Zranitelnost čipových platebních karet jako příklad on-line hrozby - Tomáš Rosa (bezpečnostní specialista, Raiffeisenbank)
On the „Chip & PIN Broken“ Attack
Experience Gained in Raiffeisenbank
April 14th 2010, Prague
In February 11th 2010, Steven J. Murdoch (a member
of the prof. Anderson’s team at Cambridge) published a
draft of his paper “Chip and PIN is Broken” .
The paper shows on how to make a PIN-based
transaction with the chip payment card without knowing
the correct value of the PIN at all.
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The objective of the attack is the EMV protocol implementation,
mainly in the Point of Sale (POS) terminals.
It is a Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack assuming the attacker
is controlling the ISO 7816 communication in between the
terminal device (e.g. the POS) and the chip payment card.
Actually, it focuses on certain risky part of the EMV protocol which is
likely to be implemented in a wrong way.
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ISO 7816 in EMV
There is a weak protection of the ISO 7816 interface in
between the payment card and the terminal (e.g. the
Only certain parts of certain APDU messages are
The attacker can spy/modify/insert messages in this channel
relatively easily, provided she has a suitable HW equipment
allowing her to play the role of MITM.
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The VERIFY(PIN) Command
This is the EMV core command used for off-line PIN
The terminal (e.g. the POS) provides a PIN value to the
chip card. The card returns OK/FAIL message basing on
whether the value presented is correct or not.
The PIN value being sent to the card can be encrypted
(DDA/CDA type cards), but the card response is neither
encrypted nor integrity protected.
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Attack Core Illustration of 
In the best faith taken from .
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What the terminal could do, is to cross-verify the VERIFY(PIN)
result with the value of the usually available CVR (Card
CVR is a cryptographically protected vector which the card (usually)
returns in response to the GENERATE AC command.
Among others, CVR recaps whether the card “saw” the PIN and
whether it was correct or not.
Well, generally, the CVR can be missing or even not protected by AC.
This (rare) case, is NOT a reason of omitting the cross-check in
Unfortunately, this obvious(!) workaround is probably seldom
implemented in practice.
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The attack can be used whenever off-line PIN
It is necessary to distinguish in between the off-line PIN
verification and off-line transaction authorization.
Regarding POS terminal, even on-line authorized
transactions often rely on the PIN being verified off-line!
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The attack typically applies to:
POS terminal with either off-line as well as on-line authorization.
The attack typically does not apply to:
ATM terminal, since it often performs on-line PIN verification.
CAP/DPA, since it relies on explicit CVR cross-check.
Anyway, the particular situations must be verified case-by-case.
The indication is the off-line PIN verification (not to be confused with
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MITM Device – eKit
To verify the attack, we first needed to get a device allowing
MITM scenario attack for the ISO 7816 interface card protocol.
Commercially available laboratory devices cost thousands of Euros.
Academic devices assume cooperation of several students during their
Since our budget and time is very limited, we decided to build
our own (limited) device.
It is a „less than100 EUR/less than 2 weeks“ breadboard construction
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The main parts of the eKit are:
HW Rx/Tx core module
Redirects the ISO 7816 communication flow through the PC
connected via two full speed USB ports.
One USB port serves the terminal side, the other one serves the
payment chip card.
PC running Win32 API console application written in C++
Monitors the communication and performs the MITM (Man-in-the-
Middle) action when trigger condition occurs.
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eKit - Rx/Tx Core Module
The HW core module consists of:
I/O line amplifiers/decouplers for a smooth attachment to the
communication traffic with analog bypass multiplexer (to allow monitoring
in a purely passive way),
bus conversion logic in between the single-wire protocol of ISO 7816
and Rx/Tx serial line,
programmable USB interface based on FT232R providing, among others,
excellent etu timing accuracy due to its rational clock divider,
fast ATR reply circuit based on the FT232R natural handshake
procedures; it allows us to e.g. disable boosting the communication
speed over 14 kbps.
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The MITM C++ Application
Implements the original attack of  with just a few
These are necessary, mostly since we are operating on the
link rather than the application layer of the ISO 7816
We have to solve, for instance, resynchronization of T=1 protocol
packet stream, etc.
Another extension is the GET DATA(9F17) forgery described
bellow in the part discussing the off-line PIN verification being
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eKit in Action During the Test
inverse card connector eKit HW core board
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Note on Miniaturization of eKit
At first, miniaturization was not a design criterion.
Actually, there is no such requirement regarding cooperation with a
collusive merchant at all.
Regarding placing a fraudulent transaction in a common place,
the whole setup can be redesigned to fit into an adult palm
Instead of PC, the MITM role will be played by a single chip
microcontroller. The AT91SAM7Sx family of ARMs seems to be the right
choice, since, among others, they provide the rational clock divider
necessary for the smooth adoption to the frequency dictated by the
POS terminal. Of course, there is also a reliable GNU development tool
chain for them.
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eKit Micro Edition Preview
pure contact fields with the
former chip stripped off
hidden – thin enameled wire
original payment chip driven by a
microcontroller (mounted bellow the
SIM clips) interfaced to the hidden
This is just a foto preview, not a real device! Yet…
However, this kind of device should be achievable rather easily.
It should be much easier than building an ATM/POS skimming device.
