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Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309
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Css classes 19 22 - developing compatible supportive design 120309

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Lessons 19-22 for Grad Course on CSS (from UTCM Report #08-14-03 "Making Mobility Improvements a Community Asset: Transportation Improvements Using Context-Sensitive Solutions")

Lessons 19-22 for Grad Course on CSS (from UTCM Report #08-14-03 "Making Mobility Improvements a Community Asset: Transportation Improvements Using Context-Sensitive Solutions")

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  • Insert ITE CSS cross-section sketch
  • Location: S.F. peninsula - El Camino Real @ Los Robles – EXISTING CONDITIONS
  • Transcript

    • 1. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationClasses 19-22 Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignUsing CSS to Develop Compatible Supportive Designs 1
    • 2. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationGoal: Excellence Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignExcellent transportation design• Satisfies stakeholder purpose, needs, and vision – Established early – Refined as process advances• Safe for users and community• Harmonious with community• Supports other community objectives• Preserves environmental values and resources 2
    • 3. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationProcess (Review) Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design Project development process • Determine context – Existing conditions •Physical – Roadway, transitway, pathway – Roadside, streetside, wayside – Adjacent development » Context zones » Land use site design » External factors •Activity – Transportation facility – Roadside, streetside, wayside – Adjacent land, buildings 3
    • 4. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationProcess (Review) Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignProject development process (cont.)• Determine context (cont.) – Environment (relevant) • Physical • Social – Planed changes – External factors CS3 – context sensitive sustainable solutions (Oregon DOT version) 4
    • 5. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationProcess (Review) Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignProject development process (cont.)• Identify issues, opportunities, constraints, threats, strengths, weaknesses – Issues – concerns, problems, questions, uncertainties – Opportunities – what could occur (physical, operational, policy, transportation, development, economic, etc.) – Constraints – limitations on opportunities – Threats – negative factors or prospects – Strengths – positive attributes on which to build – Weaknesses – shortcomings to strengthen 5
    • 6. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationProcess (Review) Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignProject development process (cont.)• Identfy goals, objectives, core values – Desired outcomes – Core values •Goals (general statements) •Aesthetics – Mobility and access •Safety – Economic development •Character – Land development – Activity •Etc. – Other •Objectives – More detailed statements 6
    • 7. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationProcess (Review) Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignProject development process (cont.)• Select criteria for evaluation, prioritization – Base on •Objectives •Mobility •Issues •Socio-econimic •Opportunities •Environmental •Concerns •Cost-effectiveness •Environmental impacts •Other 7
    • 8. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationProcess (Review) Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignProject development process (cont.)• Vision – Outcome from goals •Functional •Appearance •Resulting conditions 8
    • 9. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationProject Development Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignDevelop alternatives• Range• Design criteria• Approach• Flexibility• Components 9
    • 10. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationProject Development Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design Develop alternatives • Range in magnitude – “No build” •May include improvements elsewhere in system – Operational (TSM) improvements – Minor – Full “build” • Range in type – Modal – Alignment – Type of facility – Extent of improvement – Relationship with adjacent development 10
    • 11. Context Sensitive Solutions in Transportation Project Development Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignDevelop alternatives• Design criteria – AASHTO green book (using flexibility) – AASHTO, FHWA Flexibility in Highway Design – State DOT design manual – City/county public works design manual – Local agency guidelines (incl. zoning overlays) – Modal guidelines (ITE CSS for walkable communities) • Ped – AASHTO ped guide • Bike – AASHTO bike facilities guide • Bus – TCRP 19, 33, 117 (pending TCRP D-09 • Rail – TCRP 17, 69 guide) – Landscaping 11
