An Approach to Robust, No Surprises Design Verification Testing [Presentation Slides]
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An Approach to Robust, No Surprises Design Verification Testing [Presentation Slides]

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At the Battery Safety 2012, on December 6-7 in Las Vegas, Nevada, Mr. Erik Spek, Chief Engineer at TÜV SÜD Canada presented on "An Approach to Robust, No Surprises Design Verification Testing."

At the Battery Safety 2012, on December 6-7 in Las Vegas, Nevada, Mr. Erik Spek, Chief Engineer at TÜV SÜD Canada presented on "An Approach to Robust, No Surprises Design Verification Testing."

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  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation
  • 13/12/12 TÜV SÜD Corporate Presentation

An Approach to Robust, No Surprises Design Verification Testing [Presentation Slides] An Approach to Robust, No Surprises Design Verification Testing [Presentation Slides] Presentation Transcript

  • Battery Safety 2012 A New Approach to Robust, No Surprises Design Verification Testing Erik J. Spek Chief Engineer TϋV SϋD CanadaTÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 1
  • Battery Safety 2012 The end user of battery driven cars expect the same if not better than conventional cars. Is this possible? Do the normal engineering tools work?TÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 2
  • Battery Safety 2012 Background Note: The material for this presentation comes from experience with many programs to develop and launch automotive products both in the traditional automotive products and battery operated vehicles including 12 volt safety components and the Ford/ABB EcostarTÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 3
  • Battery Safety 2012 Discussion Areas: 1.Background 2.The normal DVP (Design Verification Plan) 3.The differences between normal cars and electrically driven cars 4.How do the risks of battery systems influence the DVP 5.Some ways to address the differences and examplesTÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 4
  • Confidence ??? The acid test of how well a product meets customer expectations. “Probe of GMs Volt Fires May Be Lengthy” What gives us “Nissan Electric Cars May Lose Range In Hot confidence in the Climates” product? “Tesla Motors’ Devastating Design Problem” “Consumer Reports review details flaws in Fisker Karma sports car”TÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 5
  • The Attention You Don’t Want If the product fails, as the design engineer you will receive plenty of attention $$$TÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 6
  • Expectations• The vehicles we buy, drive and maintain today are considered to be: • predictable, • reliable, • robust against abuse • and afford the occupants a measure of survivability in accidents.• Automotive product development process: • proven method to ensure end product meets customer wants and needs.TÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 7
  • Verification of Expectations• Design Verification Plan (DVP) with a variety of tests: • Shake and drop • Hot and cold • Altitude • Water showers and immersion • Corrosion • Fire exposure • Impacts • Humidity • Controls • 12 volt source • etcTÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 8
  • Guaranteed Verification ???• DVP uses the best available information on abuses that can be imposed.• Not a guarantee of no risk• Unforeseen abuse conditions may occur in 12v components leading to loss of function • Aged components • Humidity and dust • Abnormal uses • Salty air • Example: major recall on Chrysler minivan sliding door cable abrasion & short circuitTÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 9
  • Consequences of Failed DVP• DVP may take multiple passes-usually do!• Methods and equipment are well established• Costs are known and managed• Timelines are weeks to months after parts made• Product level is usually ‘cut and weld’• Program managers are trained to ‘make it happen’ ON TIME and ON BUDGET through: • Extraordinary measures as needed • War room approach • More budget if needed• VEHICLE LAUNCHES MUST HAPPEN ON TIMETÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 10
  • Are Electric Vehicle Batteries Different? • High voltage – hundreds of volts • Dangerous power levels • High level of stored energy – for extended power delivery • Common implied expectation is ‘batteries not as hazardous as gasoline’ • Even 12 volt batteries can burn • An invitation to product liability lawyers • Noxious fumes • Electric shock • Survivable vs unsurvivable accidents • Product liabilityTÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 11
  • How Does This Affect The DVP? • 4 levels of product involved: • individual cells, • 10s of cells in modules, • 10s of modules in a pack, • pack in a vehicle • Each level contributes to overall robustness verified by DVP tests • The final product (pack) is the last line of defense against abuse. • Pack subjected to variety of tests: • Mechanical • Electrical • Thermal • Each level has risks NOT NORMALLY FOUND IN USUAL AUTOMOTIVE PARTSTÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 12
