,000                                       Once-     30...
Peak water?Constant US withdrawal for three decades                                             Carey King, PhD           ...
Withdrawal vs. Consumption:      When is each one important?• Thermoelectric (or energy) “use” of water   – Withdrawal ~ 4...
Concentrating solar power (CSP):     ex. of marginal electricity impacted by water constraint                             ...
Wet Cooling for CSP (trough)          NREL (Kutcher)       Carey King, PhD                                      TAGD 12   ...
Dry Cooling for CSP (trough)                               Carey King, PhD                                      TAGD 13   ...
Texas generated 437 terawatt-hours in 2011,                    consuming < 5% Texas water                                 ...
Texas water planning example:Consumption depends on fuel, cooling, and CO2 choices                           Texas Water C...
Do Texas water rights suspensions during      2011 drought show ‘priority’? • “Surface water in Texas is owned by the stat...
Water for Energy: Transportation Fuels                            Dominguez-Faus et al. Environ. Sci.                     ...
Water Consumption Intensity from Near Zero            to > 100 gal/mile                                                   ...
Miles driven per fuel in 2030: 4,069 Billion“High Diversity Scenario for 2030”: ~ 20%                  NETL (Kern et al.) ...
8,000Will water consumption in 2030 be for fuelsGLyr/ 6,000 4,000   non-existent before 2000?    2,000          Same thoug...
Water impacts are local but energy trade          is global/regional
Water resource impacts from energy can be   local or remote; quality and quantity  Low water  availability                ...
Hydraulic fracturing in SDWA exemption was      integrated water-energy policy                                   (not nece...
Policy concerns over CWA 316(b) proposedrule is about withdrawal impacts on wildlife • 316(b) concerns intake requirements...
Senate Energy and Natural Resources bill   seeks to inform and improve data• Energy and Water Integration Act 2011 (S. 134...
This is not data on water-energy                               http://gaslandthemovie.com/         Texas license plate    ...
Much policy ensure alternative energy We need to discussion centers on USdependencedon’t just switch the pump resources on...
Thank You                                         WEBBER ENERGY GROUP   Center for International Energy and           Envi...
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Overview of the Energy Water Nexus, Dr. Carey King, University of Texas at Austin

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  • The Atlantic Council will hold the first of two workshops on the Energy-Water Nexus in Washington, DC on May 17, 2011. The purpose of the conferences is: to better inform Congress, the American public, and key policy and industry leaders on the energy and water related issues so that United States will be able to protect its energy, national, economic and environmental security. The Council will undertake a series of 2 discussions on the challenges and options to ensuring sustainable water resources for producing primary energy fuels and meeting electric power requirements while taking into account the needs of agriculture and commercial/public consumption. 
  • “ Public health and safety can include needs such as drinking water, fire protection, hospital use, tree preservation, necessary domestic uses, and other uses determined by the municipal user to be necessary to protect public welfare.” http://www.tceq.texas.gov/assets/public/agency/9-16-11-muni.pdf
  • From Nicot (2005) TWDB report on Barnett Shale: 0.007 gal/scf of NG; so this water only is &lt; (0.01 gal/scf)(5.9 scf/mile) = 0.06 gal/mile Gerbens-Leenes (2009) ~ 78 m^3/GJ of ethanol from corn in US, or 490 m^3/ton of grain from Hoeskstra and Chapagain (2007). At 387 L EtOH per tonne of corn grain, this comes to 1,260 L H2O/L EtOH for ET. Gerbens-Leenes (2009). The Water Footprint of Bioenergy. PNAS , www.pnas.orgcgidoi10.1073pnas.0812619106. Domingueze-Faus (2009) The Water Footprint of Biofuels. Env. Sci. and Tech.