    • 12. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationProject Development Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignDevelop alternatives 12
    • 13. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationProject Development Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignDevelop alternatives• Components – Traveled way – Design each – Adapt per activity – Streetside, roadside, wayside – Enhance each to work – Land uses together – Sense of place • Urban design • Parks • Historic features • Social fabric • Arts and activity 13
    • 14. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDecision-Making Context Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design Caltrain improvements – S.F. peninsula line TRANSIT THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT HSR SERVICES PROJECT Alignment Alignment WHAT Land Use Services Vehicles Circulation Vehicles TOD Vehicles Operations DECISIONS? Connectivity Operations Stations Stations Services Services WHO City Councils Transit Agency JPB/CHSRA Boards DECIDES? Board of Supervisors Federal agencies CHSRA Board Boards Elected officials Federal agencies PRP Elected officials Customers Customers Customers Facilitate consider COMMUNITY Incorporate community community input Direct engagement INFLUENCE community engagement in decisions input into decisions Regional/state Statewide accountabilility accountability
    • 15. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationProject Development Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignEvaluate• One measure per objective or issue – Quantifiable (with available data) – Sensitive to changes in performance• Can be categorical or ratio• Need quantification methodology• Can work within Delphi process 15
    • 16. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationProject Development Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design Evaluate – Option: Delphi process • Combines performance and importance • One measure per criterion – Objective – Issue • Quantified in ratio scale • Criteria weighted per stakeholder input – Initial – Again after interim results 16
    • 17. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationProject Development Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design• Delphi example(or other evaluation table) 17
    • 18. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationProject Development Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignEvaluation• Converge by narrowing, refining alternatives 1. Distinct ranging alternatives Cycle 2. Workable more detailed alternatives 1.Formulate/ refine 2.Evaluate 3. (optional) Variations on final alternative(s) 3.Discuss EIS 4.Narrow 4. Preferred alternative 5. Develop preliminary design 18
    • 19. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignCommunities want• Flexibility• Compatibility with adjacent land uses• Balanced land use/transportation functions• Safe and attractive streets• Multimodal facilities• Streets that are quality public space 19
    • 20. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationFDOT TDLC Roads* Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design*Transportation design for livable communitiesExamples of flexible DOT design criteriaMinimum lane widths 20
    • 21. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationFDOT TDLC roads Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignTechniques tosupport non-drivemodes 21
    • 22. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design Tenets of CSS • Balance – Safety – Mobility – Community objectives – Environment • Multimodal • Involve public, stakeholders • Interdisciplinary teams • Flexibility in design • Incorporate aesthetics 22
    • 23. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignPlacemaking• Community-based approach to the development and revitalization of cities and neighborhoods• Placemaking: – Unique places with lasting value – Compact, mixed-use – Pedestrian and transit oriented – Strong civic character – Contributes to economic development 23
    • 24. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignITE framework• Context zones: – Suburbs to downtowns• Street classification: – Functional class – Thoroughfare type •Boulevard •Avenue •Street• Compatibility 24
    • 25. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design Context Zones – An Organizing System for Thoroughfare Design Graphic source: Duany Plater-Zyberk and Company Source: Duany Plater-Zyberk and Company Source: Context Sensitive Solutions in Designing Major Urban Thoroughfares for Walkable Communities
    • 26. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignFeatures that create context• Land use – Defines urban activity – Major factor in design criteria• Site design – Arrangement of buildings, circulation, parking and landscape – Vehicle or pedestrian-orientation• Building design – Height, massing shape context – Create enclosure/pedestrian interest 26
    • 27. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignLand use influence• Major factor in thoroughfare design• Influences: •Travel demand •Activity in roadside •Width of roadside •On-street parking •Target speed •Freight and transit 27
