February 2014

California Solar Jobs Census 2013

s


Analysis of the California Solar Workforce
Acknowledgements:
The Solar Foundation® (TSF) is a national 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization whose mission is to
increase u...
About The Solar Foundation®
The Solar Foundation® (TSF) is an independent national 501(c)(3) nonprofit whose
mission is to ...
1. Introduction
The U.S. solar industry had a banner year in 2013. Solar installations expanded at a record
pace, companie...
The success of California’s solar industry is both a reflection and vital component of the
growth observed at the national ...
Figure 2: Installed Solar Capacity—California
Annual(Solar(Power(Capacity(Installa8ons,(2006=2013(
2500"

2000"

Addi8onal...
!

non-residential programs fully subscribed in the Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) territory and all of
Southern California ...
!

survey administered directly to employers. Data collection occurred during October and
November 2013 in two stages: (1)...
2. Labor Market Analysis: Overview of the Industry
The California solar industry employs 47,223 solar workers,12 more than...
By way of comparison, statewide job growth is projected to be 1.1% through 2014.14 For
additional comparison, the construc...
Table 1: Data by Sector—Number of Solar Workers in California
Sector

2013 Jobs

2014 Projected
Employment

2013 - 2014 Ex...
Figure 5: Solar Establishments by Technology Area

85.5%

Photovoltaic

24.1%

Water heating, which includes pool heating
...
As in the National Census, California employers were asked specific questions to determine
whether the new solar workers ad...
Figure 8: Background of Newly Hired Solar Worker - Percent of Workers

Required previous work experience
related to the po...
Employers were also asked about the wages paid to their workers. California solar
installation firms pay their employees an...
2.1 Detailed Labor Market Analysis: Installation
This California-specific research effort includes responses from thousands...
As shown in Figures 12 and 13 below, photovoltaics dominate the California installation
landscape, while most firms are ins...
As in the National Census, the California data reveal a sector that is highly focused on
consumer demand. Eighty-five perce...
2.2 Detailed Labor Market Analysis: Manufacturing
This Census finds 336 solar manufacturing establishments in California, e...
Solar manufacturers in California are diversified, with about two-thirds earning most of their
revenue from solar goods and...
2.3 Detailed Labor Market Analysis: Sales and Distribution
California is home to 535 solar sales and distribution establis...
Solar sales and distribution establishments are very optimistic, with 63.5% expecting to add
workers over the coming 12 mo...
2.4 Detailed Labor Market Analysis: Project Developers!
!
This California Census report finds 132 project developers in the...
Figure 24: Percentage of Establishments by Technology—Project Development

Project developers are slightly more “solar foc...
2.5 Detailed Labor Market Analysis: Other
A significant number of the solar establishments participating in this study did ...
Figure 27: Percentage of Revenue Related to Solar Products—Other


15.2%

All of it (100%)
39.2%
Most but not all (50% to ...
3. Geographic Data
In addition to the statewide results, this report includes information about the distribution of
solar ...
Within these broad regions are six major metropolitan areas. Table 2 illustrates the
employment in each of these regions.
...
Figure 29: Employment by State Assembly Districts


29
Table 3: Employment by State Assembly Districts
Assembly
District
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22...
Assembly
District

Legislator

Total
Empl.

Women

34

Grove, Shannon
L.
Achadjian, Katcho

267

38

12

708
250
700
432
1...
Assembly
District

Legislator

Total
Empl.

Women

66
67

Muratsuchi, Al
Melendez, Melissa
A.
Wagner, Donald P.

464
367

...
Figure 30: Employment by State Senate Districts


33
!
Table 4: Employment by State Senate Districts
Senate
District
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
2...
Senate
District
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Total
% of Total
CA Solar
Workforce

Legislator

Torres, Norma J.
Lara, Ricardo...
Figure 31: Employment by Federal Congressional Districts

Table 5: Employment by Federal Congressional Districts
Congress....
Congress.
District
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

...
Congress.
District
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
Total
% of Total
CA Solar
Workforce

Legislator

Hahn, Janice
Campbell, J...
4.0 Conclusions
With California’s status as the nation’s most populous state, its largest economy, and
second-largest cons...
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

If you find this California Census to be useful, please don't hesitate to make a taxdeductible donation to...
!

5. Appendices
5.1 Data Sources

!

EMSI Data Sources and Calculations
Industry Data

!

In order to capture a complete ...
5.2 Data Limitations and Methodology
The California Solar Jobs Census methodology is most closely aligned with the
Bureau ...
5.3 Frequently Asked Questions
1.

Are these "Direct Jobs" only?

Direct, indirect, and induced are terms intended to expl...
4.

What is the minimum education necessary to enter the solar job field?

While there exist entry-level positions for indi...
!
6. Solar Employment in Other States
Due to the immense investment of time and funding required to do so accurately
with ...
!
Copyright Notice

!
Unless otherwise noted, all design, text, graphics, and the selection and arrangement
thereof are Co...
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California Solar Jobs Census 2013