  • 4.1 trillion miles projected for 2030
  • 15 Billion gallons of corn ethanol = 57 billion liters for RFS 36 Billion gallons of biofuels = 136 billion liters by 2022 for RFS
  • Subtitle C—Production SEC. 321. OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF PROVISIONS. (a) STORAGE ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF.—Section 5(a)(5) of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (43 U.S.C. 1334(a)(5)) is amended by inserting ‘‘from any source’’ after ‘‘oil and gas’’. (b) NATURAL GAS DEFINED.—Section 3(13) of the Deepwater Port Act of 1974 (33 U.S.C. 1502(13)) is amended by adding at the end before the semicolon the following: ‘‘, natural gas liquids, liquefied petroleum gas, and condensate recovered from natural gas’’. SEC. 322. HYDRAULIC FRACTURING. Paragraph (1) of section 1421(d) of the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300h(d)) is amended to read as follows: ‘‘ (1) UNDERGROUND INJECTION.—The term ‘underground injection’— ‘‘ (A) means the subsurface emplacement of fluids by well injection; and ‘‘ (B) excludes— ‘‘ (i) the underground injection of natural gas for purposes of storage; and ‘‘ (ii) the underground injection of fluids or propping agents (other than diesel fuels) pursuant to hydraulic fracturing operations related to oil, gas, or geothermal production activities.’’. From King and Webber (2008) Water Intensity of transportation , there is 7,200 ac-ft of water used (injected, recovered, and transported for disposal/treatment) for 350 Bcf of natural gas from Barnett Shale in 2005 ( 14). This is 6.52065E-06 gallons/ Btu of NG. TWDB Barnett Shale report: Bene´, J.; Harden, B.; Griffin, S.; Nicot, J. P. Assessment of groundwater use in the Northern Trinity Aquifer due to urban growth and Barnett Shale development.TWDBContract Number 0604830613; 2007. Available 5-23-08 at http://www.twdb.state.tx. us/RWPG/rpgm_rpts/0604830613_BarnetShale.pdf.
  • Overview of the Energy Water Nexus, Dr. Carey King, University of Texas at Austin

    1. 1. Overview of the Energy Water Nexus Texas Alliance of Groundwater Districts Carey King Center for International Energy and Environmental Policy The University of Texas at Austin June 26, 2012
    2. 2. Water and energy are linked in a fundamental way • Water treatment and supply require energy • Water is used in power generation, oil & gas production, and, increasingly, in the production of biofuels • Conserving water saves energy • Conserving energy saves water Carey King, PhD TAGD 2 June 26, 2012
    3. 3. Takeaways• Marginal energy resource life-cycles often have increased ability to affect or be affected by – Water quantity – Water quality• Emotional ties to water affect into energy issues• Resilience vs. efficiency – Not going to discuss, but think about general goals of energy and water planning Carey King, PhD TAGD 3 June 26, 2012
    4. 4. Water for Electricity
    5. 5. US hydropower exemplifies water limiting an energy resource US Hydropower Performance and Capacity Clean Water Act (1972) 0.7 120,000 0.6 100,000 0.5 Capacity Factor 80,000 0.4 Hydro Capacity (MW) 60,000 0.3 40,000 C o p a F y c r t i 0.2 20,000 W M m 0.1 N C u p e a y v c t ) ( l i 0.0 0 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 Carey King, PhD EIA Annual Energy Review 2008. TAGD 5 June 26, 2012