    • 28. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignSite design Feature Auto Oriented Pedestrian Oriented Building – Set well back into – Oriented to, and adjacent to Orientation and private property street Setback – Oriented to parking or – Direct pedestrian entrance landscape on street – Integrated with street using stoops, arcades, cafes Parking Type and – Surface lot between – Under or behind building Orientation buildings and street access by alleys – Structured – On-street Block Length - Large blocks, often with - Short blocks no public throughway - High connected network - Superblocks 28
    • 29. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignBuilding design• Significant contributor to context defined by: – Height and thoroughfare enclosure – Width – Scale and variety – Entries 29
    • 30. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignStreet enclosure• Building height to thoroughfare width ratios: – 1:4 suburban – 1:2-1:3 urban• Pedestrians first perceive enclosure at a 1:4 ratio 30
    • 31. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignCSS tenet - thoroughfare design changes ascontext changesThe thoroughfare both responds to and contributes toshaping the context and defining the place 31
    • 32. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignThoroughfare types• Three classifications: – Boulevard – Avenue – Street• Basis for: – Physical configuration – Design criteria – Design speed 32
    • 33. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignFunctional classification in thoroughfare design• Function and role in the network – Continuity – Trip purpose and length – Level of land access – Type of freight – Types of public transit• Design controls – Design speed for sight distance – Horizontal and vertical curvature 33
    • 34. Context Sensitive Solutions in Transportation Developing Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignRelationship: functional classification and thoroughfare type 34
    • 35. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignThoroughfare type in design• Design criteria – Target speed (desirable operating speed)• Physical configuration – With surrounding context• Dimensions for: – Roadside – Traveled way – Intersections 35
    • 36. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignThoroughfare type characteristics 36
    • 37. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationFDOT TDLC Roads Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignSpeed reductiontechniques 37
    • 38. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design Boulevard • Divided arterial (4+ lanes) • Target speed (35 mph or less) • Through and local traffic • Serve longer trips • Access management • Major transit corridor • Primary freight route • Emergency response route • Limited curb parking 38
    • 39. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignBoulevard 39
    • 40. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignMulti-way boulevard• Characterized by: – Central roadway for through traffic – Parallel roadways access abutting property, parking, and pedestrian and bicycle facilities – Parallel roadways separated from the through lanes by curbed islands• Require significant right-of-way• Special treatment of intersections 40
    • 41. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignMulti-way boulevard 41
    • 42. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignAvenue• Arterial or collector (4 lanes max)• Target speed (30 to 35 mph)• Land access• Primary ped and bike route• Local transit route• Freight - local deliveries• Optional raised landscaped median• Curb parking 42
    • 43. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignStreet• Collector or local street (2 lanes)• Target speed (25 mph)• Land access primary function• Designed to: – Connect residential neighborhoods – Connect neighborhoods with commercial districts – Connect local streets to arterials• May be commercial main street• Emphasizes curb parking• Freight restricted to local deliveries 43
    • 44. Context Sensitive Solutions in Transportation Developing Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design Changing Thoroughfare & Context • Arterial Street • C-3: SuburbanSource: TJPDC, VDOT, City of Charlottesville, & Albemarle Co. CD+A, Meyer, Mohaddes, & Urban Advantage Existing Conditions
    • 45. Context Sensitive Solutions in Transportation Developing Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design Changing Thoroughfare & Context • Boulevard Thoroughfare • C-4: General UrbanSource: TJPDC, VDOT, City of Charlottesville, & Albemarle Co. CD+A, Meyer, Mohaddes, & Urban Advantage Alternative Future with Initial Network
    • 46. Context Sensitive Solutions in Transportation Developing Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design Changing Thoroughfare & Context • Avenue Thoroughfare • C-5: Urban CenterSource: TJPDC, VDOT, City of Charlottesville, & Albemarle Co. CD+A, Meyer, Mohaddes, & Urban Advantage Alternative Future with Potential “Full” Network
    • 47. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design Design controls • Speed • Design vehicle • Functional class • Location • Sight distance • Horizontal / vertical alignment • Access management • Pedestrians and bicyclists 47
