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Slides Sustainable Urban Environments
 

Slides Sustainable Urban Environments

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The newly released book Sustainable Urban Environments - An Ecosystem Approach ‘helps the reader grasp opportunities for integration of knowledge and technologies in the design, construction and ...

The newly released book Sustainable Urban Environments - An Ecosystem Approach ‘helps the reader grasp opportunities for integration of knowledge and technologies in the design, construction and management of the built environment.’ In the first edition of the Delft Environment Initiative Lecture Series on 21-09-2011 several contributors to Sustainable Urban Environments discussed their views on the most pressing challenges facing us in the urban environment today and how they should be integrated in education. These are the slides accompanying the ‘elevator pitches’ they gave. http://home.tudelft.nl/en/research/environment/mini-symposium-sustainable-urban-environments/

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  • Make use of local opportunitiesSignificantly reduce resource flows (and reuse)Look for synergies, also in connection with agricultureIn collaboration with people living in the area and actors (public and private) deciding on the area
  • Built environment requires bulk amounts of material. A large chain of problems is affected by such demand during its life cycle such as transport, land use, biodiversity, toxicity, material scarcity
  • Through Urban Metabolism Models, building materials is on the top relevant material flows in every urbanized area together with energy, water and food items.
  • The bigger art of the Randstad consists of the Dutch lowlands are below seal level, excepting the natural rivers. But why are the Dutch lowlands so low. The following slides will give you explanation.
  • The bigger art of the Randstad consists of the Dutch lowlands are below seal level, excepting the natural rivers. But why are the Dutch lowlands so low. The following slides will give you explanation.

Slides Sustainable Urban Environments Slides Sustainable Urban Environments Presentation Transcript