    6. 6. Determining the factors that lead to thispattern: climate, competing water uses US Hydropower Clean Water Act (1972) Carey King, PhD DOE (2006). Energy Demands on Water Resources. Report to Congress . TAGD 6 June 26, 2012
    7. 7. Power plant water consumption varies by cooling type 1,000 (gal/MWh) Cooling 800 Towers 600 Pond Hybrid 400 Once- 200 through Dry PV, Wind, CSP Stirling Carey King, PhD TAGD 7 Macknick, et al. (2011). NREL/TP-6A20-50900. June 26, 2012
    8. 8. Power plant water withdrawal varies by 100X 50,000 (gal/MWh) 40,000 Once- 30,000 through 20,000 10,000 Pond Cooling Towers Carey King, PhD TAGD 8 Macknick, et al. (2011). NREL/TP-6A20-50900. June 26, 2012
    9. 9. Peak water?Constant US withdrawal for three decades Carey King, PhD TAGD 9 Hutson et al. (2004). USGS. June 26, 2012
    10. 10. Withdrawal vs. Consumption: When is each one important?• Thermoelectric (or energy) “use” of water – Withdrawal ~ 48% of US total (USGS, 2004) – Consumption ~ 3% of US total (USGS, 1998)• Avoid using the term “use” to describe water – Can’t tell if “using” a LOT or a LITTLE?• A power plant withdrawing water from a river/lake versus a dedicated cooling reservoir has different ... – Operational risks – Environmental impacts Carey King, PhD TAGD 10 June 26, 2012
    11. 11. Concentrating solar power (CSP): ex. of marginal electricity impacted by water constraint Wet cooled: @ 800-900 gal/MWh Dry cooled: @ 100 gal/MWh +3-5% higher $/MWhDirect Normal Solar RadiationkWh/m2/day 8.00-8.25 7.75-8.00 7.50-7.75 7.25-7.50 7.00-7.25 6.75-7.00 6.50-6.75 6.25-6.50 6.00-6.25 5.75-6.00 Carey King, PhD 5.50-5.75 NREL (2007) DOE/GO-102007-2400. TAGD 11 June 26, 2012 2.75-5.50
    12. 12. Wet Cooling for CSP (trough) NREL (Kutcher) Carey King, PhD TAGD 12 June 26, 2012
    13. 13. Dry Cooling for CSP (trough) Carey King, PhD TAGD 13 June 26, 2012
    14. 14. Texas generated 437 terawatt-hours in 2011, consuming < 5% Texas water Other ~0.0 gal/kWh 1.6% Wind 0.3-0.6 gal/kWh 0.6 gal/kWh 6.9%King, Duncan, and Webber (2008) Nuclear 9.1% Coal 36.1%EIA Form 923. NG 46.3% NGCC:0.2-0.3 gal/kWh Carey King, PhD NG-GT: < 0.1 gal/kWh TAGD 14 June 26, 2012
    15. 15. Texas water planning example:Consumption depends on fuel, cooling, and CO2 choices Texas Water Consumption for Electricity Generation 1,800,000 Plan CO2 cap 1,600,000 ater scenarios W 1,400,000 St ate 2 TX NG 201 1,200,000 % 20 NG acre-feet/yr % 40 1,000,000 800,000 600,000 Non-CO2 cap 400,000 scenarios 200,000 Plant-by-plant estimation 0 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 Carey King, PhD TAGD 15 King, Duncan, & Webber (2008). TWDB Report. Water Demand Projections for Power Generation in Texas June 26, 2012
    16. 16. Do Texas water rights suspensions during 2011 drought show ‘priority’? • “Surface water in Texas is owned by the state and held in trust for the citizens of the state.” (TCEQ) • Texas water rights are (mostly) “first in time, first in right” – Oldest water rights have senior priority – Water suspensions start with most junior rights • 2011: “In order to protect public health and welfare, water rights with municipal uses or for power generation have not been suspended.” (TCEQ) – http://www.tceq.texas.gov/news/releases/010912DroughtLittleSandy – http://www.tceq.texas.gov/news/releases/080811drought11brazos4 Carey King, PhD TAGD 16 June 26, 2012
    17. 17. Water for Energy: Transportation Fuels Dominguez-Faus et al. Environ. Sci. & Technol. 2009 43 (9), 3005-3010.
