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7 3 power point

  1. 1. Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe<br />By Jessica, Shahida, and Nin<br />
  2. 2. Do Now<br />France became the greatest power of the seventeenth century. Prussia, Austria, and Russia also emerged as great European powers. <br />Do people still fight for power? If so, how? <br />
  3. 3. France Under Louis XIV<br />Absolutism - A system in which a ruler holds total power of the monarch. <br /><ul><li> After the Thirty Years’ War, officials sought more stability by increasing power to the monarch. The result of this was absolutism.
  4. 4. In seventeenth-century Europe, absolutism was tied to the idea of the divine rights of kings. This means that rulers received their power from God and were responsible to no one but God. They could make laws, levy taxes, administer justice, control officials, and determine foreign policy. </li></ul>Louis XIV - An absolute monarch whose rule was admired and imitated throughout Europe.<br /><ul><li> Louis’s reign has been known as the best example of absolutism. </li></li></ul><li>Richelieu and Mazarin <br />Before Louis took the throne there was a period of struggle as governments fought to avoid the breakdown of the state. <br /> Because Louis XIV and Louis XIII were too young to take the throne, royal ministers took over.<br /> In France, two ministers played important roles in preserving the authority of the monarchy. <br />Cardinal Richelieu(Louis XIV’s chief minister) strengthened the monarchy’spower. He crushed conspiracies and executed their conspirators.<br />Cardinal Mazarin (Louis XIV chief minister) crushed a revolt led by nobles.<br /> When Mazarin died in 1661, Louis XIV took over. He established and kept to a strict routine. He also called himself the Sun King. <br />
  5. 5. Government and Religion<br /> A key point to Louis’s power was his control of the central policy-making machinery of government. <br />The royal court he established served three purposes. It was the personal household of the king. In addition, the chief offices of the state were there. Finally, it was the place where powerful subjects came to find favors and offices for themselves.<br />Although Louis had absolute power on national terms, he had little control over local places. <br />To make an impression, he bribed nobles to make sure his policies were being carried out.<br />
  6. 6. The Economy and War<br />Finances were a crucial issue for Louis. Although, he was lucky to have Jean-Baptiste Colbert as controller of general finances. <br />Colbert wanted to increase France’s wealth by following mercantilism. He wanted to decrease imports and increase exports. <br />To improve communications and the transportation of goods he built roads and canals. <br />Louis wished to achieve the military glory befitting the Sun King and ensure that his dynasty dominated Europe. <br />To achieve this, he waged four wars between 1667 and 1713. Many nations came together to prevent him from dominating Europe. <br />Louis gained some land and set up a member of his own dynasty to the throne of Spain.<br />
  7. 7. Absolutism in Eastern and Central EuropeAfter the Thirty Years War, there were over 300 German states. Of these, Prussia and Austria emerged as two great European powers. <br />The Emergence of Prussia<br />Frederick William the Great Elector - laid the foundation for the Prussian state<br /> Prussia was small and open with no natural defense, so the king, Frederick William the Great Elector built a large and efficient army. It became the 4th largest army in Europe. <br /> Frederick William also set up the General War Commissariat to get taxes for and watch the growth of the army. <br />
  8. 8. The New Austrian Empire<br />Austria wanted to create an empire in Germany, but could not after the Thirty Years War. So instead, they created a new empire in eastern and southeaster Europe. <br /> First, the empire was made up of present-day Austria, the Czech Republic, and Hungary. They then defeated the Turks, and gained control of the rest of Hungary, as well as Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovania, too.<br /> <br /> The Austrian Empire never became very absolutist because it was made up of so many different national groups. It was just a collection of territories ruled by Austria. Each area or territory had its own laws. <br />
  9. 9. Peter The Great<br />Russian state emerged in the fifteenth century under Musasy and its grand duke.<br />Ivan IV became first ruler to take title of czar and he crushed the power of boyars (Russian nobility).<br />Dynasty ended 1598 period of time of Troubles followed<br />Times of Troubles ended when the Zemsky Sobr (national assembly) chose leader Michael Romanov as the new Czar in 1613. His dynasty lasted until 1917<br />The National Assembly’s most prominent member was Peter the Great the new czar in 1689. He believed only by using European technology that it could turn Russia’s army and navy to great power.<br />To reorganize the army he employed both Russian and Europeans as officers, and he drafted peasants for long periods of service to build an army of 210,000. He also formed the first Russian navy. By the time of his death, Russia had great military power<br />To impose rule of central government more effectively he divided Russia into provinces. He had hoped to create a police state (well ordered community governed by law). <br />
  10. 10. Cultural Changes and A New Capital<br />Peter the Great ordered the preparation of the first Russian book of etiquette to teach Western manners.<br />Upper class women could now remove their traditional face-covered veils and move out into society.<br />Peter made a port with ready access to Europe in the Baltic Sea. To acquire the land, he had to go to war with Sweden.<br />In 1703 Peter began the construction of new city, St. Petersburg.<br />