Lubricants 101

4,046 views
3,681 views

Published on

Everything you wanted to know about Lubricants but were afraid to Ask!

Presented by Terry Reynolds from TR Market Management - www.trmarketman.com

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
15 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,046
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
23
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
15
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Lubricants 101

  1. 1. “ LUBRICATION TRAINING SEMINAR” Everything you wanted to know about Lubricants but were afraid to Ask!
  2. 2. Presented By : Terry Reynolds
  3. 3. BASIC GREASE TECHNOLOGY Grease is the word !
  4. 4. GREASE <ul><li>A SEMI-SOLID TO SOLID PRODUCT </li></ul><ul><li>THE SUSPENSION OF A THICKENING AGENT (SOAP) IN A LIQUID LUBRICANT </li></ul><ul><li>OTHER INGREDIENTS CONTAINING SPECIAL PROPERTIES MAY BE ADDED . </li></ul>
  5. 5. BASIC GREASE FORMULA THICKENER + OIL + ADDITIVES = GREASE
  6. 6. ALL GREASES ARE NAMED BY THEIR ALKALI COMPONNENT <ul><li>LITHIUM </li></ul><ul><li>ALUMINUM </li></ul><ul><li>SODIUM </li></ul><ul><li>BARIUM </li></ul><ul><li>CALCIUM </li></ul>
  7. 7. FLUID TYPES <ul><li>MINERAL OILS </li></ul><ul><li>POLYALPHAOLEPHINS (PAO) </li></ul><ul><li>POLY GLYCOLS (PG) </li></ul><ul><li>SILICONES </li></ul>
  8. 8. ADDITIVE TYPES <ul><li>EXTREME PRESSURE </li></ul><ul><li>TACKINESS AGENTS </li></ul><ul><li>RUST & CORROSION </li></ul><ul><li>ANTI WEAR </li></ul><ul><li>ANTI OXIDATION </li></ul><ul><li>WATER REPELLENTS </li></ul>
  9. 9. FILLER TYPES <ul><li>MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE (MOS2) </li></ul><ul><li>GRAPHITE </li></ul><ul><li>ZINC OXIDE (ZNO2) </li></ul><ul><li>TITANIUM DIOXIDE (TIO2) </li></ul><ul><li>POLYTETRAFLUROETHYLENE (PTFE) </li></ul>
  10. 10. WHY USE GREASE ? <ul><li>SEALING CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul><ul><li>RESISTS CENTRIFIGAL ACTION </li></ul><ul><li>RESISTS WATER WASHOUT </li></ul><ul><li>REDUCES NOISE & VIBRATION </li></ul><ul><li>PERMITS PRE-PACKED BEARING </li></ul><ul><li>EASE OF HANDLING </li></ul>
  11. 11. GREASE TESTS <ul><li>PENETRATION (ASTM D-217) </li></ul><ul><li>SHEAR STABILITY (ASTM D-217A) </li></ul><ul><li>EXTREME PRESSURE (ASTM D-2509) </li></ul><ul><li>DROPPING POINT (ASTM D-566) </li></ul><ul><li>SHELL ROLL TEST (ASTM D-1831) </li></ul>
  12. 12.
  13. 13. NLGI Grade Grease Appearance NLGI GRADE Worked Penetration after 60 Strokes @ 25°C (0.1mm ) Appearance Consistency Food Analog 000 445-475 Fluid Cooking Oil 00 400-430 Fluid Applesause 0 355-385 Very Soft Brown Mustard 1 310-340 Soft Tomato Paste 2 265-295 Moderately Soft Peanut Butter 3 220-250 Semi-Fluid Vegetable Shortening 4 175-205 Semi-Hard Frozen Yogurt 5 130-160 Hard Smooth Pate 6 85-115 Very Hard Cheddar Cheese Spread
  14. 14. APPLICATION METHODS <ul><li>#000 SEMI-FLUID, PUMPED, POURED </li></ul><ul><li>#00 SEMI-FLUID, PUMPED, POURED </li></ul><ul><li>#0 PUMPED, CENTRAL SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>#1 PRESSURE GUN </li></ul><ul><li>#2 PRESSURE GUN, CENTRAL SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>#3 HAND, PRESSURE GUN </li></ul><ul><li>#4 HAND, SPECIAL LUBRICATOR </li></ul><ul><li>#5 HAND </li></ul><ul><li>#6 BLOCK-- HAND, SPECIAL UNIT </li></ul>
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
  17. 17. TYPICAL DROPPING POINTS <ul><li>CALCIUM CALCIUM COMPLEX LITHIUM LITHIUM COMPLEX POLY UREA CALCIUM SULFONATE ALUMINUM ALUMINUM COMPLEX </li></ul><ul><li>160F-210F 475F-550F 350F-375F 475F-550F 500F-575F 500F- 550F 160F-210F 475F-550F </li></ul>
  18. 18. 4 MAJOR CAUSES OF GREASE RELATED FAILURES <ul><li>GREASE SELECTION </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCT COMPATABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATION METHOD </li></ul><ul><li>AMOUNTS UTILIZED </li></ul>
  19. 19. HIGH TEMPERATURE SERVICE INTERVALS
  20. 20. GREASE TROUBLE SHOOTING GUIDE
  21. 21. SYMPTOM: EXCESS WEAR <ul><li>POSSIBLE CAUSE : </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF LUBRICATION </li></ul><ul><li>CHECK POINTS : </li></ul><ul><li>EQUIPMENT MISALIGNMENT </li></ul><ul><li>GREASE APPLICATION AMOUNT/FREQUENCY </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF EXTREME PRESSURE ADDITIVE </li></ul><ul><li>PROPER NLGI GRADE OF GREASE </li></ul>
  22. 22. SYMPTOM: PRODUCT LEAKAGE <ul><li>POSSIBLE CAUSE : </li></ul><ul><li>GREASE APPLICATION OR SEAL PROBLEMS </li></ul><ul><li>CHECK POINTS : </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATION AMOUNTS/FREQUENCY </li></ul><ul><li>PROPER NLGI GRADE OF GREASE </li></ul><ul><li>DAMAGED OR MISSING SEALS </li></ul>
  23. 23. SYMPTOM: EQUIPMENT OVER HEATING <ul><li>POSSIBLE CAUSE : </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF LUBRICATION </li></ul><ul><li>CHECK POINTS : </li></ul><ul><li>EQUIPMENT MISALIGNMENT </li></ul><ul><li>RELUBE AMOUNTS & FREQUENCY </li></ul><ul><li>MALFUNCTIONING LUBE EQUIPMENT </li></ul>
  24. 24. SYMPTOM: GREASE WASH OUT <ul><li>POSSIBLE CAUSE : FLUID CONTAMINATION SEAL PROBLEMS </li></ul><ul><li>CHECK POINTS : </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECT & AMOUNTS OF PROCESS FLUIDS </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECT & AMOUNTS OF COOLING WATER </li></ul><ul><li>DAMAGED OR LEAKING SEALS </li></ul>
  25. 25. SYMPTOM: NOISE (METAL TO METAL CONTACT ) <ul><li>POSSIBLE CAUSE : </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF LUBRICATION </li></ul><ul><li>CHECK POINTS : </li></ul><ul><li>EQUIPMENT MISALIGNMENT </li></ul><ul><li>RELUBE AMOUNTS & FREQUENCY </li></ul>
  26. 26. SYMPTOM: HIGH TEMERATURE GREASE HARDENING <ul><li>POSSIBLE CAUSE : </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROPER GREASE SELECTION </li></ul><ul><li>CHECK POINTS : </li></ul><ul><li>GREASE DROPPING POINT </li></ul><ul><li>GREASE THICKENER </li></ul>
  27. 27. GREASE SELECTION CRITERIA <ul><li>KEY: MATCHING APPLICATION NEEDS TO GREASE PERFORMANCE CAPABILTIES </li></ul><ul><li>IDENTIFY APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS </li></ul>
  28. 28. GREASE SELECTION CRITERIA <ul><li>OPERATING TEMPERATURES (THICKENER) </li></ul><ul><li>EXTREME PRESSURE LEVEL (ADDITIVES) </li></ul><ul><li>SEALING REQUIREMENTS (THICKENER) </li></ul><ul><li>SHOCK LOADING (SOLID ADDITIVES) </li></ul><ul><li>FLUID/WATER EXPOSURE (THICKENER) </li></ul><ul><li>NOISE/VIBRATION NEEDS (THICKENER/OIL) </li></ul><ul><li>RUST & CORROSION PREVENTION (ADDITIVES) </li></ul>
  29. 29.
  30. 30. “ Hydraulic Oils” Primary Function: To Serve As the Power Transmission Medium in the Hydraulic System
  31. 31.
  32. 32. Principal Requirements of a Premium Hydraulic Oil <ul><li>PROPER VISCOSITY </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH VISCOSITY INDEX </li></ul><ul><li>ANTI-WEAR PROTECTION- IF NEEDED </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD OXIDATION STABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>ADEQUATE POUR POINT </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD DEMULSIBILITY </li></ul><ul><li>RUST INHIBITION </li></ul><ul><li>RESISTANCE TO FOAMING </li></ul><ul><li>COMPATIBILITY WITH SEAL MATERIALS </li></ul>
  33. 33. “ Viscosity ” <ul><li>Measurement of a Fluid’s Resistance to Flow </li></ul>
  34. 34. “ Viscosity Index ” <ul><li>Liquids change viscosity with temperature, becoming less viscous when heated: the higher the viscosity index of an oil, the lower its tendency to change viscosity with temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>High V.I.: Small Viscosity Change </li></ul><ul><li>Low V.I. : High Viscosity Change </li></ul>
  35. 35. “ Anti-Wear Protection ” <ul><li>An additive that minimizes wear caused by metal-metal contact. The additive reacts chemically with, and forms a film on metal surfaces. </li></ul>
  36. 36. “ Oxidation Stability ” <ul><li>Resistance of a petroleum product to oxidation; hence a measure of its potential service or storage life. </li></ul>
  37. 37. “ Pour Point ” <ul><li>Is a widely used low temperature flow indicator and is 5 ° F above the temperature to which a normally liquid petroleum product maintains fluidity. </li></ul>
  38. 38. “ Demulsibility” <ul><li>Ability of an oil to separate from water, as determined by ASTM D1401 of D2711 </li></ul>
  39. 39. “ Rust Inhibition ” <ul><li>A lubricant additive for protecting ferrous (iron or steel) components from rusting caused by water contamination or other harmful materials from oil degradation. </li></ul>
  40. 40. “ Foam Inhibitor ” <ul><li>An additive which causes form to dissipate more rapidly. It promotes the combination of small bubbles into large bubbles which burst more easily. </li></ul>
  41. 41. “ Turbine Oils ” General Application Electrical Power Generation Mechanical Drives Compressor Drives
  42. 42. “ Key Turbine Oil Performance Properties ” <ul><li>Oxidation Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Rust Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Demulsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Foaming </li></ul><ul><li>Air Entrainment </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity </li></ul>
  43. 43. “ General Turbine Oil Types ” <ul><li>Type Application </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral Oil Based Steam & Industrial Gas Turbines </li></ul><ul><li>Diester, PAO Based Steam & Industrial Gas Turbines </li></ul><ul><li>Polyol Ester Based Aero-Derivative and Aviation Gas Turbines </li></ul>
  44. 44. “ Gear Oils ”
  45. 45. “ Industrial Gears ” <ul><li>Definition of a Gear- A mechanical device that transfers rotating motion and power from one part of a machine to another part. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Many Shapes or Configurations. </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of a Gear </li></ul><ul><li>Change Rotating Speed (Increase or Decrease) </li></ul><ul><li>Change Rotating Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Change Rotating Power or Torque </li></ul><ul><li>Split a Power Source to Drive Several Machine Elements. </li></ul>
  46. 46. “ Functions of a Gear Oil ” <ul><li>Reduce Wear and Friction </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce Power Loss and Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent Scoring and Welding </li></ul><ul><li>Dissipate Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent Rust and Corrosion </li></ul><ul><li>Promote Release of Entrained Air and Water </li></ul><ul><li>Promote System Cleanliness </li></ul>
  47. 47. What is “EP ” ? <ul><li>Temperature activated additives such as SULFUR or PHOSPHOROUS containing compound that prevent metal welding and adhesive wear of gear teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Form Metallic Salts at asperity contact points to permit surfaces to slide against one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Wear occurs on a microscopic scale </li></ul><ul><li>Works only at the colliding asperities where local temperature exceed 1000 ° F </li></ul>
  48. 48. “ What is “Compounded” ? <ul><li>Contains lubricity agent made from animal fat. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective at ambient temperature, but will break down and deactivate at temperatures above 280 ° F </li></ul><ul><li>These agents attach themselves to metal surfaces and serve as a buffer between the moving parts </li></ul><ul><li>Also increase the film’s resistance to rupture at boundary lubrication condition </li></ul>
  49. 49. “ Industrial Gear Oil Applications ” <ul><li>These type of gears generally need an R&O Gear oil. Some sets may need the EP type depending on loading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spur Gears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helical Gears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double Helical (Herringbone) Gears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bevel Gears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spiral Bevel Gear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This gear element needs a gear oil containing extreme pressure additives-Boundary conditions exist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypoid Gears </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This gear element needs a gear oil compounded gear oil. Sometimes EP gear oils are sufficient with manufacturers approval. </li></ul><ul><li>Worm Gears </li></ul>
  50. 50. Maintenance & Purification of Lubricants <ul><li>Preventing Contamination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep in clean storage area if possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored under cover in special space or room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If stored outdoors they should be under tarpaulins to be clean and from rusting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored on their sides to prevent moisture for being sucked in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean filler tanks, cans, funnels, grease paks and paddles or loader pumps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oils cups, oil reservoirs and grease fittings should be clean before the lubricant is applied. </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. “ After the Lubrication is at work, the nature of the contamination problem changes ” <ul><li>Time, Temperature and Pressure tend to form sludge and oxidation </li></ul><ul><li>Wear leaves particles of metal in the lubricant </li></ul><ul><li>Loose seals tend to let grit, dust, lint, moisture and fine chips as well leak lubricant </li></ul><ul><li>Operating conditions should be regulated so as to minimize these sources of contamination </li></ul>
  52. 52. Any Questions ?

×