    18. 18. Water Consumption Intensity from Near Zero to > 100 gal/mile Carey King, PhD TAGD 18 King & Webber (2008). Env. Sci. & Tech. 42 (21), 7866-7872. June 26, 2012
    19. 19. Miles driven per fuel in 2030: 4,069 Billion“High Diversity Scenario for 2030”: ~ 20% NETL (Kern et al.) Caseconventional petroleum (4.1 trillion miles) Biomass gasification to Biodiesel - No Irr. Soy liquids 3.2% 8.6% Biodiesel - Irr. Soy 0.2% Gasoline (E10) 20.0% E85 - Non-Irrigated ls Cellulosic fu e 9.2% E85 - Irrigated Cellulosic Diesel Bio 1.7% 3.1% E85 - No Irr. Corn Grain or Stover 9.9% E85 - Irr. Corn Grain Coal to FT Diesel l or Stover si 1.7% 20.3% os No f Electric (EV/PHEV) - nli v. NG to FT Diesel U.S. Grid qu n 0.9% co 8.1% H2 - Electrolysis, U.S. ids Un Gasoline - Oil Shale Grid H2 - SMR 10.4% 1.3% 1.3% Carey King, PhD TAGD 19 King, Webber, Duncan (2010) Energy Policy, 38 (2), 1157-1167. June 26, 2012
    20. 20. 8,000Will water consumption in 2030 be for fuelsGLyr/ 6,000 4,000 non-existent before 2000? 2,000 Same thoughts in 1970s energy crisis 0 2005 2010 2015 2020 ~ 10% 2030 Water 2025 US Water Consumption - NETL Consumption16,000 Electricity via PHEV – US Grid14,000 Oil Shale - Gasoline12,000 Coal to Liquid (Diesel) Biomass to liquids10,000 Irrigated Soy Biodiesel Non-irrigated Ethanol – E85 8,000 CellulosicGLyr/ 6,000 Irrigated Ethanol – E85 Cellulosic Irrigated Ethanol – E85 Corn Grain 4,000 Non-irrigated Ethanol – E85 Irrigated Ethanol – E10 Corn Grain Corn Grain 2,000 Irrigated Ethanol – E85 Corn Petroleum Gasoline 0 Grain & Stover 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Carey King, PhD King, Webber, and Duncan (2010) Energy Policy, 38 (2), 1157-1167. TAGD 20 June 26, 2012 Harte and Gasseir (1978) Science, 199, 623-634.
    21. 21. Water impacts are local but energy trade is global/regional
    22. 22. Water resource impacts from energy can be local or remote; quality and quantity Low water availability Shale gas (oil shale & shale produced water resources) treatment/disposal Aquifer Depletion Hypoxic zone Carey King, PhD Chiu, et al. Water embodied in bioethanol in the U.S. Environ. Sci. and Technol. 2009 43 (8), 2688-2692. TAGD 22 June 26, 2012
    23. 23. Hydraulic fracturing in SDWA exemption was integrated water-energy policy (not necessarily engaged) • Energy Policy Act (2005) exempted hydraulic fracturing from the federal Safe Drinking Water Act – Ruling under review – Various ongoing studies (EPA, academic) – Creates animosity public and competing industries • Issue mostly concerns water quality … not quantity – Millions of gallons per well, many wells per pad – ~ 1-10 gal H2O/MMBtu of Barnett Shale NG1 • low end of fossil and renewables • Bene´, J.; Harden, B.; Griffin, S.; Nicot, J. P. Assessment of groundwater use in the Northern Trinity Aquifer Carey King, PhD due to urban growth and Barnett Shale development.; King and Webber (2008) Env. Sci. & Tech. TAGD 23 June 26, 2012
    24. 24. Policy concerns over CWA 316(b) proposedrule is about withdrawal impacts on wildlife • 316(b) concerns intake requirements at power plants that might force cooling towers – New generation units subject to closed loop cooling towers – Existing plants concerns pushed to states for case-by-case studies – Minimum fish kill requirement or max. intake velocity Carey King, PhD TAGD 24 June 26, 2012
    25. 25. Senate Energy and Natural Resources bill seeks to inform and improve data• Energy and Water Integration Act 2011 (S. 1343) – Calls for National Academies Study of water energy interactions e.g. “… include a lifecycle assessment of the quantity of water withdrawn and consumed in the production of transportation fuels …” – i.e. calculate as gal H2O/mile (King & Webber (2008) Env. Sci. and Tech.) – Information must be used wisely in policy – What relates to consumers may not to a river basin Carey King, PhD TAGD 25 June 26, 2012
    26. 26. This is not data on water-energy http://gaslandthemovie.com/ Texas license plate Not data either! Carey King, PhD TAGD 26 June 26, 2012
    27. 27. Much policy ensure alternative energy We need to discussion centers on USdependencedon’t just switch the pump resources on Middle Eastern/OPEC oil www.fouralarm.ca Carey King, PhD TAGD 27 June 26, 2012
    28. 28. Thank You WEBBER ENERGY GROUP Center for International Energy and Environmental Policyhttp://www.jsg.utexas.edu/cieep http://www.webberenergygroup.com Carey King careyking@mail.utexas.edu

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