    • 48. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignSpeed definitions• Target speed – Desirable operating speed in specific context – Balances •Vehicle mobility •Safe environment – Usually posted speed limit – In CSS set by context and thoroughfare type• Design speed – Governs certain geometric features – Usually set by functional classification 48
    • 49. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignDesign vs. Control Vehicle• Design Vehicle • Control Vehicle – Accommodated without – Encroachment allowed encroachment – Turns infrequently – Turns with considerable – Example: emergency frequency vehicle – High volumes in opposing lanes – Example: bus 49
    • 50. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignEmergency vehicle operations• Turning capability• Access (clear areas) – Building entrances – Hydrants – Walls• Mountable median crossings (long blocks)• Work with fire department 50
    • 51. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignCSS vs. conventional design Conventional CSS Approach Context: Urban Context: Urban Suburban Rural General Urban Urban Center Urban CoreDesign criteria based primarily Design criteria based primarilyon: on: Functional class Community objectives Design speed Thoroughfare type Travel demand forecasts Functional class Level of service objectives Adjacent land use 51
    • 52. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignSpeed and capacity of urban streets• Address capacity issues with: – Network capacity – Synchronized signal timing – Access management – Turn lanes – Other operational refinements• Address safety: – Case-by-case basis 52
    • 53. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignCSS design process 53
    • 54. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design Thoroughfare Components Roadside 54
    • 55. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignConsiderations in cross-section design • Local objectives • Stakeholder priorities • Adjacent activities • Functional class • Context zone and thoroughfare type • Modal requirements • Other conditions – Right-of-way – Traffic volumes – Vehicle mix 55
    • 56. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignStages in cross-section design1. Establish general parameters based on: – Context zone – Thoroughfare type – Select starting cross-section2. Determine number of lanes based on: – Community objectives – Thoroughfare type – Long-range transportation plan – Corridor/network capacity analysis – Maximum 6 lanes in walkable urban areas 56
    • 57. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignStages in cross-section design3. Determine design and control vehicle4. Identify transit, freight, and bicycle requirements – Establish dimensions5. Develop ideal cross-section - compare to ROW – Acquire ROW or narrow design elements, or – Widen high priority elements to match ROW – Avoid combining minimal widths 57
    • 58. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignDesigning in constrained ROW• Prioritize design elements• Develop sections – Optimal – unconstrained – Predominant – all priority elements – Functional minimum – many priority elements – Absolute minimum – highest priority only• ROW width less than absolute minimum – Acquire ROW incrementally – Change thoroughfare type 58
    • 59. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design Lane widths • Up to 35 mph: 10-12 feet • Over 35 mph: 11-12 feet • With buses: 11-12 feet • Bike lanes: 5-6 feet (4 feet outside gutter pan) • Parking: 7-8 feet 59
    • 60. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design Medians • Functions – Access management – Pedestrian refuge – Left turn lanes – Aesthetics • Widths – 4-22 feet • Landscaping – Trees (45 mph or less) • 6-10 foot medians - less than 4 inch caliper • 1½ feet lateral clearance 60
    • 61. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignTransitions• Geometric transitions (use AASHTO) – Change in thoroughfare width – Lateral shifts – Lane drops• Location: on tangent sections• Context, visual, operational, environmental transition – Speed zone transition – Visual cues • Urban design, land uses, building design, gateways, signs – Change width of thoroughfare 61
    • 62. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignExcerpt from ITE CSS guide – cross-sections 6 2
    • 63. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignStreetside design• From property line to face of curb• Accommodates street activity – Mobility – Business – Social• Public space 63
    • 64. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignUrban streetside uses• Movement of pedestrians• Access to buildings/property• Utilities/appurtenances• Transit stops• Landscaping• Urban design/public art• Sidewalk cafes• Business functions• Civic spaces (plazas, seating) 64
    • 65. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignStreetside components• Streetside zones: – Edge Zone – Furnishings Zone – Throughway Zone (ADA) – Frontage Zone• Function and dimensions vary by context zone and adjacent land use 65