  • September 21, 2011
    1
    Lokatie/evenement
    Naam auteur
    Vermelding onderdeel organisatie
  • September 21, 2011
    2
    Cities as ecosystems
    Source: Girardet, 1990
  • Optimizing flows in a building
    September 21, 2011
    3
    Source: Wortmann and Kruseman, 2005
  • Optimizing urban form
    September 21, 2011
    4
    Source: Marc Ottele
    Source: Heat Island Group
  • Relationships between sub-systems: look for synergies
    September 21, 2011
    5
    Source: Tjallingii, 1996
  • Peopleare part of urban systems
    September 21, 2011
    6
    Source: Machiel van Dorst
    Source: WBCSD, 2007
  • Conclusions / outlook
    September 21, 2011
    7
    Source: Arjan van Timmeren
  • Chapter 2(Eco)system thinking: ecologicalprinciplesfor buildings, roads, industrialandurbanareas
    Hein van Bohemen
    Former lecturer Ecological Engineering
    At present: EcoEngineeringConsultancy
  • Passion for Ecoengineering
    Integration of civil and ecological engineering (example roads in the landscape, green roofs and green façades)
    Based on EcoSystemThinking (inspiration: H.T.Odum, William Mitsch and John Todd)
    Realization of Value for humans as well as for nature
  • EcoSystemThinking
    Representation of a simple system
    Humanity is based on ecosystem goods and ecosystem services
  • Different levels of scale
    A road on different levels of scale
    Representation of flows of materials on different levels of scale
  • Example of Integration: solar panels on a green roof
  • Challenge: Realizationof full integration of as many aspects (env., ecol., econ. ,social, cultural) as possible on all levels of scalesbased on symbioticrelationshipbetween humans andtheirnatural environment
  • Chapter 3Urban ecology, scale and identity
    Prof.dr.ir. Taeke M. De Jong
    motivation:
    ‘Architecture is a kind of ecology, design is differentiation’
  • Differentiation is a risk cover for life
    The number of plant species per km2 in Zoetermeer is related to its physical diversity
    The more physicaldiversity, the more species willfind a fitting place
  • Judging ecological quality
  • Quality(diversity) and a scale paradox
    Scale-paradox
  • Identity is difference with the rest and continuity in itself
    What is the difference with other regions? (30km radius)
    What is the difference with other conurbations? (10km)
    What is the difference with other townships? (3km)
    What is the difference with other districts? (1km)
    What is the difference with other neighbourhoods? (300m)
    What is the difference with other ensembles? (100m)
    Anyone looking for a location will ask such questions,
    Designers have to answer them.
  • Built environment Chapter 6
    Sustainable Urban Metabolism_ Towards use of resources design strategies and constructive solutions Loriane M. Icibaci PhD research
    Roughly 75% of waste is land filled
    Average within the European Union 25% of the waste is recycled (however, Denmark, the Netherlands and Belgium already achieved recycling rates of more than 80%).
    Building industry is one of the largest consumers of natural resources_average40% (Kibert 2002).
    Most of the considered dangerous waste is not always separated from other forms of waste and thus contaminate land fills or recycled inert wastes (European Commission 2000).
    Nearly three tons used annually for each person on the planet. (WBCSD 2002)
    Cement industry contributes to about 5% to global anthropogenic CO2emissions_____50% is from the chemical process_______40% from burning fuel ______10% electricity and transport (WBCSD 2002; (Worrell et al. 2001).
    Cement manufacturing requires mainly mineral extraction from quarries
    (besides water and energy for its production).
  • Dutch building LCA
    Sustainable Urban Metabolism_ Towards use of resources design strategies and constructive solutions Loriane M. Icibaci PhD research
    Level of building decree (EBI 200)
    High Tech building (EBI 500)
    Energy Neutral building (EBI 1000)
    A building considered to be sustainable according to
    Dutch regulations in 2010 [equivalent to an Environmental Building Index (EBI).
    A building in which high-tech
    methods have been used to radically reduce energy consumption (equivalent to an EBI of 500).
    An energy-neutral building (equivalent to an EBI
    of 1,000) which has no environmental impact in terms of energy.
    Haas 2009
  • Urban Metabolism_ studies illuminate basic trends in human energy and material fluxes.
    Sustainable Urban Metabolism_ Towards use of resources design strategies and constructive solutions Loriane M. Icibaci PhD research
    Decker et al. (2000)
    More self reliant
    By mapping flows of materials it is possible to propose closed loop solutions leading to less input/ and less output leading to more efficient and therefore a more self sufficient urban structure.
    Integrated solutions
    Combining flows of materials with different coefficients and indicators of a city-region requires consideration of the complex interactions between economic, environmental, and social factors.
    Support for future prognostics
    Caring capacity estimated through time line; avoiding exhaustion of materials and consequent region decay.
    Detects consumer, households, industrial and commercial behavior and consequences.
    Intra and interrelationships among other regions (resource dependency or waste dependency).
    Pollution prevention (from cars or industrial activities, etc.)
    Food and water security.
    Diagnosis
    As a living organism, it is assumed that by using UMM it is possible to detect pathologic cycles, environmental, and even economic.
  • Understanding available resources
    Sustainable Urban Metabolism_ Towards use of resources design strategies and constructive solutions Loriane M. Icibaci PhD research
    Mapping and ACCOUNTING
    DOCOMOMO
    Bologna, 1969. Urban conservation Plan. Building typologies.
    Coal waste
    2009 in Solving Global Warming
    www.switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/rperks/
    where_for_art_thou_coal_ash.html
    World Resource Institute_ GHG Emissions
  • Designingas baking a cake?
    Sustainable Urban Metabolism_ Towards use of resources design strategies and constructive solutions Loriane M. Icibaci PhD research
    Substituting or innovating?
    2012 Building façade
  • Dynamic balance
    Sustainable Urban Metabolism_ Towards use of resources design strategies and constructive solutions Loriane M. Icibaci PhD research
  • Waterflows and Urban PlanningSybrand Tjallingii
  • water flows / systems
  • guiding principles
    rainwater:from down the drain to first retain
    groundwater:from pumping to careful use and recharge