The original payment chip card is prepared in the GSM SIM-style and then housed
in the standard SIM connector. This can be done in just a few seconds.
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RBCZ Internal Penetration Tests
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The tests we are referring to in the next slides were done more
than one month ago.
Since that time, the banks in CZ have been informed and
started preparing their internal countermeasures accordingly.
Although these cannot be derived directly from the EMV standard, there
already are several possibilities on how to detect/stop this attack even
at the issuer’s side.
Therefore, it is reasonable to expect the attack is not such an
acute threat in the time of reading these slides.
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Test Results of RBCZ
Since March 10th 2010, we have used the eKit to test several
real-life payment card systems.
We have tried to make a fraudulent transaction using certain
POS terminal with several different chip payment cards issued by
banks in CZ, SK, and AT.
We have always used a faked incorrect value of PIN “1234”.
Except one card, all these transactions were 100 percent
The exceptional card (MC/Maestro) had some countermeasure applied
on the issuer’s side.
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Example: POS Terminal Bills
merchant’s bill customer’s bill
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SDA vs. DDA Scheme
In general, DDA scheme should offer higher protection than SDA
DDA stands for Dynamic Data Authentication
SDA stands for Static Data Authentication
However, in this case, DDA does not prevent this attack in any
Recall that the PIN being sent to the card is encrypted in DDA, but
the response of the card is still NOT protected in any way.
We have already made fraudulent transactions with DDA cards without
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Note on CDA
CDA stands for Combined DDA and Application Cryptogram
It offers even higher protection than DDA. It, for instance, allows
the terminal to check the integrity of CVR locally without online
cooperation with the issuer.
Regarding this attack, however, it still does not introduce any
direct implicit countermeasure.
Therefore, the attack still applies, provided the terminal developer failed
to foresee the attack and apply the CVR cross-check accordingly.
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The Case of Off-line PIN Blocked I
During ongoing tests, we have also met a payment
cards with PIN Try Counter set to 0.
This actually means, that off-line PIN verification was blocked.
Note it seems to be the only “legal” way on how to block
offline PIN, since for a majority of cards the associations
require offline PIN to be in the CVM list.
We have been informed, that the cards:
support the PIN-change functionality,
are working correctly in POS transactions.
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The Case of Off-line PIN Blocked II
We have tried the following: We extended the former
MITM attack to forge the value of the PIN Try Counter,
In particular, we have also faked the reply to the GET
We pretended PIN Try Counter = 3 to the POS.
Under such an extension, we were able to make a
successful fraudulent transaction again!
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Further Attack Extensions
The weak protection of the ISO 7816 communication in
between the terminal and the chip payment card can
have much broader impact on security in the future.
For instance, a vulnerability similar to the VERIFY(PIN)
command case can be also observed in the EXTERNAL
This can, in theory, allow an attacker to break the issuer
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Final Remarks I
Is it an attack on the whole EMV protocol?
Well, the missing protection of VERIFY(PIN) is such obvious, so it
can hardly be assumed as a surprising, yet undetected vulnerability.
On the other hand, the EMV standard documentation is horrible reading.
It often leaves a notion that “this and that is for sure solved
somewhere else in the standard” while giving absolutely no idea of how
exactly those things work.
In this viewpoint, it is an attack on the whole EMV, since EMV failed
to provide clear and concise description of the card management and
operation processes resulting e.g. into omitting cross-checks of the
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Final Remarks II
We emphasize that even the contactless smartcards
according to ISO 14443 rely on the same ISO 7816
It is, therefore, an interesting open question on how far
does the weak APDU protection affect the security of
emerging RFID payment cards.
Obviously, the relevant protocol procedures need to be
checked very carefully…
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The “Chip & PIN Broken” attack is there and it is highly
Despite many “experts” not understanding it and the payment card
associations even downplaying it.
It must be taken as seriously as e.g. the skimming attacks.
We have verified the attack can be mounted with a moderate skills in
electrical engineering. The effort is much less than what can be
estimated basing on the rather complex setup used by the researchers
We have successfully extended the attack for certain “off-line PIN
We warn about the EXTERNAL AUTHENTICATE command.
We argue to check the RFID payment cards as well.
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Dr. Tomáš Rosa
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Tomáš Hajm, Card Operations of RBCZ
Tomáš Jabůrek, Head of IT Delivery and Support of RBCZ
Radek Komanický, Head of Information Security of RBCZ
Petr Novák, Card Operations of RBCZ
Ondřej Pokorný, Security Department of RBCZ
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1. EMV Integrated Circuit Card Specification for Payment Systems, Book 1 – Application Independent ICC to
Terminal Interface Requirements, version 4.1, May 2004
2. EMV Integrated Circuit Card Specification for Payment Systems, Book 2 – Security and Key Management,
version 4.1, May 2004
3. EMV Integrated Circuit Card Specification for Payment Systems, Book 3 – Application Specification, version 4.1,
4. EMV Integrated Circuit Card Specification for Payment Systems, Book 4 – Cardholder, Attendant, and Acquirer
Interface Requirements, version 4.1, May 2004
5. Murdoch S.-J., Drimer, S., Anderson, R., and Bond, M.: Chip and PIN is Broken, to appear at the 2010
IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, draft available at
6. Detecting Potential Fraud, VISA Member Letter VE 13/10, March 9th 2010
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