    • 66. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignStreetside cross-section guidelines C-4 w/ Predominantly Commercial Ground Sidewalk Zone [1] C-6 and C-5 C-4 w/ Predominantly Residential Frontage Floor Use 1.5 feet 1.5 feet 21.5 foot (recommended) 16.5 foot (recommended) Edge 0.5 feet 19 foot (recommended) 2.5 feet at diagonal parking 2.5 feet at diagonal parking 12 foot (constrained) 12 foot (constrained) 8 feet 7 feet 7 feet Boulevard Furnishings (landscape strip w/ trees and grasses or (trees in tree wells) (trees in tree wells) groundcovers) Throughway 10 feet 8 feet 8 feet 0 feet along lawn and groundcover Frontage 3 feet 2.5 feet 1 foot along low walls, fences, and hedges 1.5 feet along facades, tall walls, and fences Edge Boulevard Without Parking 0.5 feet 18.5 foot (Recommended) 10 feet Furnishings (landscape strip w/ trees and groundcovers or THIS THOROUGHFARE TYPE NOT APPLICABLE TO THE PREDOMINANTLY low shrubs) Throughway COMMERCIAL GROUND FLOOR LAND USES FOUND IN C-4 THROUGH C-6 CONTEXT 8 feet ZONES 0 feet along lawn and groundcover Frontage 1 foot along low walls, fences, and hedges 1.5 feet along facades, tall walls, and fences 1.5 feet 1.5 feet Edge 0.5 feet 2.5 feet at diagonal parking 2.5 feet at diagonal parking 19.5 foot (recommended) 14.5 foot (recommended) 16 foot (recommended) 12.0 foot (constrained) 8 feet 12 foot (constrained) With 6 feet 6 feet (landscape strip w/ trees and grasses or Parking trees in tree wells (trees in tree wells) Furnishings groundcovers) Avenue Without 8 feet with 8 feet with 8 feet with Parking buffer landscaping buffer landscaping buffer landscaping Throughway 9 feet 6 feet 6 feet 0 feet along lawn and groundcover Frontage 3 feet 2.5 feet 1 foot along low walls, fences, and hedges 1.5 feet along facades, tall walls, and fences 1.5 feet 1.5 feet 11.5 foot (recommended) Edge 0.5 feet 16 foot (recommended) 16 foot (recommended) 12.0 foot (constrained) 2.5 feet at diagonal parking 2.5 feet at diagonal parking 12 foot (constrained) 5 feet 6 feet 6 feet Furnishings (landscape strip w/ trees and grasses or (trees in tree wells) (trees in tree wells) Street groundcovers) Throughway 6 feet 6 feet 6 feet 0 feet along lawn and groundcover Frontage 2.5 feet 6 2.5 feet 1 foot along low walls, fences, and hedges 6 1.5 feet along facades, tall walls, and fences
    • 67. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignEdge zone• Interface with traveled way• Functions – Vehicle overhang and clearance – Door opening area – Wheelchair access at transit stops• No (rural) clear zone width• Lateral clearance – 1½ ft from curb face 67
    • 68. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignFurnishings zone• Buffers pedestrians from traveled way• Functions – Street furniture, public art – Utilities (within zone) – Transit stops – Lighting – Public spaces (seating) – Business space (cafes) – Landscaping• Safe landscaping – Sight lines (CPTED) – Sight distances 68
    • 69. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignThroughway and frontage zones• Throughway zone – Clear area for pedestrian travel – ADAAG requirements – No utilities• Frontage zone – Area adjacent to property line – “Shy” distance from buildings – Business space (cafes, signs) – Landscaping – Seating – Building access 69
    • 70. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignClear zones on urban thoroughfares• Defined as an edge zone clear of fixed objects• Less consequence than rural context – Lower speeds – Parked vehicles• Often not practical in urban areas• Rural standards not used in urban walkable areas 70
    • 71. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignDriveways• Minimize in high pedestrian activity areas• Maintain sidewalk cross slope Best If necessary  71
    • 72. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignTraveled way• Central portion of thoroughfare between curbs• Provides for movement of vehicles• Interface with roadside via on-street parking 72
    • 73. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignTraveled way components• Functions, modes• Widths, ROW allocations• Through travel and turn lanes• Access management• Parking, transit stops, bike lanes• Emergency vehicle operations• Transitions• Mid-block crosswalks• Medians, pedestrian refuge islands 73
    • 74. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignLane widths• Recommended practice – Urban freeways: • 12 feet normal • 11 feet constrained – Arterials and collectors •10–11 feet on arterials and collectors • 12-feet under special circumstances – Based on: • Target speed • Design vehicle • Right-of-way • Width of adjacent parking and bicycle lanes 74
    • 75. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignMedians Recommended Median Widths on Low Speed Thoroughfares (35 mph or less)• Recommended practice Thoroughfare Type Minimum Width Recommende d Width Median for access control Arterial Boulevards and Avenues 4 ft. 6 ft. Collector Avenues and Streets Median for pedestrian refuge Arterial Boulevards and Avenues 6 ft. 8 ft. Collector Avenues and Streets Median for street trees and lighting Arterial Boulevards and Avenues 6 ft. 10 ft. Collector Avenues and Streets Median for single left-turn lane Collector Avenues and Streets 10 ft. 14 ft. Arterial Boulevards and Avenues 12 ft. 16-18 ft. Median for dual left turn lane Arterial Boulevards and Avenues 20 ft. 22 ft. 75
