Response to Crisis: Absolutism By:EnriqueBasauri Alondra Palacios Chiara Carmelino
Do Now: How would you like if there was only one person in charge of this community? Country?
A Response to Crisis Europeans wanted to seek, in the 17th century, more stability by increasing the power of the monarch. The ending result was: Absolutism - a system in which ruler holds total power. It is tied to the idea of divine right of kings: rulers receive their power from God and were responsible to no one except god. Abilities: Make laws Levy taxes Administer justice Control officials Determine foreign policy
Louis XIV His reign was known as the best example of absolutism of the 17th century. His court was imitated throughout all of Europe.
Before Louis Government was trying their best to avoid the breakdown of the state. When Louis XIII and Louis XIV were only kids when they came to throne Therefore the government was put in the hands of royal ministers There were two ministers that played important roles in in preserving authority.
Two Important Ministers Cardinal Richelieu Cardinal Mazarin
Cardinal Richelieu Louis XIII’s chief minister and strengthened the monarchy’s power. He took away the Huguenots political and military rights because they were seen as a threat to the king. Then he crushed the conspiracies and executed the conspirators.
Cardinal Mazarin Chief Minister Took control of the government due to Louis XIV being young of age And crushed a revolt led by noble. When he died Louis XIV took over at the age of 23 and took supreme power.
Government and Religion Louis XIV had supreme power over nation wide policy making. Ex: foreign policy, church, and taxes. However nobles had more influence over the local government. The king had bribed important people in the provinces to watch over that his laws are being carried out. As for religion, he wants to eliminate the Huguenots, French protestants, from his land and turn is country to Catholicism. He sent for people to destroy their churches and close down the schools. Over 2000 Huguenots have fled to England, United provinces, and German states.
Economy and War In the economy, Louis XIV increased exports and decreased imports of goods. He also created roads and canals, that way he can improve communication. He wanted to increase his royal power, therefore he held 4 wars between 1667 and 1713 and had an army of 400,000 men. Louis XIV dies in 1715, leaving France in debt and surrounded by enemies.
Two Great European Powers Austria Prussia
Emergence of Prussia Frederick William the Great Elector was the leader and laid the foundations of the Prussian state. Since the state had weak natural defenses, he had built an army of 40 thousand men to protect themselves. In order to keep his army growing, he set up a General War Commissariat to levy taxes. It had become an agency for civil government and also the elector’s main instrument to govern the state.
Austrian Empire The Austrian Hapsburgs were not able to take/win German lands after losing the ‘Thirty Years’ War The Austrian empire was made up of modern day Austria, Czech Republic, and Hungary. After winning the war against the Turks, they took control of Transylvania, Croatia and Slavonia. The never gained centralized power. They only have the ideal of service to Hapsburgs, held by military officers and government officials.
Russian Times The first czar was Ivan IV known as Ivan the Terrible. Czar – the Russian word for Caesar Ivan IV had crushed the boyars. Boyars –the Russian nobility His dynasty ended in 1598 A period of anarchy also known as the Time of Troubles followed It then led to the national assembly of choosing Michael Romanov as the new czar in 1613 to 1917. In 1689 Peter the Great became czar and claimed the divine right to rule. He wanted to westernize or Europeanized Russia and was more eager to borrow European technology to turn the army and navy into a great power. Peter the Great died in 1725 He left Russia having a great military power and being an important European state.
Peter’s Changes for Russia Peter created the first Russian Navy He created an army of 210 thousand soldiers. Divided up Russia into provinces. Want to have a well ordered community governed by law. Introduces western customs, practices and manners. He got prepared the first Russian book of etiquette to teach western manners And he also acquired the land he sought to to get after a war with Sweden In 1703, Peter started the construction of St. Petersburg on the Baltic Sea which became the capital of Russia until 1918.