  1. 1. February 2014 California Solar Jobs Census 2013 s
 Analysis of the California Solar Workforce
  2. 2. Acknowledgements: The Solar Foundation® (TSF) is a national 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization whose mission is to increase understanding of solar energy through strategic research that educates the public and transforms markets. In 2010, The Solar Foundation® released its first National Solar Jobs Census report. Census 2010 established the first credible national solar jobs baseline and verified the positive impact the solar industry is having on the U.S. economy. Using the same rigorous, peerreviewed methodology, TSF has conducted an annual Census in each of the last three years to track changes and analyze trends in the solar industry labor market. ! This year s National Solar Jobs Census report series was produced by TSF and BW Research Partnership, with the support of the following research partners: • The George Washington University’s Solar Institute (GW Solar Institute); • The Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA); and • The Interstate Renewable Energy Council, Inc. (IREC). ! TSF would like to acknowledge and thank its sponsors. Without their foresight and leadership, this report would not have been possible: • William and Flora Hewlett Foundation; • Energy Foundation; • Tilia Fund; • SolarCity; • Sierra Club; • Recurrent Energy; • GTM Research and SEIA for providing complimentary copies of the U.S. Solar Market Insight 2012 Year in Review report to survey respondents; and • Cornell University’s School of Industrial Labor Relations for helping to validate the methodological framework for Census 2010-2012. ! TSF and BW Research also want to thank all of the California solar employers that participated in the survey. Your responses were critical in providing us with the high level of accurate and timely data needed to produce this report. ! For questions or comments about this report, please contact either: ! Andrea Luecke, President and Executive Director The Solar Foundation® 505 9th Street, NW - Suite 800 Washington, DC 20004 202-469-3750; info@solarfound.org TheSolarFoundation.org ! Philip Jordan, Principal and Vice-President BW Research Partnership 50 Mill Pond Dr. Wrentham, MA 02093 (508) 384-2471; pjordan@bwresearch.com ! Please cite this publication when referencing this material as “California Solar Jobs Census 2013, The Solar Foundation, available at: www.TSFcensus.org.”
 Cover Photo Courtesy First Solar 2
  3. 3. About The Solar Foundation® The Solar Foundation® (TSF) is an independent national 501(c)(3) nonprofit whose mission is to increase understanding of solar energy through strategic research that educates the public and transforms markets. TSF is considered the premier research organization on the solar labor force, employer trends, and economic impacts of solar. It has provided leading-edge industry insight to the National Academies, the Inter-American Development Bank, the U.S. Department of Energy, and other organizations during a time of dynamic industry growth and policy and economic uncertainty. While TSF recognizes that solar energy is a key part of our energy future, it is committed to excellence in its aim to help people fairly and objectively gauge the value of the solar industry worldwide. About BW Research Partnership BW Research is widely regarded as the national leader in labor market analysis for emerging industries and clean energy technologies. In addition to the Census series, BW Research has conducted rigorous solar installation and wind industry labor market analysis for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, wind energy and energy retrofit studies for the Natural Resources Defense Council, a series of comprehensive clean energy workforce studies for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Illinois, and Vermont, and numerous skills and gap analyses for community colleges, workforce investment boards, state agencies, and nonprofit organizations. BW Research provides high quality data and keen insight into economic and workforce issues related to renewable energy, energy efficiency, transportation, recycling, water, waste, and wastewater management, and other environmental fields. The principals of the firm are committed to providing research and analysis for data-driven decisionmaking. About The George Washington University Solar Institute The George Washington University Solar Institute (GW Solar Institute) is a unique research and information center focused on identifying, developing, and sharing pragmatic and politically attuned solutions to the policy barriers preventing the adoption and scale of solar energy. Toward these ends, the GW Solar Institute pursues research projects in a wide range of disciplines, typically in partnership with other university faculty, industry experts, and GW students. In addition, the GW Solar Institute also leverages its intricate knowledge of the policymaking process and location in Washington, DC to convene stakeholders and provide decision-makers with unbiased new ideas on solar related policies, regulatory approaches, and government investments.
 3
  4. 4. 1. Introduction The U.S. solar industry had a banner year in 2013. Solar installations expanded at a record pace, companies became more efficient and workers more productive, and jobs grew by their fastest rate since The Solar Foundation® began tracking them in 2010. The national industry employs 142,698 solar workers1 across the entire spectrum of the value chain—from research and development through installation and maintenance, and in every state. Market indicators and employers’ reported optimism suggest that the industry will continue adding jobs at a brisk pace.   The solar industry is poised to continue to be more efficient—worker productivity increased by 21.5% between 2012 and 2013, as measured by installation-related jobs per megawatt—and to provide new employment opportunities, particularly in the installation sector. After record 19.9% employment growth since September 2012, employers expect to grow their workforce by 15.6% over the next year. These projections, if realized, would result in an additional 22,240 new solar jobs across the U.S. Figure 1: California Regional Solar Employment 1 A “solar worker” is defined as an employee who spends at least 50% of their time supporting solar-related activities. The national Census found that approximately 91% of those meeting our definition of a “solar worker” in 2013 actually spent 100% of their time working on solar. 4
  5. 5. The success of California’s solar industry is both a reflection and vital component of the growth observed at the national level. As of November 2013, 47,223 solar workers were employed in the state across all industry sectors, with the majority concentrated in the San Francisco Bay area and in Southern California (see Figure 1 on p. 4). Employers of these workers are optimistic about growth, more so than those throughout the nation as a whole. Forty-nine percent of solar employers in California expect to add employees this year, with a total of 10,500 new solar workers (22.3% growth) added by November 2014. California’s success in solar employment is unsurprising given its status as the market leader in solar energy. The first to adopt pro-solar policies, California has served as an incubator for the industry for decades. Its early support is paying dividends, as California is home to more than 40% of the over 10,000 MW of total installed capacity in the country, and account for one-third of all solar workers in the nation. In their most recent Solar Market Insight report, Solar Energy Industries Association and GTM Research estimate that more than 2,000 MW of new PV capacity were installed in California during 2013, more than double what was added in the previous year. In 2014, nearly 400 MW of concentrating solar power (CSP) capacity—enough to power 140,000 households—is expected to come online from the world’s largest CSP facility, located in California. The state is expected to remain the national leader in solar energy installed capacity for the foreseeable future, with current Solar Market Insight forecasts predicting an additional 10,000 MW of PV capacity over the next three years.2 
   Photo Courtesy NREL 2 Kann/ GTM Research, S., Mehta/ GTM Research, S., Shiao/ GTM Research, M., Honeyman/ GTM Research, C., Litvak/ GTM Research, N., Jones/ GTM Research, J., . . . Baca/ SEIA, J. (2013). Solar Market Insight 2013 Q3 | SEIA. Retrieved from http://www.seia.org/research-resources/solar-market-insight-2013-q3! 5
  6. 6. Figure 2: Installed Solar Capacity—California Annual(Solar(Power(Capacity(Installa8ons,(2006=2013( 2500" 2000" Addi8onal(CSP(Expected((Q4(2013)( Concentrated(Solar(Power((MW=ac)( Megawa&s( ( Addi8onal(PV(Expected((Q4(2013)( 1500" Photovoltaics((MW=dc)( 1000" 500" 0" 2006" 2007" 2008" 2009" 2010" 2011" 2012" 2013" Source:"SEIA"and"GTM"Research,""Solar"Market"Insight""report"series;"Larry"Sherwood,"IREC" Much of the success of California’s robust solar market—indeed, of most leading state solar markets in general—can be attributed to a suite of strong solar-friendly policies. The state is noteworthy for having one of the most aggressive renewable portfolio standard (RPS) targets (33% of retail electricity sales derived from renewable technologies by 2020), and recently passed legislation allowing the California Public Utilities Commission to require retail sellers of electricity to procure renewable energy resources in excess of this limit.3 In an effort to help utilities covered by the RPS achieve this target, California adopted a limited feed-in tariff program in 2008, which has continually been expanded through subsequent legislation leading to its current iteration—under which customers across a large number of sectors are eligible to participate.4     Another powerful driver of growth in solar capacity in the state has been the California Solar Initiative (CSI), a statewide solar rebate program established in 2007 with the goal of adding 1,940 MW of new installed capacity by 2016.5 As of the end of January 2014, nearly 1,700 MW of solar capacity had been installed under the program, with both the residential and   3 California State Assembly (n.d.). Bill Text - AB-327 Electricity: natural gas: rates: net energy metering: California Renewables Portfolio Standard Program. Retrieved from California Legislative Information website: http:// leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billNavClient.xhtml?bill_id=201320140AB327. 4 California Public Utilities Commission (2012). Summary of Feed-In Tariffs. Retrieved from http:// www.cpuc.ca.gov/PUC/energy/renewables/feedintariffssum.htm. 5 California Public Utilities Commission (2007, July). About the California Solar Initiative. Retrieved February 6, 2014, from http://www.cpuc.ca.gov/puc/energy/solar/aboutsolar.htm. 6
  7. 7. ! non-residential programs fully subscribed in the Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) territory and all of Southern California Edison’s (SCE) residential program cap met.6 Over much of the past two years, CSI-supported installations represented between 75%-97% of the state’s quarterly installed residential capacity, dipping below 50% only as program caps were met in the aforementioned territories in the last half of 2013.7     Despite its historical importance, however, the growth of the solar market remains strong even as the availability of the CSI rebates continues to wane. State policy allowing third-party ownership of solar energy systems remains a key component of the residential solar market’s sustained growth—one indicator of which is the increasingly rapid adoption of solar by middleincome households.8 In just two years, these systems went from representing just under half of new residential installations (44.6% in Q3 2011) to 70% of systems installed in this market segment by Q3 2013.9 In addition, both residential and non-residential installations throughout the state continue to benefit from the confluence of high retail electricity rates, existing federal incentives, and a renewed near-term commitment to net energy metering.10       Methodology The data in this report are collected from a census of the solar industry and a representative sample of employers throughout the value chain of activities that contribute to the industry. As with the National Solar Jobs Census, this report includes information about all types of companies, from component manufacturers to installation subcontactors, engaged in the production, sale, installation, and use of all solar technologies, ranging from PV to CSP to solar water heating systems across the residential, commercial, and utility market segments in California. Unlike economic impact models that generate employment estimates based on economic data (such as company revenue) or jobs-per-megawatt (or jobs-per-dollar) assumptions, the National Solar Jobs Census series provides statistically valid and current data gathered from actual employers. The primary data contained in this report are drawn from a mixed-method 6 Go Solar California (2010). California Solar Statistics. Retrieved February 6, 2014, from http:// www.californiasolarstatistics.org/reports/agency_stats/; Go Solar California (2010). Statewide Trigger Point Tracker. Retrieved February 6, 2014, from http://csi-trigger.com/. 7 Kann/ GTM Research, S., Mehta/ GTM Research, S., Shiao/ GTM Research, M., Honeyman/ GTM Research, C., Litvak/ GTM Research, N., Jones/ GTM Research, J., . . . Baca/ SEIA, J. (2013). Solar Market Insight 2013 Q3 | SEIA. Retrieved from http://www.seia.org/research-resources/solar-market-insight-2013-q3. 8 Center for American Progress. (2013). Solar Power to the People: The Rise of Rooftop Solar Among the Middle Class. Retrieved from http://www.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/RooftopSolar-4.pdf. 9 Kann/ GTM Research, S., Mehta/ GTM Research, S., Shiao/ GTM Research, M., Honeyman/ GTM Research, C., Litvak/ GTM Research, N., Jones/ GTM Research, J., . . . Baca/ SEIA, J. (2013). Solar Market Insight 2013 Q3 | SEIA. Retrieved from http://www.seia.org/research-resources/solar-market-insight-2013-q3. 10 Id. 7
  8. 8. ! survey administered directly to employers. Data collection occurred during October and November 2013 in two stages: (1) through a survey of so-called “known universe” establishments, and; (2) via a random sampling of businesses within various construction, sales and distribution, and manufacturing industries. For this California report, 28,382 telephone calls were attempted and over 4,000 emails were sent to potential solar establishments throughout the state. This mixed approach, which the Bureau of Labor Statistics recognizes as the emerging standard11 given its own limitations in calculating solar employment, allows us to draw broad conclusions about the California solar industry with a high degree of confidence, as well as generate accurate, local level employment estimates. Nearly 4,000 California employers participated in the survey, resulting in 674 full survey completions and a margin of error of +/-3.46%, which is more rigorous than the industry standard for similar studies.   Because of the strict definitions and quality control measures used for Census data collection and analysis, the figures included in this report are conservative estimates, meaning that there may well be more solar workers than reported herein. It is also important to mention that there are limits to the survey approach. Because the research findings are based on survey responses, the employment growth figures cited in the following sections represent employers’ best estimates of how many jobs they will add over the coming year. As seen in the National Solar Jobs Census reports, actual growth may vary. In addition, this report includes employment and demographic information at the state assembly, state senate, and federal congressional district levels. Conducting small-sample estimation is a very challenging and labor-intensive exercise. For this study, a significant oversample of California firms was required to gather enough responses to make estimates for 80 assembly districts, 40 state senate districts, 53 congressional districts, and five Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Analysis of the data collected through this effort includes constructing zip-code distribution allocations for each district in the known and unknown databases, small-area means derivation, and comparisons to labor market statistics and demographic data. The results of this work are included in the tables in Section 3. ! 11 Based on conversations with BLS staff working in September 2010. 8
  9. 9. 2. Labor Market Analysis: Overview of the Industry The California solar industry employs 47,223 solar workers,12 more than five times the number of workers in Arizona, the next largest solar employer. The industry continues to grow rapidly, by approximately 8.1% since 2012, representing the addition of about 3,500 jobs. This is nearly five times faster than the statewide growth rate of 1.7%13 and means that the industry created nearly nine jobs each day in California from September 2012 to November 2013.     These strong growth figures are expected to accelerate through 2014, with nearly half of all employers expecting to add employees by November 2014 (48.8%) and only 1.2% expecting to shed workers (Figure 3). Figure 3: Employer Expectations, 12 Months—California Same number 42.7% More 48.8% Fewer 1.2% DK/NA 7.3% ! When asked about their prospects for the 12 month period through November 2014, employers reported an expectation to add employees at a 22.3% clip. If these projections are realized, it would mean the addition of 10,510 solar jobs. This anticipated growth represents an astounding 47% of all new jobs projected to be created in the industry nationwide over the same time period. 12 In California, 93.5% of solar workers spend 100% of their time supporting solar activities (compared to 91% nationally). 13 California Employment Development Department, California Current Month Labor Force, Seasonally Adjusted, October 2012-November 2013. 9
  10. 10. By way of comparison, statewide job growth is projected to be 1.1% through 2014.14 For additional comparison, the construction industry is projected to remain flat, while manufacturing is projected to cut 2% of its workforce. The fastest “Supersectors”15 in the state (Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services, Healthcare and Social Assistance, and Educational Services (Private)) are each projected to grow by between 2-3%.16       For this survey, employers were asked several preliminary screener questions to ensure quality control and to understand how establishments are organized and which activities they conduct. As in the National Solar Jobs Census 2013, California survey respondents were asked to select the appropriate sector to which their firm belongs, choosing from installation, manufacturing, sales and distribution, project development, academic, nonprofit, government, or - for those that did not fit neatly into a category - “other,” such as establishments that provide ancillary support to the solar industry (e.g., research and development, financial or legal services). Many establishments reported that their work spanned several sectors. Figure 4: Percentage of Respondents by Sector
 15.5% Installation 9.5% Sales / Trade 5.4% 0.3% 2.2% 0.0% Manufacturing / Assembling Project Development Nonprofit Academic 11.8% Government Other (Including R&D) 54.0% 1.3% Don't know 14 Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc. (EMSI), Class of Worker, 2013.4 Bureau of Labor Statistics (2003, October 27). NAICS Supersectors. Retrieved February 6, 2014, from http:// www.bls.gov/ces/cessuper.htm. 16 EMSI, Class of Worker, 2013.4 15 10
  11. 11. Table 1: Data by Sector—Number of Solar Workers in California Sector 2013 Jobs 2014 Projected Employment 2013 - 2014 Expected Growth Rate Installation 26,052 33,716 29.4% Manufacturing 10,504 11,262 7.2% Sales and Distribution 5,877 6,975 18.7% Project Development 2,369 2,744 15.8% Other* 2,421 3,036 25.4% Total 47,223 57,733 22.3% *2013 employment in “Other” includes 66 solar workers at nonprofits, 132 in government, and 17 in academia. The state’s solar installation and manufacturing sectors account for a higher percentage of total California solar workers than are represented at the national level. California’s 26,052 installation workers represent 55.2% of the 47,223 workers employed statewide. At the national level, however, the installation sector accounts for only 48.8% of all solar workers. The manufacturing sector’s 10,504 workers constitute 22.2% of the state total, versus 20.9% of all solar workers at the national level. The remaining sectors in California represent a relatively smaller proportion of total solar workers than were found at the national level. Only 12.4% of solar workers in the state are employed in sales and distribution, compared with nearly 14% at the national level. State level employment in the project development and “other” sectors are both at about 5%, versus 8.5% and 7.9%, respectively, nationwide. As with the rest of the nation, California is primarily focused on photovoltaics (85.5% of establishments work with PV), while significantly fewer firms are engaged in water heating (24.1% versus 32.7% nationally, Figure 5). ! ! 11
  12. 12. Figure 5: Solar Establishments by Technology Area 85.5% Photovoltaic 24.1% Water heating, which includes pool heating Concentrating solar power 10.5% Other 11.1% 3.9% DK/NA 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Survey respondents were also asked to provide the percentage of overall revenues that are attributable to solar, to determine how integral the industry is to their business and whether they are diversified in other sectors. California is nearly identical to the national averages, with 66.5% of establishments deriving a majority of their revenues from solar goods and services, compared to 65.2% nationally, though the number of firms that receive all of their revenue from solar is more than four percentage points higher in California (48.4%) than the national average of 44.0% (Figure 6). Figure 6: Company Revenues Attributed to Solar 80% 60% 48.4% 40% 30.6% 18.1% 20% 2.9% 0% All of it (100%) Most but not all (50% to 99%) Less than half (1% to 49%) DK/NA 12
  13. 13. As in the National Census, California employers were asked specific questions to determine whether the new solar workers added over the past year were newly created positions or represented existing employees given new solar tasks. In California, 72.2% of the new solar jobs over the past year were newly created positions (Figure 7). Figure 7: New Positions at Solar Establishments Newly created positions 72.2% Existing employees given added solar responsibilities 27.8% To get a better understanding of the types of workers being hired, employers were asked questions about the education and experience of the more recently hired solar workers at their firms. California establishments reported slightly lower education and experience requirements, with 40.9% requiring previous work related to the position (versus 50.2% nationally) and 25.4% requiring a bachelor’s degree (27.6% nationally). Perhaps as a nod to the state’s well-respected community college system, a slightly higher percentage of workers are required to have an associate’s degree or certificate (15.4% versus 13.1% nationally). 13
  14. 14. Figure 8: Background of Newly Hired Solar Worker - Percent of Workers Required previous work experience related to the position 40.9% Required a bachelors degree or beyond 25.4% Required an associates degree or certificate from an accredited college, but not a bachelor's degree 15.4% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% The new solar positions for 2013 are distributed across a range of skill-sets. Compared to the rest of the country, new solar positions in California are much more likely to be for production or technician jobs (66.1% versus 55.4% nationally), with fewer administrative (7.2% versus 10.3% nationally) and management/professional (7.9% versus 12.0%) positions. Figure 9: New Positions by Occupational Category, 2012–2013 14
  15. 15. Employers were also asked about the wages paid to their workers. California solar installation firms pay their employees an average of $24.26, which is $0.63 per hour more than the national average among solar firms in this sector. However, this difference is much less than the difference in wages paid to electricians and other construction related workers in California (versus the national average), who are paid $2 to $4 per hour more. California solar manufacturers pay their assembly workers a mean wage of $18.84 per hour, some $0.61 per hour more than the national average for solar manufacturing firms, and significantly higher than the $14-17 per hour paid for most assembly occupations in California.17   California solar firms were also asked to provide a demographic profile of their workforce, with a particular focus on women, racial and ethnic minorities, and U.S veterans. Because of the sensitive nature of these questions, the survey was careful to avoid social obligation bias; however, as documented by survey experts, some bias in such questions is inevitable. As a result, it is likely that the figures reported below are inflated by some 10 to 15%. Despite this, the results presented in Figure 10 do provide a general understanding of the demographic makeup of the industry and a baseline from which to track progress in future Census reports and comparisons to national industry data. As Figure 10 illustrates, the California solar industry is generally diverse. Figure 10: Demographic Breakdown - Overall 
 17 EMSI Class of Worker, QCEW, Non-QCEW, Self-Employed, 2013.4. 15
  16. 16. 2.1 Detailed Labor Market Analysis: Installation This California-specific research effort includes responses from thousands of firms in the construction, installation, and maintenance sector. Based on the responses, our Census found 2,067 establishments deriving at least some of their revenue from installation services and related goods, employing 26,052 solar workers. This makes the installation sector the largest single segment of the solar industry in California, responsible for 55.2% of all solar workers in the state. The California installation sector is important to the national solar industry as well, as 37.4% of all U.S. solar installation workers are found in the Golden State. Optimism among California installers suggests that growth will continue over the shortterm. Forty-eight percent of solar installation firms expect to add workers over the next 12 months (compared to 44% nationally), representing 7,664 new solar workers (a 29.4% employment growth rate) (Figure 11). These projected new solar workers represent 52.2% of the national projections for the sector. Figure 11: 12-Month Hiring Expectations—Installation Establishments Same number 43.8% More 47.9% Fewer 0.8% DK/NA 7.4% The California installation workforce is somewhat diverse. Over 17% of California installation solar workers are Latino/Hispanic and nearly 15% are women. U.S. veterans represent 7.4% of all solar workers in the state. Just over 5% are African Americans and nearly 4% are Asian/Pacific Islanders. ! ! ! 16
  17. 17. As shown in Figures 12 and 13 below, photovoltaics dominate the California installation landscape, while most firms are installing for the residential market. Figure 12: Percentage of Firms by Technology—Installation 100% 90.8% 80% 60% 40% 30.3% 20% 6.1% 6.1% Concentrating solar power Other 2.8% 0% Photovoltaic Water heating, which includes pool heating Don't know/ Refused Figure 13: Percentage of Firms by Project Size—Installation 86.8% Residential systems Small commercial systems up to 50 kilowatts 66.3% Medium to large commercial and industrial systems 43.9% Large commercial and industrial 201 kilowatts or larger 27.9% Utility scale projects that deliver wholesale electricity 12.9% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 17
  18. 18. As in the National Census, the California data reveal a sector that is highly focused on consumer demand. Eighty-five percent of respondents in this sector attribute consumer demand to solar’s increased competitiveness with incumbent electricity providers (compared to 77% nationally), as seen in Figure 14 below. Figure 14: Consumer Demand Drivers—Installation 69.3% To save money Solar energy costs are now more competitive with utility 15.6% To benefit the environment and mitigate climate change 5.9% They know a neighbor, friend, or family member who installed solar 2.5% To have power when the grid goes down 0.3% To make America more energy independent 0.3% Other 2.8% DK/NA 3.4% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% Installers were also asked about their opinions regarding lower-cost, internationally produced solar goods from countries such as China. As illustrated in Figure 15, installers are evenly split as to whether low cost manufacturers benefit the solar industry as a whole. Figure 15: International Manufacturing Impacts—Installation Low cost international manufacturers in places like China, lowers costs, benefits solar industry as a whole 39.7% 39.1% 21.2% Low cost international manufacturers in places like China, putting U.S. out of business, hurts solar industry as a whole DK/NA ! 18
  19. 19. 2.2 Detailed Labor Market Analysis: Manufacturing This Census finds 336 solar manufacturing establishments in California, employing 10,504 solar workers. Manufacturers remain optimistic about future employment growth. Fifty-five percent of firms expect to add solar workers over the coming 12 months (Figure 16), and the sector is projected to grow by 7%. Figure 16: Growth Projections, 12-Month—Manufacturing Same number 32.8% More 54.7% Fewer 1.6% DK/NA 10.9% Nationally, manufacturers are the most diverse of all sectors. In California, women represent 23.1% of all solar workers, 18.0% are Latino/Hispanic, 3.5% are African Americans, 12.3% are Asian/Pacific Islanders, and 6.0% are U.S. veterans. Manufacturers are predominantly producing components for photovoltaics, with about three-quarters of establishments engaged in PV, compared with only 15% in water heating and 10% in CSP (Figure 17). Figure 17: Establishments by Technology Type—Manufacturing 100% 80% 74.6% 60% 40% 30.5% 15.3% 20% 10.2% 1.7% 0% Photovoltaic Water heating, which includes pool heating Concentrating solar power Other Don't know/ Refused 19
  20. 20. Solar manufacturers in California are diversified, with about two-thirds earning most of their revenue from solar goods and services (Figure 18). They are also most concerned about international competition; however, more than one-third believe such competition is good for the industry (Figure 19). Figure 18: Percentage of Revenue Related to Solar Products—Manufacturing 18.6% All of it (100%) 30.5% Most but not all (50% to 99%) Less than half (1% to 49%) 45.8% DK/NA 5.1% ! Figure 19: International Manufacturing Impacts—Manufacturing 47.5% 35.6% 16.9% Low cost international manufacturers in places like China, lowers costs, benefits solar industry as a whole Low cost international manufacturers in places like China, putting U.S. out of business, hurts solar industry as a whole DK/NA ! 20
  21. 21. 2.3 Detailed Labor Market Analysis: Sales and Distribution California is home to 535 solar sales and distribution establishments, employing 5,877 solar workers. The employers in the solar sales and distribution sector sell all types of systems and play a pivotal role in the solar supply chain. These establishments work in wholesale and retail trade of components and finished products. The majority of sales and distribution companies deal in PV systems, with only 15.4% providing solar water heating equipment and 11.5% focused on CSP (Figure 20). Figure 20: Percentage of Establishments by Product Sales—Sales and Distribution The sales and distribution sector is much more solar-focused in California than the national average, with 68.3% of firms earning all of their revenues from solar, compared to 52.8% nationally (Figure 21). Figure 21: Percentage of Revenue Related to Solar Products—Sales and Distribution All of it (100%) 12.5% Most but not all (50% to 99%) 68.3% 17.3% Less than half (1% to 49%) DK/NA 1.9% 21
  22. 22. Solar sales and distribution establishments are very optimistic, with 63.5% expecting to add workers over the coming 12 months (compared to 55.3% nationally) and only 1% expecting to shed jobs (compared to 2% nationally (Figure 22), which is in line with estimates for continued strong sales of solar goods and services over the coming year.18 This optimism is expected to create nearly 1,100 jobs through November 2014, which represents 18.7% growth in the sector statewide.   Figure 22: 12 Month Hiring Expectations—Sales and Distribution ! Women make up 22.2% of the California sales and distribution workforce, while Latino/ Hispanics represent 21.1%. Asian/Pacific Islanders comprise 11.4% of the sector, while 4% of the workers are African Americans. Veterans make up 6% of the sector. ! 18 IHS Inc. (2013, December 18). IHS News Flash: Solar Market Predictions for 2014 | IHS Online Pressroom. Retrieved from http://press.ihs.com/press-release/design-supply-chain/ihs-news-flash-solar-marketpredictions-2014; Osborne/ PV Tech, M. (2014, January 22). ROTH Capital raises 2014 global solar market demand outlook - PV-Tech [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.pv-tech.org/news/ roth_capital_raises_2014_global_solar_market_demand_outlook. 22
  23. 23. 2.4 Detailed Labor Market Analysis: Project Developers! ! This California Census report finds 132 project developers in the state that employ 2,369 solar workers. These firms are generally optimistic about growth, with 42% expecting to add workers and only 3% expecting to cut staff. The 375 projected new workers to be added by November 2014 represent 15.8% employment growth. Figure 23: 12 Month Hiring Expectations—Project Developers Same number 44.4% More 41.7% Fewer 2.8% DK/NA 11.1% Women make up 22.6% of the project developer workforce; Latino/Hispanics, 19.8%; Asian/Pacific Islanders, 11.8%; and African Americans, 3.8%. Six percent of the sector’s workers are veterans. PV remains the largest technology category that developers work with, though one third of firms in this sector report working with CSP (Figure 24). Photo Courtesy NREL 23
  24. 24. Figure 24: Percentage of Establishments by Technology—Project Development Project developers are slightly more “solar focused” than workers in other sectors, though still only 55.6% report that all of their revenue is derived from solar projects, as illustrated in Figure 25. Figure 25: Percentage of Revenue Related to Solar—Project Development
 60% 55.6% 40% 22.2% 22.2% 20% 0.0% 0% All of it (100%) Most but not all (50% to 99%) Less than half (1% to 49%) DK/NA 24
  25. 25. 2.5 Detailed Labor Market Analysis: Other A significant number of the solar establishments participating in this study did not identify with any of the specific sectors already described in this report.19 These establishments, which have been grouped into an “other” category, include those engaged in research and development, finance and accounting, legal work, or other ancillary services that support the solar industry. This category includes those working in government, nonprofit, and academic institutions.   Though none of these additional solar sectors were large enough from an employment perspective to warrant a dedicated category, the establishments classified as “other” collectively employ more than 2,400 solar workers. These “other” establishments have indicated that they anticipate strong growth over the coming 12 months – adding more than 615 new jobs at an employment growth rate of 25.4%. Thirty-four percent of survey respondents in this category expect to add solar workers by November 2014 (Figure 26). Figure 26: 12 Month Hiring Expectations—Other Same number 59.5% More 34.2% Fewer 0.0% DK/NA 6.3% Though about 40% of the employers in this category described their firm as being a 100% solar-related business, this category has the highest percentage of establishments (39%) that obtain less than half their revenue from solar work (Figure 27). This is expected for a segment of the industry that often provides supporting services (such as consulting, finance, etc.) and is therefore more likely to contain firms that offer services to a wide range of industry sectors. ! 19 Nor were they specifically targeted. 25
  26. 26. Figure 27: Percentage of Revenue Related to Solar Products—Other
 15.2% All of it (100%) 39.2% Most but not all (50% to 99%) Less than half (1% to 49%) 40.5% DK/NA 5.1% Photo Courtesy SolarCity 26
  27. 27. 3. Geographic Data In addition to the statewide results, this report includes information about the distribution of solar workers across the state. To accomplish this, the state was broken into six major regions, Southern California (including San Diego, Orange, and Los Angeles counties and their outlying areas); the Inland Empire, the Central Coast, the Greater San Francisco Bay Area (including San Jose and the Silicon Valley), Greater Sacramento, and all other. The Greater San Francisco Bay Area is home to 45.9% of the state’s solar workers (21,653), followed by Southern California at 21.2% (10,002), as illustrated in Figure 28. Figure 28: Regional Solar Employment 
 Greater Bay Area 45.9% Sacramento 6.6% Central Coast 6.2% Inland Empire 9.4% Southern CA 21.2% All other 10.8% 27
  28. 28. Within these broad regions are six major metropolitan areas. Table 2 illustrates the employment in each of these regions. Table 2: Metropolitan Statistical Area Metropolitan Statistical Area Jobs Percent of Total Solar Jobs in California 2013 - 2014 Expected Growth Rate San Francisco-OaklandFremont 12,840 27% 18.3% Los Angeles-Long BeachSanta Ana 8,087 17.1% 37.9% San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara 3,156 6.7% 28.0% Sacramento-Arden-ArcadeRosevill 3,034 6.4% 32.2% Fresno 1,296 2.7% 11.6% The data also include information about each legislative district in California, including the state assembly and senate districts and the federal congressional districts, presented in the tables and maps below. 28
  29. 29. Figure 29: Employment by State Assembly Districts
 29
  30. 30. Table 3: Employment by State Assembly Districts Assembly District 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Legislator Dahle, Brian Chesbro, Wesley Logue, Dan Yamada, Mariko Bieglow, Frank Gaines, Beth Dickinson, Roger Cooley, Ken Pan, Richard Levine, Marc Frazier, Jim Olsen, Kristin Eggman, Susan T. Bonilla, Susan Skinner, Nancy Buchanan, Joan Ammiano, Tom Bonta, Rob Ting, Philip Y. Quirk, Bill Gray, Adam Mullin, Kevin Patterson, Jim Gordon, Richard S. Wieckowski, Bob Conway, Connie Campos, Nora Fong, Paul Stone, Mark Alejo, Luis A. Perea, Henry T. Salas, Jr., Rudy Donnelly, Tim Total Empl. Women African Latino/ American Hispanic 643 736 484 581 526 959 548 742 286 2139 479 311 189 591 1510 1709 3467 1068 298 662 199 1467 341 1942 92 105 69 123 75 203 115 151 55 548 120 45 27 149 389 438 895 274 75 169 29 374 49 500 24 26 18 8 21 13 8 10 3 79 16 13 9 20 58 63 134 40 10 24 9 53 13 74 3913 185 1055 1353 1036 473 314 152 236 1005 27 269 346 300 133 45 30 34 147 8 39 50 60 27 12 6 10 Veterans 147 166 111 98 122 164 96 139 62 191 47 73 45 56 132 153 300 95 29 61 47 134 78 171 Asian/ Pacific Islander 25 29 19 27 20 45 26 35 14 394 94 12 7 113 273 315 623 196 57 124 8 273 13 353 346 44 96 122 290 132 72 55 55 714 7 196 250 84 37 12 10 9 149 19 39 51 68 31 30 18 23 59 65 45 51 50 84 48 62 22 80 16 30 19 21 59 64 136 40 10 24 20 54 31 75 30
  31. 31. Assembly District Legislator Total Empl. Women 34 Grove, Shannon L. Achadjian, Katcho 267 38 12 708 250 700 432 155 259 507 392 303 372 365 201 50 197 82 27 52 101 78 58 72 71 185 215 120 203 373 137 538 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 Fox, Steve Williams, Das Wilk, Scott Bocanegra, Raul Morrell, Mike Holden, Chris R. Nestande, Brian Gatto, Mike Gorell, Jeff Dababneh, Matthew Nazarian, Adrin Brown, Cheryl R. Hernández, Roger Chau, Ed Bloom, Richard Gomez, Jimmy Rodriguez, Freddie Pérez, John A. Ridley-Thomas, Sebastian Hagman, Curt Pérez, V. Manuel Calderon, Ian C. Garcia, Cristina Jones-Sawyer, Sr., Reginald B. Linder, Eric Medina, Jose Bradford, Steven Rendon, Anthony Hall, III, Isadore Quirk-Silva, Sharon African Latino/ American Hispanic Veterans 63 Asian/ Pacific Islander 10 40 10 39 21 10 10 19 15 15 17 16 198 90 195 158 65 93 182 141 110 132 128 56 17 55 26 8 17 36 27 19 23 23 46 29 46 24 8 31 58 45 17 21 20 34 43 21 40 75 27 107 10 8 8 9 15 6 20 70 77 50 70 123 47 192 11 15 6 13 25 9 38 10 25 6 11 21 8 61 283 319 58 63 10 13 89 109 20 21 16 18 413 212 302 120 60 82 31 58 22 11 16 10 14 7 3 149 51 109 47 23 28 8 19 7 3 48 22 17 6 3 362 254 224 126 142 206 72 51 44 24 28 38 14 10 9 6 6 11 130 92 75 47 50 78 24 17 15 7 9 12 42 30 13 7 8 11 27 31
  32. 32. Assembly District Legislator Total Empl. Women 66 67 Muratsuchi, Al Melendez, Melissa A. Wagner, Donald P. 464 367 92 73 19 14 484 280 167 93 54 32 455 373 537 887 728 656 798 451 322 156 47223 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 Daly, Tom Lowenthal, Bonnie Jones, Brian W. Allen, Travis Harkey, Diane L. Mansoor, Allen R. Waldron, Marie Chávez, Rocky I. Maienschein, Brian Atkins, Toni 78 79 Weber, Shirley N. 80 Gonzalez, Lorena Total % of Total CA Solar Workforce African Latino/ American Hispanic Veterans 157 132 Asian/ Pacific Islander 31 25 23 13 8 174 100 60 30 17 10 27 15 9 66 73 107 180 145 133 161 21 16 21 33 28 25 30 109 129 178 286 261 213 259 17 24 36 62 52 46 55 48 21 31 51 82 38 46 92 64 30 10605 22.5% 16 13 8 1821 3.9% 144 108 57 9525 20.2% 32 22 9 5508 11.7% 26 18 8 2834 6.0% 26 42 32
  33. 33. Figure 30: Employment by State Senate Districts
 33
  34. 34. ! Table 4: Employment by State Senate Districts Senate District 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Legislator Gaines, Ted Evans, Noreen Wolk, Lois Nielsen, Jim Galgiani, Cathleen Steinberg, Darrell DeSaulnier, Mark Yee, Leland Y. Hancock, Loni Corbett, Ellen M. Leno, Mark Cannella, Anthony Hill, Jerry Berryhill, Tom Beall, Jim Vidak, Andy Monning, Bill Fuller, Jean Jackson, HannahBeth Padilla, Alex Knight, Steve de León, Kevin Vacant Hernandez, Ed Liu, Carol Mitchell, Holly Pavley, Fran Lieu, Ted W. Huff, Bob Calderon, Ron Roth, Richard D. Total Empl. Women African Latino/ American Hispanic 986 1221 1624 1570 401 1450 2487 758 2724 4835 3983 224 3601 248 2350 369 1954 316 985 142 174 413 332 58 310 636 109 701 1241 1026 32 923 36 601 53 562 57 273 41 46 58 22 19 20 91 32 103 181 152 12 134 11 86 18 112 18 55 978 325 331 506 253 725 848 1019 1161 852 483 785 194 47 62 101 50 139 171 197 231 170 96 156 37 16 17 19 11 34 32 46 44 32 20 30 Veterans 231 279 151 269 97 240 225 177 239 429 347 55 320 59 212 90 546 125 274 Asian/ Pacific Islander 38 47 307 74 15 68 461 29 495 885 720 8 660 9 435 14 157 17 75 349 80 123 183 88 259 276 359 415 305 162 282 71 12 20 33 16 45 59 65 84 60 32 55 109 36 18 60 14 40 49 56 130 97 27 90 96 112 58 138 42 129 92 74 105 184 155 25 136 26 88 40 128 17 64 34
  35. 35. Senate District 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Total % of Total CA Solar Workforce Legislator Torres, Norma J. Lara, Ricardo Correa, Lou Wright, Roderick D. Anderson, Joel Walters, Mimi Wyland, Mark Block, Marty Hueso, Ben Total Empl. Women African Latino/ American Hispanic 402 288 511 393 76 55 99 75 20 14 23 19 1216 1568 900 1295 301 47223 245 312 130 263 57 10605 22.5% 47 64 41 47 15 1821 3.9% Veterans 149 103 180 141 Asian/ Pacific Islander 24 18 32 24 397 526 215 415 110 9525 20.2% 84 105 34 91 18 5508 11.7% 70 89 93 75 16 2834 6.0% 22 16 28 22 ! 35
  36. 36. Figure 31: Employment by Federal Congressional Districts Table 5: Employment by Federal Congressional Districts Congress. District 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Legislator LaMalfa, Doug Huffman, Jared Garamendi, John McClintock, Tom Thompson, Mike Matsui, Doris O. Bera, Ami Cook, Paul McNerney, Jerry Total Empl. Women 1223 2995 721 1247 666 642 618 668 573 175 766 141 257 169 128 127 96 82 African Latino/ American Hispanic 45 110 9 17 23 8 8 27 24 278 270 149 228 63 127 114 155 134 Asian/ Pacific Islander 48 554 34 59 127 30 29 26 22 Veterans 110 112 57 106 24 52 52 64 56 36
  37. 37. Congress. District 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Legislator Denham, Jeff Miller, George Pelosi, Nancy Lee, Barbara Speier, Jackie Swalwell, Eric Costa, Jim Honda, Mike Eshoo, Anna G. Lofgren, Zoe Farr, Sam Valadao, David Nunes, Devin McCarthy, Kevin Capps, Lois McKeon, Buck Brownley, Julia Chu, Judy Schiff, Adam Cárdenas, Tony Sherman, Brad Miller, Gary Napolitano, Grace Waxman, Henry Becerra, Xavier Negrete McLeod, Gloria Ruiz, Raul Bass, Karen Sanchez, Linda Royce, Ed Roybal-Allard, Lucille Takano, Mark Calvert, Ken Waters, Maxine Total Empl. Women African Latino/ American Hispanic Veterans 72 184 291 165 158 147 147 379 216 78 216 100 48 142 573 199 137 382 202 62 133 75 123 275 116 309 Asian/ Pacific Islander 12 377 604 341 324 300 25 780 444 160 62 16 8 28 167 31 24 75 32 8 25 14 23 56 25 62 304 2049 3338 1862 1734 1612 645 4234 2417 859 772 428 202 398 2047 531 385 1065 543 153 383 207 354 832 357 864 44 525 860 478 442 412 92 1084 620 219 223 61 29 79 594 99 74 212 102 27 75 41 69 166 72 172 13 76 127 70 63 59 24 157 90 31 45 18 9 15 119 27 18 41 28 9 17 8 16 33 13 33 564 291 382 593 105 112 58 72 112 20 22 12 19 29 5 203 98 142 217 39 39 19 23 36 6 65 16 21 32 6 583 636 259 116 127 50 22 24 12 209 228 93 40 45 16 67 72 14 31 77 129 71 64 59 59 159 91 32 51 42 20 45 135 29 21 121 29 8 21 24 20 47 20 97 37
  38. 38. Congress. District 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 Total % of Total CA Solar Workforce Legislator Hahn, Janice Campbell, John Sanchez, Loretta Lowenthal, Alan Rohrabacher, Dana Issa, Darrell Hunter, Duncan D. Vargas, Juan Peters, Scott Davis, Susan Total Empl. Women African Latino/ American Hispanic 98 1201 174 346 485 19 241 33 67 96 5 47 9 16 20 1351 977 246 676 325 47223 271 140 45 136 67 10605 22.5% 52 40 13 26 11 1821 3.9% Veterans 35 395 64 122 165 Asian/ Pacific Islander 6 82 10 22 32 444 227 95 221 102 9525 20.2% 92 38 14 47 23 5508 11.7% 77 94 13 39 19 2834 6.0% 5 69 9 19 27 
 38
  39. 39. 4.0 Conclusions With California’s status as the nation’s most populous state, its largest economy, and second-largest consumer of electricity, it comes as no surprise that energy concerns are of great and recurring importance to the Golden State. As part of its efforts to ensure the energy needs of its residents and businesses are adequately addressed, California has adopted a suite of oftentimes bold or innovative policies that have allowed it to attain another important status – the nation’s market leader in solar energy. The state’s more than 4,000 MW of cumulative installed solar capacity (over 40% of total solar capacity in the nation) has translated into an employment boom that continues to create new opportunities for workers still grappling with an unemployment rate higher than the national average. California is by far the leader in solar jobs. However, its 47,223 solar workers are not evenly distributed across the state, but are rather concentrated in regions where demand for solar energy is high and where solar business owners are more likely to establish a new location or company headquarters. For example, the Greater San Francisco Bay area is home to nearly half of California’s solar workers, though the region makes up only 22% of the state population. Though the region is home to some of the highest incomes in the state, solar is increasingly becoming adopted by those with more modest incomes, suggesting that the relative wealth in the area alone is insufficient to fully explain the high concentration of solar workers. A more likely driver of solar employment in the region is that the Greater San Francisco Bay Area, which combines the economic and technological strength of San Francisco, Oakland, and the Silicon Valley, has all the components necessary for a successful innovation economy, including access to high skilled labor, capital, technology, and supporting services (e.g., financial and legal). California’s solar market is expected to continue its impressive growth. Over the next three years, nearly 10,000 MW of additional solar photovoltaic capacity is expected to be installed in the state. This projected growth in installations will in turn have a substantial impact on the number of Californians employed by the solar industry. Over the 12 month period ending in November 2014, solar employers anticipate adding over 10,500 solar workers, a figure representing 22.3% growth in employment compared with the 47,223 solar workers currently employed in the state. As is the case with other strong state solar markets and the nation at large, much of California’s solar success has been due to its historically robust pro-solar policies. Its combination of RPS targets, net energy metering rules, effective statewide and local incentives, and policies allowing for innovative financing models to prosper—along with existing federal policies and incentives supporting solar—have long been drivers of growth for the state’s solar industry. While some of these policies will soon expire, the state appears to be exploring the continuation and adoption of policies the industry needs to continue to grow. 39
  40. 40. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! If you find this California Census to be useful, please don't hesitate to make a taxdeductible donation to The Solar Foundation®. Each donation, no matter the size, helps us provide credible research that deepens our understanding of the industry and drives the market. ! ! More information at www.TheSolarFoundation.org 40
  41. 41. ! 5. Appendices 5.1 Data Sources ! EMSI Data Sources and Calculations Industry Data ! In order to capture a complete picture of industry employment, EMSI basically combines covered employment data from Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) produced by the Department of Labor with total employment data in Regional Economic Information System (REIS) published by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), augmented with County Business Patterns (CBP) and Nonemployer Statistics (NES) published by the U.S. Census Bureau. Projections are based on the latest available EMSI industry data, 15-year past local trends in each industry, growth rates in statewide and (where available) sub-state area industry projections published by individual state agencies, and (in part) growth rates in national projections from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. ! State Data Sources ! This report uses state data from the following agencies: California Labor Market Information Department; ! ! ! ! ! 41
  42. 42. 5.2 Data Limitations and Methodology The California Solar Jobs Census methodology is most closely aligned with the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ methodology for its Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) and Current Employment Statistics (CES).  Like BLS, this study uses survey questionnaires and employer-reported data, though ours are administered by phone and email, as opposed to mail. ! Also like BLS, we develop a hierarchy of various categories that represent solar value chain activities (within their broader NAICS framework), develop representative sample frames, and use statistical analysis and extrapolation in a very similar manner to BLS.  We also constrain our universe of establishments by relying on the most recent data from the BLS or the state departments of labor, depending on which is collected most recently.  We believe that the categories that we have developed could be readily adopted by BLS should it choose to begin to quantify solar employment in its QCEW and CES series. ! The California survey was administered to a known universe of solar employers that includes approximately 4,000 establishments and is derived from SEIA’s National Solar Database as well as other public and private sources. Of these establishments, 852 provided information about their solar activities (or lack thereof), and 476 completed full or substantially completed surveys. ! The survey was also administered to a stratified, clustered, random sampling from various industries that are potentially solar-related that include a total of 25,149 establishments in California. After an extensive cleaning and de-duplication process, a sampling plan was developed that gathered information on the level of solar activity (including none) from 2,889 establishments. Of these, 125 establishments qualified for and completed full surveys. This level of sampling rigor provides a margin of error for establishment counts at +/-1.25% and employment at +/-3.46% at a 95% confidence interval. For a more complete description of the methodology, please see the National Solar Jobs Census 2013 available at www.TSFcensus.org. ! It is of further importance to note that the figures provided in this report are estimates based on surveys administered only to employers in installation, manufacturing, sales and distribution, project development and “other” establishments in research and development, legal services, finance and accounting, academia, government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and other ancillary employers that do solar work. Data for the “other” category do not capture all jobs or establishments in the category. Although some “other” establishments are included in the Known Universe, accounting, legal, finance, and other ancillary establishments spend only a very small portion of their time on solar activities. Thus, full inclusion would lead to inflated employment counts. 
 42
  43. 43. 5.3 Frequently Asked Questions 1. Are these "Direct Jobs" only? Direct, indirect, and induced are terms intended to explain the various levels of economic activity that result from changes to an economy.   These figures, generated by economic modeling exercises, are best applied to specific projects rather than entire industries.   For example, a utility scale solar project would have a certain number of people working on the construction of the plant (direct), the workers who manufacture and deliver the goods (indirect), and support the local economy by increasing the spending on goods and services, such as restaurants, gas stations, and retail establishments (induced).  Census data includes most of the direct and indirect jobs in the solar industry, with the exception of some indirect jobs in the component and materials supply chain. 2. How does your methodology compare with the Bureau of Labor Statistics? The Census methodology is the most closely aligned with the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ methodology for its Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) and Current Employment Statistics (CES).  Like BLS, this study uses survey questionnaires and employer-reported data, though ours are administered by phone and email, as opposed to mail.   Also like BLS, we develop a hierarchy of various categories that represent solar value chain activities (within their broader NAICS framework), develop representative sample frames, and use statistical analysis and extrapolation in a very similar manner to BLS.  We also constrain our universe of establishments by relying on the most recent data from the BLS or the state departments of labor, depending on which is collected most recently.  We believe that the categories that we have developed could be readily adopted by BLS should it choose to begin to quantify solar employment in its QCEW and CES series. 3. How is a solar worker defined? A "solar worker" is defined as those workers who spend at least 50% of their time supporting solar-related activities. This definition helps to avoid the over-counting that is inherent in methods that count every single job in terms of FTEs or job hours. For example, although the BLS does not yet quantify solar jobs, they count other types of occupations by counting every single job separately regardless of hours or fraction of time actually spent on the job. As a result, according to the BLS, someone with three part-time jobs yields three jobs. Although the BLS and others consider our methodology to be the emerging standard for tracking jobs they do not yet track, critics of our methodology claim a 50% definition causes jobs to be over counted. However, the reality is that 93.5% of those in California who meet our definition of a solar worker in 2013 (versus 91% nationally), actually spend 100% of their time supporting solar-related activities. Because the Census covers sectors directly related to new installed solar capacity and the sectors that support these efforts, jobs figures are best thought of as covering direct and indirect jobs. 43
  44. 44. 4. What is the minimum education necessary to enter the solar job field? While there exist entry-level positions for individuals interested in entering certain solar job fields, there is not always an immediate pathway into these jobs. Of the employers who participated in the California Solar Jobs Census, 41% indicated that they look for previous related experience in the solar workers they hire. In addition, over 15% noted they require at least an associate’s degree or certificate from an accredited college and one quarter seek workers with a bachelor’s degree or beyond. Those interested in beginning a career in the solar industry can learn more about the education, experience, and skills required for these jobs by visiting the U.S. Department of Energy’s Solar Career Map at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/careermap. ! ! ! More FAQs about the Census methodology and national results are available in the National Solar Jobs Census 2013, available at www.TSFcensus.org. ! ! 44
  45. 45. ! 6. Solar Employment in Other States Due to the immense investment of time and funding required to do so accurately with a survey-based methodology, the Census report series does not directly provide estimates of solar employment in each of the 50 states. In early 2013, The Solar Foundation® published its first-ever State Solar Jobs Map (www.solarstates.org), an interactive, web-based tool presenting the most credible estimates of state-level jobs currently known. These figures were internally generated by The Solar Foundation® with technical assistance from the Solar Energy Industries Association’s Research Department using thousands of data points from a combination of high-quality sources, including survey results from National Solar Jobs Census Series and the Solar Energy Industries Association’s “National Solar Database.” These state employment figures were produced using a carefully developed dual methodology—one for installation and construction jobs and another for distributed generation and non-installation jobs. In brief, method one employed labor intensity multipliers developed internally and cross checked with leading studies on the subject, while method two was based not only on a direct count of solar workers, but also the average number of jobs per solar establishment and total number of establishments in each state. The final state totals provided are the rounded average of our high and low estimates. Updated state-level employment estimates were made available through The Solar Foundation’s® State Solar Jobs Map website (www.solarstates.org) on February 11th, 2014. ! 45
  46. 46. ! Copyright Notice ! Unless otherwise noted, all design, text, graphics, and the selection and arrangement thereof are Copyright February 2014 by The Solar Foundation® and BW Research Partnership. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Any use of materials in this report, including reproduction, modification, distribution, or republication, without the prior written consent of The Solar Foundation® and BW Research Partnership, is strictly prohibited. ! ! Please cite this publication when referencing this material as “California Solar Jobs Census 2013, The Solar Foundation, available at: www.TSFcensus.org.”

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