    river waters:from taming the stream to space for the river
    drinking water:from shortage and wastage to sufficient and efficient
    waste water:from problem solving to pollution prevention
  • guiding models
    region
    urban
    building
  • NATURE RESI- DENTIAL
    TRANSPORT PRO-DUCTION
    synergy
    GUIDING
    EXPLOITING
    carrying structures
    activities
  • TRANSPORT PRO-DUCTION
    GUIDING
    EXPLOITING
  • Chapter 5: Energy in the built environment
    Laure Itard,
    Research Institute OTB
    Delft University of Technology
  • Start EPC regulations
    Energy use in dwellings
    Gas consumption per m2 area (2004/2005)
    Construction year
  • Understanding the system
    • Comfort & Health
    • Building design
    • Building physics
    • Heat transfer
    • Ventilation & air movements
    • HVAC systems
    • Sustainable Energy generation
    Pollutants
  • DO YOU WANT TO KNOW WHY:
    • Your house will use more gas if you use energy-saving light bulbs?
    • Using large window areas on the North Façade may save a lot of energy?
    • Using a high efficiency condensing boiler is non-sense?
    Then read
    Chapter 5: Energy in the built environment
  • Urban transport and sustainability
    Bert Van Wee – DUT
    Perspective: transport is fantastic, but comes at high costs. What is ‘good’ policy? Difficult, but very challenging and important question
  •  
  • Achieved:
    • Much safer
    • Better air quality
    • Better control of traffic flows
    • More comfort
    • Maintaining strong position of bicycle
  • Challenges:
    • CO2
    • Dependence on fossil fuels
    • Noise
    • Accessibility
    • Acceptance of ‘unpopular policy measures’ (pricing, less parking, paid parking everywhere, car free zones, ISA, ..)
  • Chapter 7: Air quality and human health
    Arjen Meijer
    Background: Environmental Scientist (Nijmegen University)
    Researcher on Sustainable and Healthy Housing
    OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment
    Department of Housing Quality
  • Highlights
    Indoor and outdoor air pollutants
    Chemical pollutants
    Biological pollutants
    Other indoor environmental aspects
    Thermal comfort
    Noise
    Lighting
  • Outdoor air quality
    Shift in attention towards issues
    Past
    Acid rain
    (acidification)
    Ozone layer
    depletion
    Present
    Euthrophication
    Particulate
    matter
    CO2 emissions
    (climate change)
  • Indoor air quality
    Contradiction?
    Energy saving
    Good indoor
    air quality
  • Indoor environment
    More than indoor air quality
    Thermal
    comfort
    Low noise
    levels
    It is not only costs, not only the planet, not only personal comfort
    Integrated approach
    ?
    ?
    ?
    ?
    Energy
    saving
    Indoor air
    quality
    Indoor air
    quality
  • Chapter 10
    Sustainable Urban Form
    Sustainable Urban Environments
    An Ecosystem Approach
    Jody Milder
  • The world is urbanizing
    More than half of the world’s populations now lives in cities
  • Urban form types
  • Compact cities
  • People are the key
  • Chapter 11: Environmental strategies & tools for integrated environmental design
    Laure Itard,
    Research Institute OTB
    Delft University of Technology
  • (Eco) system approach
  • Environmental impact when producting 1 MJ heat
  • Environmental impacts electricity production
    • There is more than CO2
    • Strategies are needed… but are not enough to built sustainable buildings
    • Up-cycling costs material & energy
    Chapter 11: Environmental strategies & tools for integrated design
  • Chapter 13 Governance ToolsLorraine Murphy
    MSc Environmental Science
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
    Is Dublin a City Moving Towards Sustainable Development?
    PhD Candidate
    OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment
    ‘Energy performance’ policy instruments for existing dwellings
  • Chapter Overview
    Government to governance
    International –Supranational-National-Local
    Tools with examples:
    Tools and ecosystem thinking
  • Some Achievements………..
    Covenants/Agreements
    Economic Tools
    Communication
    Regulation
  • Some challenges……..
    Compliance & enforcement
    Monitoring
    & evaluating
  • Chapter 14 Managing ChangeAnke van Hal & Ellen van Bueren
  • How to get multiple actors to agree on a common direction?
  • Variety of approaches – all needed
    New forms of collaboration & contracting
    Involve end-users
    Identify business opportunities
    Stimulate, diffuse & learn from innovation
  • Sustainable Urban EnvironmentsAn Ecosystem ApproachChapter 15Conclusions / Integrated Design
    September 21, 2011
    64
    Dutch Green Building Week, TU Delft, 22. September 2011
    Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze
  • Pulling together all chapters
    September 21, 2011
    65
    • Drawing conclusions
    • Discussion of future perspectives based on recent research results (integrated design)
    • Ecosystem thinking                        
    • Urban ecology  
    • Water                                                    
    • Energy                                                 
    • Materials/resources                    
    • Air quality and human health     
    • Liveability                                           
    • Urban transport                               
    • Governance                                 
    • Managing change                           
    Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze
  • September 21, 2011
    66
    Perspectives – Achievements
    • Sustainable development is feasible now!
    • Enough know-how & resources for total change
    • Coverage of energy demand with 100% renewable is technically and economically feasible until 2050
    • C02 & Hydrogen can replace oil based production
                       
    Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze
  • September 21, 2011
    67
    Perspectives – Challenges
    • We can’t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them (Einstein)
    • Paradigm shift: support by companies, politics & society
    • Limited non renewable resource stock – requires 3R! 
    • Strategic resources require political stability and global cooperation                      
    Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze
  • 68
    Zero M - Model
    local closed loop recycling economy                      
    Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze
  • September 21, 2011
    69
    Thank you very much for your attention!
    [Vincent Callebaut]
    Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze