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Pricing: High-Impact Business Strategy or Departmental Tactic?
 

Pricing: High-Impact Business Strategy or Departmental Tactic?

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Is your organization’s pricing strategy focused only on the cost of admission? Developed in just one department? This 90-minute workshop, presented at the Arts Reach Canada Conference in May 2013, ...

Is your organization’s pricing strategy focused only on the cost of admission? Developed in just one department? This 90-minute workshop, presented at the Arts Reach Canada Conference in May 2013, was designed to show leadership teams how much more there is to consider and to gain. High-impact pricing generates positive perception, improved patron loyalty, and greater revenue for every admission or seat sold. Jill Robinson, President of TRG Arts, the consulting firm that pioneered dynamic pricing and demand management in the arts, will open the session with a short quiz. You’ll evaluate your organization’s pricing approach. Then, hear how best pricing practices can earn double-digit revenue increases when your management and staff play the right roles. Take home new ideas for effective pricing leadership, decision-making, and staff team participation.

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  • Here’s the type of orgs we work with.
  • Our presence in Canada has grown substantially…plug for John’s Canadian conference.
  • We get to 1200 clients because of our Network Programs…explanation.
  • And the reason we provide this background is this. TRG is a results-driven company, and without data it’s much harder to accomplish results, and impossible to track/measure them.
  • And the reason we provide this background is this. TRG is a results-driven company, and without data it’s much harder to accomplish results, and impossible to track/measure them.
  • And the reason we provide this background is this. TRG is a results-driven company, and without data it’s much harder to accomplish results, and impossible to track/measure them.
  • And the reason we provide this background is this. TRG is a results-driven company, and without data it’s much harder to accomplish results, and impossible to track/measure them.
  • Past two years, R&D on most successful clients, we’re bringing to the surface what we’re seeing and hearing in the form of this challenge: it’s all about INTEGRATED, SUSTAINABLE income. And for those of you running seated event businesses, the rules of the road are specific and different and sometimes more complicated for you.
  • Past two years, R&D on most successful clients, we’re bringing to the surface what we’re seeing and hearing in the form of this challenge: it’s all about INTEGRATED, SUSTAINABLE income. And for those of you running seated event businesses, the rules of the road are specific and different and sometimes more complicated for you.
  • When we look at integrated loyalty, this is what we do and how we do it, and what comes from it. For us, everything we do ties together into this.
  • And to make that real tactically, we look to what we call The 10 Steps to Loyalty. OF WHICH PRICING IS A PART.
  • We’ve been engaged as pricing consultants every year of our nearly 20-year history…the field calls it “pricing,” we call it demand management. And we’ve been pleased to see organizations incorporate—with and without our help—best practices in demand management to great success.
  • We’ve been engaged as pricing consultants every year of our nearly 20-year history…the field calls it “pricing,” we call it demand management. And we’ve been pleased to see organizations incorporate—with and without our help—best practices in demand management to great success.
  • I’m using the word “patron” before “data stewardship” because as I sounded this out, I realized that most executive leaders would say, “YES, I use data” They’re thinking spreadsheets. We mean something else.
  • I said we’ve been engaged as “pricing” consultants for a long time…pricing isn’t the point.
  • Demand is the point. And you have it everywhere.
  • So, let’s assume you want to do this. HOW do you operationalize it?
  • The other is acknowledging that everyone plays different parts.

Pricing: High-Impact Business Strategy or Departmental Tactic? Pricing: High-Impact Business Strategy or Departmental Tactic? Presentation Transcript

  • Pricing: High-Impact Business Strategyor Departmental Tactic?ForArts Reach Canadian Arts ConferenceMay 15-16, 2013
  • 2Who We Are• Results-driven, data-oriented consulting firm• 1,200 arts, cultural, entertainment clients in US,Canada, Australia• Capacity-building for sustainable, integratedpatron and revenue growth• Colorado-based with regional offices across NorthAmerica– In business since 1995– Fulltime staff of 35
  • 3
  • 4Vancouver Recital Society
  • 5National Community Network Programs
  • 623,000,000
  • 750,000,000
  • 8Patron Behaviors
  • 9The Past Five Years
  • 10The 2013 ChallengeIntegrated Patron Loyaltythat createssustainable revenue streams
  • 11The 2013 ChallengeThe SEATED event business
  • 12All Viewed Thru A-B-TVIPAccess, PricingBetter accessIncentives forupgrades, addsLeast attractive access,most expensive,incentives to upgrade
  • 13Creating Loyalty Steps: a How-To
  • 14PRICING
  • 15DEMAND
  • 16Departmental Tactic orOrganizational Strategy?
  • Organizational Demand Strategy Enables1. Real growth in demand2. Perception of success3. Increased income for in-demand productions, exhibits,times of year3. Increased customer loyalty4. Improved organizationalperformance
  • How?1. Brave leadership.2. Patron data stewardship.3. Understand the impact of demand.4. Exploit the business role of artistic planning.5. Then exploit the opportunities therein!6. Agree that perception matters. And behavelike it.
  • 19Step One: Brave Leadership
  • How?Brave leaders:• Enable focus on most important priorities.– Question #1: ―what % of your income comes from patronsources?‖– Stop Doing Lists• Describe and define success clearly.– What is your patron-centered objective?– Question #2: ―do you understand the business strategy in yourpricing decisions and how it affects those revenue streams?‖– Also time to consider:• Impact of silos on outcomes• Impact of budget and budgeting process (incentive) on behavior• Insist on and are involved in strategy and operations thatsupport success.
  • 21• Understood as an asset– Used for budgeting– Organizational decision-making• Accurate—do you maintain it? Standards?• Transactional—you’ll need it for pricing analysis– Subscribers– Single Ticket Buyers– Donors– Event Attendees– What else?Step Two: Patron Data StewardshipDoes your organization value and use patron data?
  • 22Step Three: Understandthe Impact of Demand
  • 23The Pricing Process
  • 24DemandDay of WeekSeasonalityTime of dayProgrammingOpening & ClosingDatesReal Estate
  • What does this mean?• Demand’s impact on opportunity…– Revenue gain when demand exists– For trial and exposure when it doesn’t• …and on loyalty– Loyalists granted early access– Patrons not yet loyal see clearly the benefit• Timing• Access
  • Exploiting demand• Organizational support and focus where demandexists– Everyone on same page for real revenue gain– Purposeful management of loyalists– Non-loyal: less desirable access, pricing• Proactive and opportunistic management where it’slower– Trial, generate awareness, creative promotion– All customers have access to great times, inventory, pricing!
  • 27Step Four: Exploit the Business Rolein Artistic Planning
  • 28ArtisticPlanning: theBusinessRole28
  • 29Step Five: Then Leveragethe Opportunities Therein!
  • 300%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%$0$10,000$20,000$30,000$40,000$50,000$60,000$70,000$80,000North Carolina SymphonyClassical Cost of Sale Summary, 2011-12ST Rev COS Linear (COS)Exploit BlockbustersCost of Sale Approach to BudgetingQuestion #3
  • 31Develop a Scale Plan that Works• Performing Arts:• Manage perception andmaximize income• Is your scale optimal?• Does the house naturallydress? QUESTION #4.• Are areas selling out?• In the right order?• As a performancesucceeds, does per capitarevenue rise?5 3 1 A 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 10317 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 B 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 10321 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 C 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 10323 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 D 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 10425 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 E 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 10425 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 F 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 10427 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 G 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 10427 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 H 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 10429 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 J 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 10429 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 K 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 10431 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 L 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 10431 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 M 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 10431 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 N 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 10431 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 O 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 10433 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 P 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 10433 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 R 119 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 10535 33 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 S 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 10537 35 33 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 T 119 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 10537 35 33 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 U 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 10537 35 33 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 V 119 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 10535 33 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 W 120 119 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106A 3 1 35 33 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 X 121 120 119 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106B 3 1 35 33 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 Y 120 119 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106C 5 3 1 33 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 Z 121 120 119 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106D 5 3 1 33 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 AA 120 119 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106E 7 5 3 1 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 BB 121 120 119 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106F 7 5 3 1 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 CC 120 119 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106G 7 5 3 1H 7 5 3 1J 9 7 5 3 1 GrandTier BoxesK 7 5 3 1 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 4 1 2 1L 2 1 5 6 7 8 4 5 6 3 4 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 3 4 5 6 7 8 3 4 43 2 1 1 2 3 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 1 1 2 24 5 6 6 5 4 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 39 8 7 7 8 9 6 5 5 6 6 5 5 6 6 5 5 6 6 5 5 6 6 5 5 6 623 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 A 127 125 123 121 119 117 115 113 111 109 107 105 103 101 102 104 106 10827 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 B ## 129 127 125 123 121 119 117 115 113 111 109 107 105 103 101 102 104 106 108 11027 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 C ## 129 127 125 123 121 119 117 115 113 111 109 107 105 103 101 102 104 106 108 11029 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 D ## 129 127 125 123 121 119 117 115 113 111 109 107 105 103 101 102 104 106 108 11031 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 E ## 129 127 125 123 121 119 117 115 113 111 109 107 105 103 101 102 104 106 108 11047 45 43 41 39 37 35 33 31 29 27 25 F 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 F 112 111 102 10147 45 43 41 39 37 35 33 31 29 27 25 G 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 G 112 111 102 10151 49 47 45 43 41 39 37 35 33 31 29 27 25 H 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 H 112 111 110 103 102 10151 49 47 45 43 41 39 37 35 33 31 29 27 25 J 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 J 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 10151 49 47 45 43 41 39 37 35 33 31 29 27 25 K 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 K 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 10151 49 47 45 43 41 39 37 35 33 31 29 27 25 L 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 L 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 10151 49 47 45 43 41 39 37 35 33 31 29 27 25 M 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 M 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 10153 51 49 47 45 43 41 39 37 35 33 31 29 27 25 N 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 N 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 101O47 45 43 41 39 37 35 33 31 29 27 25 P 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 O 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 10147 45 43 41 39 37 35 33 31 29 27 25 R 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 P 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 10151 49 47 45 43 41 39 37 35 33 31 29 27 25 S 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 R 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 10151 49 47 45 43 41 39 37 35 33 31 29 27 25 T 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 S 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 10151 49 47 45 43 41 39 37 35 33 31 29 27 25 U 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 T 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 101Terrace CircleDress Circle BoxesGrand CircleDress CircleKCDEX UVW T S R P O MN LABFP O N M L K J H G
  • 32TRG Case24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 Q 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 Q 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 Q 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 Q 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 2520 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 P 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 P 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 P 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 P 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 N 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 N 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 N 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 N 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 M 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 M 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 M 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 M 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 L 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 L 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 L 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 L 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 K 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 K 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 K 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 K 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 J 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 J 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 J 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 J 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 H 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 H 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 H 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 H 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1926 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 G 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 G 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 G 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 G 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 2528 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 F 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 F 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 F 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 F 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 2728 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 E 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 E 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 E 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 E 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 2726 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 D 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 D 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 D 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 D 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 2522 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 C 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 C 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 C 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 C 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 2122 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 B 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 B 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 B 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 B 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 2128 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 A 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 A 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 A 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 A 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27ORCHR ORCHRC ORCHC ORCHLC ORCHL14 12 10 8 6 4 2 ZZ 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 ZZ 101 102 103 104 105 106 ZZ 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 ZZ 1 3 5 7 9 11 1316 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 YY 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 YY 101 102 103 104 105 106 YY 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 YY 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1516 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 XX 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 XX 101 102 103 104 105 106 XX 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 XX 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1514 12 10 8 6 4 2 WW 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 WW 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 WW 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 WW 1 3 5 7 9 11 1316 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 VV 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 VV 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 VV 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 VV 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1514 12 10 8 6 4 2 UU 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 UU 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 UU 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 UU 1 3 5 7 9 11 1318 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 TT 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 TT 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 TT 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 TT 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1716 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 SS 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 SS 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 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209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 Z 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 Z 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 Z 1 3 5 7 9 WCORCL20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 Y 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 Y 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 Y 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 Y 1 3 5 7 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 718 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 X 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 X 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 X 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 X 1 3 5 7 9 11 1 2 3 4 518 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 W 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 W 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 W 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 W 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1716 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 V 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 V 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 V 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 V 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1514 12 10 8 6 4 2 U 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 U 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 U 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 U 1 3 5 7 9 11 1312 10 8 6 4 2 T 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 T 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 T 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 T 1 3 5 7 9 1112 10 8 6 4 2 S 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 S 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 S 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 S 1 3 5 7 9 1112 10 8 6 4 2 R 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 R 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 R 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 R 1 3 5 7 9 118 6 4 2 Q 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 Q 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 Q 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 Q 1 3 5 78 6 4 2 P 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 P 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 P 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 P 1 3 5 76 4 2 N 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 N 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 N 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 N 1 3 54 2 M 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 M 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 M 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 M 1 34 2 L 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 L 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 L 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 L 1 3K 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 K 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 K 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 KJ 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 J 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 J 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 JH 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 H 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 H 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 HG 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 G 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 G 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 GF 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 F 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 F 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 FE 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 E 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 E 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 ED 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 D 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 D 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 DC 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 C 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 C 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 CB 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 B 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 B 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 BA 206 205 204 203 202 201 A 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 A 301 302 303 304 305 306 AABDEBCC
  • 33Original Heat Map24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 Q 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 Q 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 Q 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 Q 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 2520 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 P 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 P 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 P 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 P 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 N 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 N 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 N 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 N 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 M 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 M 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 M 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 M 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 L 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 L 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 L 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 L 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 K 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 K 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 K 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 K 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 J 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 J 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 J 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 J 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 H 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 H 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 H 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 H 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1926 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 G 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 G 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 G 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 G 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 2528 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 F 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 F 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 F 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 F 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 2728 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 E 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 E 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 E 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 E 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 2726 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 D 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 D 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 D 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 D 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 2522 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 C 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 C 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 C 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 C 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 2122 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 B 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 B 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 B 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 B 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 2128 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 A 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 A 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 A 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 A 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27ORCHR ORCHRC ORCHC ORCHLC ORCHL14 12 10 8 6 4 2 ZZ 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 ZZ 101 102 103 104 105 106 ZZ 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 ZZ 1 3 5 7 9 11 1316 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 YY 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 YY 101 102 103 104 105 106 YY 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 YY 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1516 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 XX 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 XX 101 102 103 104 105 106 XX 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 XX 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1514 12 10 8 6 4 2 WW 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 WW 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 WW 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 WW 1 3 5 7 9 11 1316 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 VV 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 VV 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 VV 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 VV 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1514 12 10 8 6 4 2 UU 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 UU 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 UU 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 UU 1 3 5 7 9 11 1318 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 TT 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 TT 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 TT 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 TT 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1716 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 SS 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 SS 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 SS 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 SS 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1516 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 RR 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 RR 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 RR 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 RR 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1516 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 QQ 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 QQ 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 QQ 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 QQ 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1714 12 10 8 6 4 2 PP 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 PP 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 PP 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 PP 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15WCORCR 12 10 8 6 4 2 NN 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 NN 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 NN 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 NN 1 3 5 7 9 11 133 1 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 Z 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 Z 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 Z 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 Z 1 3 5 7 9 WCORCL20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 Y 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 Y 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 Y 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 Y 1 3 5 7 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 718 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 X 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 X 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 X 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 X 1 3 5 7 9 11 1 2 3 4 518 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 W 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 W 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 W 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 W 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1716 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 V 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 V 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 V 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 V 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1514 12 10 8 6 4 2 U 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 U 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 U 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 U 1 3 5 7 9 11 1312 10 8 6 4 2 T 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 T 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 T 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 T 1 3 5 7 9 1112 10 8 6 4 2 S 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 S 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 S 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 S 1 3 5 7 9 1112 10 8 6 4 2 R 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 R 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 R 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 R 1 3 5 7 9 118 6 4 2 Q 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 Q 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 Q 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 Q 1 3 5 78 6 4 2 P 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 P 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 P 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 P 1 3 5 76 4 2 N 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 N 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 N 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 N 1 3 54 2 M 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 M 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 M 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 M 1 34 2 L 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 L 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 L 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 L 1 3K 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 K 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 K 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 KJ 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 J 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 J 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 JH 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 H 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 H 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 HG 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 G 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 G 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 GF 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 F 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 F 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 FE 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 E 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 E 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 ED 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 D 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 D 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 DC 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 C 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 C 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 CB 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 B 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 B 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 BA 206 205 204 203 202 201 A 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 A 301 302 303 304 305 306 A
  • 34Revised Scale and Inventory Plan24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 Q 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 Q 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 Q 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 Q 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 2520 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 P 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 P 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 P 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 P 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 N 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 N 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 N 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 N 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 M 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 M 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 M 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 M 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 L 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 L 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 L 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 L 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 K 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 K 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 K 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 K 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 J 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 J 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 J 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 J 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 H 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 H 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 H 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 H 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1926 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 G 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 G 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 G 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 G 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 2528 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 F 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 F 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 F 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 F 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 2728 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 E 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 E 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 E 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 E 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 2726 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 D 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 D 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 D 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 D 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 2522 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 C 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 C 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 C 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 C 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 2122 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 B 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 B 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 B 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 B 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 2128 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 A 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 A 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 A 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 A 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27ORCHR ORCHRC ORCHC ORCHLC ORCHL14 12 10 8 6 4 2 ZZ 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 ZZ 101 102 103 104 105 106 ZZ 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 ZZ 1 3 5 7 9 11 1316 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 YY 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 YY 101 102 103 104 105 106 YY 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 YY 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1516 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 XX 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 XX 101 102 103 104 105 106 XX 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 XX 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1514 12 10 8 6 4 2 WW 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 WW 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 WW 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 WW 1 3 5 7 9 11 1316 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 VV 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 VV 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 VV 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 VV 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1514 12 10 8 6 4 2 UU 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 UU 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 UU 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 UU 1 3 5 7 9 11 1318 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 TT 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 TT 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 TT 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 TT 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1716 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 SS 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 SS 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 SS 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 SS 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1516 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 RR 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 RR 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 RR 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 RR 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1516 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 QQ 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 QQ 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 QQ 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 QQ 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1714 12 10 8 6 4 2 PP 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 PP 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 PP 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 PP 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15WCORCR 12 10 8 6 4 2 NN 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 NN 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 NN 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 NN 1 3 5 7 9 11 133 1 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 Z 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 Z 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 Z 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 Z 1 3 5 7 9 WCORCL20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 Y 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 Y 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 Y 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 Y 1 3 5 7 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 718 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 X 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 X 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 X 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 X 1 3 5 7 9 11 1 2 3 4 518 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 W 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 W 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 W 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 W 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1716 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 V 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 V 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 V 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 V 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1514 12 10 8 6 4 2 U 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 U 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 U 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 U 1 3 5 7 9 11 1312 10 8 6 4 2 T 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 T 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 T 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 T 1 3 5 7 9 1112 10 8 6 4 2 S 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 S 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 S 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 S 1 3 5 7 9 1112 10 8 6 4 2 R 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 R 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 R 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 R 1 3 5 7 9 118 6 4 2 Q 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 Q 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 Q 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 Q 1 3 5 78 6 4 2 P 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 P 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 P 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 P 1 3 5 76 4 2 N 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 N 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 N 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 N 1 3 54 2 M 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 M 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 M 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 M 1 34 2 L 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 L 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 L 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 L 1 3K 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 K 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 K 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 KJ 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 J 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 J 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 JH 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 H 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 H 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 HG 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 G 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 G 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 GF 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 F 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 F 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 FE 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 E 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 E 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 ED 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 D 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 D 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 DC 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 C 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 C 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 CB 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 B 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 B 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 BA 206 205 204 203 202 201 A 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 A 301 302 303 304 305 306 APL 1PL 2PL 2 Hold1PL 2 Hold2PL 3PL 4PL 5 PL 3 PL 4 PL 5PL 3Hold1PL 3Hold2PL 4Hold1PL 3Hold1PL 4Hold1PL 4Hold2PL 3Hold2PL 4Hold2PL 2 Hold3PL 2 Hold3PL 1Hold3PL 1Hold4PL 2 Hold4PL 2 Hold4PL 3Hold3PL 3Hold4PL 3Hold3PL 3Hold4PL 2 Hold5PL 2 Hold6PL 4Hold1PL 1PL 5PL 4Hold1PL 3Hold2PL 4Hold2PL 3Hold3PL 3Hold4
  • 35Resulting Inventory Usage24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 Q 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 Q 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 Q 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 Q 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 2520 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 P 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 P 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 P 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 P 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 N 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 N 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 N 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 N 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 M 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 M 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 M 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 M 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 L 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 L 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 L 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 L 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 K 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 K 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 K 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 K 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 J 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 J 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 J 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 J 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1920 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 H 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 H 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 H 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 H 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1926 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 G 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 G 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 G 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 G 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 2528 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 F 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 F 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 F 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 F 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 2728 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 E 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 E 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 E 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 E 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 2726 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 D 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 D 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 D 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 D 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 2522 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 C 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 C 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 C 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 C 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 2122 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 B 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 B 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 B 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 B 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 2128 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 A 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 A 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 A 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 A 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27ORCHR ORCHRC ORCHC ORCHLC ORCHL14 12 10 8 6 4 2 ZZ 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 ZZ 101 102 103 104 105 106 ZZ 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 ZZ 1 3 5 7 9 11 1316 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 YY 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 YY 101 102 103 104 105 106 YY 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 YY 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1516 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 XX 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 XX 101 102 103 104 105 106 XX 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 XX 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1514 12 10 8 6 4 2 WW 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 WW 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 WW 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 WW 1 3 5 7 9 11 1316 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 VV 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 VV 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 VV 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 VV 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1514 12 10 8 6 4 2 UU 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 UU 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 UU 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 UU 1 3 5 7 9 11 1318 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 TT 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 TT 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 TT 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 TT 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1716 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 SS 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 SS 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 SS 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 SS 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1516 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 RR 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 RR 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 RR 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 RR 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1516 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 QQ 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 QQ 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 QQ 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 QQ 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1714 12 10 8 6 4 2 PP 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 PP 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 PP 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 PP 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15WCORCR 12 10 8 6 4 2 NN 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 NN 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 NN 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 NN 1 3 5 7 9 11 131 4 3 2 1 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 Z 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 Z 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 Z 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 Z 1 3 5 7 9 WCORCL2 12 11 10 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 Y 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 Y 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 Y 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 Y 1 3 5 7 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 718 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 X 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 X 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 X 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 X 1 3 5 7 9 11 1 2 3 4 9 10 1118 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 W 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 W 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 W 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 W 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1716 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 V 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 V 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 V 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 V 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 1514 12 10 8 6 4 2 U 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 U 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 U 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 U 1 3 5 7 9 11 1312 10 8 6 4 2 T 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 T 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 T 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 T 1 3 5 7 9 1112 10 8 6 4 2 S 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 S 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 S 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 S 1 3 5 7 9 1112 10 8 6 4 2 R 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 R 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 R 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 R 1 3 5 7 9 118 6 4 2 Q 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 Q 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 Q 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 Q 1 3 5 78 6 4 2 P 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 P 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 P 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 P 1 3 5 76 4 2 N 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 N 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 N 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 N 1 3 54 2 M 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 M 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 M 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 M 1 34 2 L 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 L 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 L 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 L 1 3K 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 K 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 K 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 KJ 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 J 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 J 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 JH 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 H 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 H 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 HG 213 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 G 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 G 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 GF 212 211 210 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 F 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 F 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 FE 209 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 E 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 E 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 ED 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 D 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 D 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 DC 208 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 C 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 C 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 CB 207 206 205 204 203 202 201 B 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 B 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 BA 206 205 204 203 202 201 A 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 A 301 302 303 304 305 306 A
  • 36ImpactPer Capitarevenues up$230, or 57%Price Varianceentire season:$2.26 million$ 826,555 dynamicpricing$3,000,000 total
  • 37Pricing
  • 38Price to Maximize Income AND Sell TicketsGuidelines• Push top prices based on competitive and politicalrealities• Offer very low entry level price points– How close to the price of a movie?• Design price table for logical up-sale• Volume of inventory at particular price point MUCHMORE important than specific prices
  • 39Museums: Demand-Based PricingMuseums/Attractions:• Understand historical sales trends?• How programming is likely to affect? Seasonality? Competition?
  • Dynamic Pricing• Now public domain• Dynamically change prices based on patron demand– Adjustments based on programming (beyond peak/off-peak)– Based on sales trend analysis of projected outcomes• Static models are simpler– Demand based pricing as added increment• Changes to collateral and advertising– Published prices– ―Program, artists and prices subject to change‖• Technology changes – ticketing system– Remember: you already demand base prices ―going down‖• Training – staff• Predetermine your trigger points – FLEXIBILITY!
  • 41Per Capita Revenue Management
  • 42Per Capita Income
  • 43Remember: Loyal patrons are beneficiaries
  • 44Step Six: Agree that perceptionmatters, especially in a seated eventbusiness. And act like it.Comps?Discounts?Exchanges?Walk up sales?
  • 45Complimentary Ticket ManagementQuestion 5• Frequently an area that is out of control– Paper to made houses look better– No policy or management– Greater use of more popular shows!?– Recent theatre client example typical
  • 46Discount ManagementQuestion 60500100015002000250030000100020003000400050006000700080009000Playhouse in the ParkDiscount Ticket Distribution SummaryTotal Pd. # Disc # Linear (Disc #)
  • 47Per Capita Revenue ManagementOrganizational PlanningSingle TicketRevenue GoalMarketingExpenseCost ofSaleAllottedCompsAllottedDiscountsProjectedPer CapActualPer CapActualCompsActualDiscountsEvent 1Event 2Event 3Event 4Event 5Event 6Event 7Event 8Event 9Event 10Event 11Event 12
  • 48Organizational RolesQuestion 7
  • 49Roles and ResponsibilitiesExecutive Leader: create organizational priorityMarketing Leader: analyze data, create recommendations for staffconsiderationDevelopment Leader: analyze donor data, understand impact onloyalty, thought partner with marketing in advance ofrecommendationsBox Office Leader: thought partner with marketing in advance ofrecommendations, implement recommendations, manageconsumer reaction, take responsibility for demand ―triggers‖Financial Leader: provide infrastructure for decision-makingArtistic Leader: thought partnership, understand historical data andpotential impact on demand
  • 50Results?
  • 51Improved Perception!
  • 52Improved Per-Caps & Revenues!
  • 53Improved Loyalty!
  • 54Questions?