    • 76. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignStreet trees - Recommended practice• In medians – Min. median width • 6 feet for up to 4” caliper trees • 10 feet for larger trees – Avoid trees larger than 4” caliper • Speed > 45 mph • Or use barrier 76
    • 77. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignBicycle lanes• Recommended practice – Combined with on-street parking = 13 feet – Without on-street parking = 6 feet 77
    • 78. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignOn-street parking – recommended practice Recommended Parallel Parking Lane Widths Thoroughfare Type in C-3 through C-6 Context Zones Parallel Parking Lane Width (commercial and residential areas) Arterial Boulevard (commercial) 8 ft. Arterial Boulevard (residential) 7 ft. Parallel Parking Lane Width (residential areas) Arterial Avenue 7 ft. Collector Avenue and Street 7 ft. Parallel Parking Lane Width (commercial areas) Arterial Avenue 8 ft. Collector Avenue and Street 8 ft. 78
    • 79. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design• Mid-block crosswalks - Recommended practice – Locate so crossings are 200-300 feet apart – Significant pedestrian demand – Criteria • 12,000 ADT or less • 15,000 ADT with median refuge • Speed less than 40 mph • Adequate sight distance 79
    • 80. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignUrban intersections• General principles – Minimize conflicts between modes – Minimize pedestrian exposure – Provide crosswalks on all approaches – Minimize curb radii consistent with design/control vehicle – Ensure good visibility – Balance vehicle LOS with pedestrian convenience and safety 80
    • 81. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design• Urban intersections - Design elements – Through and turning lanes – Intersection sight distance – Medians – Curb return radii – Design vehicle – Channelized right turns – Modern roundabouts – Crosswalks and refuges – Curb extensions – Bicycle lane treatment – Bus stops – Traffic signals 81
    • 82. Context Sensitive Solutions in Transportation Developing Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design Urban intersections • Avoid large undefined open spacesSource: City of Palo Alto CD+A, FPA, and Urban Advantage 82
    • 83. Context Sensitive Solutions in Transportation Developing Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design Urban intersections - Creating opportunities to improve contextSource: City of Palo Alto CD+A, FPA, and Urban Advantage 83
    • 84. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignIntersections – simplify for all modes 84
    • 85. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design• Intersections – Curb return radius - recommended practice – Consider • Design vehicle • Effective width • Curb return radii – Minimum radius = 5 feet – Use 10-15 feet radius • High ped volumes • Low turning volumes and speed • Bike/parking lanes create higher effective radii 85
    • 86. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationFDOT TDLC Roads Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignCurb extension and effective corner radius 86
    • 87. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignCurb extensions• Improve visibility• Reduce crossing width• On streets with parking• Recommended practice – Extend curb line 1 ft. less than parking width – Curb return radius for control vehicle – Use with bus stops to increase waiting area 87
    • 88. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignChannelized right turns - recommended practice• Generally discouraged in walkable environments• Signalized intersections with heavy right turns• Low pedestrian volumes• Where pedestrian volumes high – eliminate or install pedestrian signal• Low-angle turn• Clear visibility• Illumination 88
    • 89. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignRoundabouts - recommended practice Minimum Urban Urban Urban “Mini- Compact Single-Lane Double-Lane Parameter Roundabout” Roundabout Roundabout Roundabout Maximum Entry Speed (mph) 15 15 20 25 Bus and WB-67 with Bus and Single-unit lane Design Vehicle Single-Unit WB-50 truck drive encroachment Truck over apron on truck apron Inscribed circle diameter (feet) 45 to 80 80 to 100 100 to 130 150 to 180 Maximum number of entering 1 1 1 2 lanes Typical capacity (vehicles per day entering from all 10,000 15,000 20,000 40,000 approaches) Applicability by Thoroughfare Type: Not Not Not Boulevard Applicable Applicable Applicable Applicable Not Not Arterial Avenue Applicable Applicable Applicable Applicable Not Collector Avenue Applicable Applicable Not Applicable Applicable Street Applicable Applicable Applicable Not Applicable 89
    • 90. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design 9 0
    • 91. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDeveloping Designs Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignRoundabouts 91