  • DVP Surprises • The aim of the DVP is: • Successful outcome of tests • No damage or injury to people, equipment and facility • NO SURPRISES • DVP is hard enough and costly without surprises • What surprises can occur: • Accidents in testing • Known defects in product heading into testing compromising outcome • Incorrect design level of component • Unpredictable outcome • SHOW STOPPERS …. Slows or stops the programTÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 13
  • Risk of getting it wrong Everything is great until an electric car is in an accident or fire ……………… then: Product Liability Lawyers circling looking for: • Incomplete documentation • Holes in the DVP test plan • Stranded tests – exposed risks • Evidence of haphazard approach • Unnecessary and or misleading data • Accidents during testing • Uncontrolled approach • Lack of engineering disciplineTÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 14
  • The Unavoidable • Batteries including cells and modules are always on – inside • Laws of physics and chemistry are always present • Mechanical parts will break • Liquids will leak • Current carrying parts will overheat • Plastic parts will become hot and soften • Tests will cause failures • Incorrect parts will be made and usedTÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 15
  • Know the Risks • Accepted risks for any 3rd party test house or inside test lab • Electric shock: • Current path to touchable surfaces • Can happen at any time during testing or use • Hundreds of volts (safe handling level is < 60Vdc) • Dangerous gases and fumes (HF, soot, etc • Fire • Explosion • Combinations of different tests introduce compound hazards • Shake and bake and cycleTÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 16
  • Exploratory vs Confirmatory Testing • DVP is not an R&D exercise or taking unnecessary risks • DVP should report confirmation of a successful verification test • If the outcome of the test is in doubt or has not been tried: • Do the R&D work first as EXPLORATORY • Stage the work: • Simplest level first –controlled and unpowered • Apply power from a controlled source • Repeat with battery cells installedTÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 17
  • Survivable vs Unsurvivable Accidents • Abuse tests may not show latent defects unless careful post test analyses are conducted • Semi-broken or fatigued bus high voltage components • Effect of a lifetime of dust, humidity leading to isolation degradation in ohmic value • Increased hazard from aged cells • Unsurvivable accident: clear catastrophic result • Survivable accident: occupants pinned waiting for extraction only to be hurt by a battery hazard • Subject to possible product liability actionTÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 18
  • Example: Water Immersion • Some vessels can tolerate a bit of salty water on board • Keeping the ship afloat can be achieved by bailing and bilge pumps • Ship electrical bus systems can tolerate the presence of conductive water • BATTERIES ARE DIFFERENT-NO WATER ALLOWED!!!!!TÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 19
  • Example: Water Immersion • Test: immerse pack in 5% salt water solution or salt fog – some call fro hot pack into ice cold water • Objective: determine consequence if water leaks into pack • Consequence: conductive water in high voltage pack: • Uncontrolled dissociation • Cl2 and H2 – both dangerous • Pack leaks= high risk & SURPRISE • Solution: verify pack leak worthiness • Staged approach: • 1-EXPLORATORY: No cells • 2-EXPLORATORY: Cycler powering high voltage bus • 3-CONFIRMATORY: complete pack testTÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 20
  • Example: Vibration & Shock • Test: vibrate packs and shock to known profiles • Objective: primarily verify no parts become loose, fatigued or broken • Consequence on failure: • High voltage bus compromised immediately or later • Pack leaks= high risk & SURPRISE • Solution: verify pack hardware structural integrity • Staged approach: • 1-EXPLORATORY: dummy cells • 2-EXPLORATORY: cycler powering high voltage bus • 3-CONFIRMATORY: complete pack testTÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 21
  • Example: Fire Resistance • Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) carry gasoline on board • Substantial batteries also on board • A fuel fire is a possible event • Test: subject pack to fuel fire • Objective: verify response to external fire • Consequence of failure: • Aggravated risk of fire or explosion • Solution: verify pack fire resistance • Staged approach: • 1-EXPLORATORY: dummy cells • 2-EXPLORATORY: pack with active module • 3-CONFIRMATORY: complete pack testTÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Battery Safety 2012 Slide 22
  • Appropriate Facilities Be Able to Contain Reactions up to Explosions (EUCAR 7)TÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Slide 23
  • Closing DVPs for Battery Operating Cars: 1.Show only confirmation of tests for records 2.Keep exploratory tests as pre-DVP 3.Ensure that the tests in the DVP encompass all reasonable abuse that could be encountered 4.Use a staged approach in R&D stage to build success in hazardous testsTÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Slide 24
  • Thank You !TÜV SÜD 13/12/12 Slide 25