Do Now:<br />How would you like if there was only one person in charge of this community? Country?<br />
A Response to Crisis<br />Europeans wanted to seek, in the 17th century, more stability by increasing the power of the monarch. The ending result was:<br />Absolutism - a system in which ruler holds total power.<br />It is tied to the idea of divine right of kings: rulers receive their power from God and were responsible to no one except god.<br />Abilities:<br />Make laws<br />Levy taxes<br />Administer justice<br />Control officials<br />Determine foreign policy<br />
Louis XIV<br />His reign was known as the best example of absolutism of the 17th century.<br />His court was imitated throughout all of Europe.<br />
Before Louis<br />Government was trying their best to avoid the breakdown of the state.<br />When Louis XIII and Louis XIV were only kids when they came to throne<br />Therefore the government was put in the hands of royal ministers<br />There were two ministers that played important roles in in preserving authority.<br />
Two Important Ministers<br />Cardinal Richelieu<br />Cardinal Mazarin<br />
Cardinal Richelieu<br />Louis XIII’s chief minister and strengthened the monarchy’s power.<br />He took away the Huguenots political and military rights because they were seen as a threat to the king. <br />Then he crushed the conspiracies and executed the conspirators.<br />
Cardinal Mazarin<br />Chief Minister<br />Took control of the government due to Louis XIV being young of age<br />And crushed a revolt led by noble.<br />When he died Louis XIV took over at the age of 23 and took supreme power.<br />
Government and Religion<br />Louis XIV had supreme power over nation wide policy making. Ex: foreign policy, church, and taxes.<br />However nobles had more influence over the local government.<br />The king had bribed important people in the provinces to watch over that his laws are being carried out.<br />As for religion, he wants to eliminate the Huguenots, French protestants, from his land and turn is country to Catholicism.<br />He sent for people to destroy their churches and close down the schools.<br />Over 2000 Huguenots have fled to England, United provinces, and German states.<br />
Economy and War<br />In the economy, Louis XIV increased exports and decreased imports of goods. He also created roads and canals, that way he can improve communication.<br />He wanted to increase his royal power, therefore he held 4 wars between 1667 and 1713 and had an army of 400,000 men.<br />Louis XIV dies in 1715, leaving France in debt and surrounded by enemies.<br />
Two Great European Powers<br />Austria<br />Prussia<br />
Emergence of Prussia<br />Frederick William the Great Elector was the leader and laid the foundations of the Prussian state. <br />Since the state had weak natural defenses, he had built an army of 40 thousand men to protect themselves. <br />In order to keep his army growing, he set up a General War Commissariat to levy taxes. It had become an agency for civil government and also the elector’s main instrument to govern the state.<br />
Austrian Empire<br />The Austrian Hapsburgs were not able to take/win German lands after losing the ‘Thirty Years’ War<br />The Austrian empire was made up of modern day Austria, Czech Republic, and Hungary. After winning the war against the Turks, they took control of Transylvania, Croatia and Slavonia.<br />The never gained centralized power. They only have the ideal of service to Hapsburgs, held by military officers and government officials.<br />
Russian Times<br />The first czar was Ivan IV known as Ivan the Terrible.<br />Czar – the Russian word for Caesar<br />Ivan IV had crushed the boyars.<br />Boyars –the Russian nobility<br />His dynasty ended in 1598<br />A period of anarchy also known as the Time of Troubles followed<br />It then led to the national assembly of choosing Michael Romanov as the new czar in 1613 to 1917.<br />In 1689 Peter the Great became czar and claimed the divine right to rule.<br />He wanted to westernize or Europeanized Russia and was more eager to borrow European technology to turn the army and navy into a great power.<br />Peter the Great died in 1725<br />He left Russia having a great military power and being an important European state.<br />
Peter’s Changes for Russia<br />Peter created the first Russian Navy<br />He created an army of 210 thousand soldiers.<br />Divided up Russia into provinces.<br />Want to have a well ordered community governed by law.<br />Introduces western customs, practices and manners.<br />He got prepared the first Russian book of etiquette to teach western manners<br />And he also acquired the land he sought to to get after a war with Sweden<br />In 1703, Peter started the construction of St. Petersburg on the Baltic Sea which became the capital of Russia until 1918.<br />
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