    • 92. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDesign Exceptions Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignDesign exceptions – 13 controlling criteria – Design/target speed • Vertical alignment – Lane width • Grade – Shoulder width • Stopping sight distance – Bridge width • Vertical clearance – Horizontal alignment • Horizontal clearance – Superelevation • Structural capacity – Cross slope• Needed when – Cannot meet minimums in applicable design manual – Reasonable alternative design will work safely 92
    • 93. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationFrequent design Exceptions Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design Number state DOTs reporting frequent design exceptions by criterion NCHRP Synthesis 316 93
    • 94. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDesign Exceptions Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design Consider trade-offs • Mobility, access • Road user needs • Environmental impacts • Capital and operating costs • Safety • Aesthetics • Local considerations 94
    • 95. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDesign Exceptions Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design Design Domain and Risk Speed or Volume Lower limit of extended design domain – new roads Increasing liability risk, Decreasing scope Extended Normal for defense Design Domain Lower limit of extended design domain – existing roads Standard Design Criteria Minimums Adapted from: O. Arndt, R. Cox, “Using an Enlarged Design Domain for Road Restoration Projects,” Queensland Department of Main Roads, 2006. 95
    • 96. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDesign Exceptions Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design• Strong case – Show criteria not applicable •Project can be safe not following criteria •Environmental or community needs prohibit meeting criteria •Criteria impractical to meet – Weak case •Saves money •Saves time •Designer found loop hole •Design similar to other existing designs 96
    • 97. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDesign Exceptions Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignMinimum documentation• Established design criteria• Reasons criteria cannot be met• Why proposal is most applicable• Applicable background information• Pertinent information – Safety assessment – Operations 97
    • 98. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDesign Exception Form Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design 98
    • 99. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDesign Exceptions Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignDocumentation must be• Deliberative• Defensible• Clearly written• Explicitly evaluate safety – Who is at risk • Motorists, pedestrians, etc. – Exposure • Traffic volumes • Location – Extent of exception – How risk is managed (solely relying on standards does not guaranty facility free of risk) 99
    • 100. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDesign Exception Process Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design Florida DOT design and utility exception process 100
    • 101. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDesign Exceptions Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignRule of thumb for success• No reasonable, feasible, practical solution available that meets criteria, or• Selection of proposed criteria is advantageous and results in overall superior designand• Use of proposed criteria is not expected to unduly degrade or hinder safety or operational performance of the proposed facility 101
    • 102. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDesign Exceptions Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignReference (availableon-line): 102
    • 103. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationDesign References Planning, Environmental Analysis and DesignAASHTO• A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design, 1st Edition• A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 5th Edition• Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities, 1st Edition• Guide for High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Facilities, 3rd Edition• Guide for Park-and-Ride Facilities, 2nd Edition• Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, 3rd Edition• Roadside Design Guide, 3rd Edition• Roadway Lighting Design Guide• Design for Transit Vehicles and Facilities on Streets and Highways (pending from TCRP D-09)ITE•Context Sensitive Solutions in Designing Major Urban Thoroughfares for Walkable Communities (2nd edition pending – retitled to Designing Walkable Urban Thoroughfares: A Context Sensitive Approach)•Urban Geometric Design Handbook•Guidelines for Driveway Location and Design•Guidelines for Neighborhood Street DesignTRB•A Guide for Transportation Landscape and Environmental Design (update pending)•Access Management Manual 103
    • 104. Context Sensitive Solutions in TransportationClass Project Discussion Planning, Environmental Analysis and Design • Projects to be – Presented Class 28 – Submitted at start of Class 29 • Student questions? 104

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