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    10 2 ppt 10 2 ppt Presentation Transcript

    • The Enlightenment
      Chapter 10, Section 2
    • Do Now!
      What does “Enlightenment” mean to you?
      How would you define enlightenment?
      What impact does enlightenment play in today’s society?
    • Path to the Enlightenment
      When: 18th Century
      What:
      Philosophical movement of intellectuals
      Achievements of the Scientific Revolution
      Common words of thinkers:
      Reason
      Natural Law
      Hope
      Progress
    • Map of the Enlightenment
    • John Locke
      Englishman
      Essay Concerning Human Understanding
      Published essay
      People born with blank minds
      Molded by experiences
      Came to their senses from surrounding world
      Major thinker of the Enlightenment
    • Isaac Newton
      Englishman
      Believed in the physical world
      Everything is like a giant machine
      Operated according to natural laws
      Laws  Uncovered through scientific investigation
      Newton and the Enlightenment
      Discoverer of Natural Laws
      Used Scientific Method
      Applied laws to society
    • Ideas of Philosophy
      Philosophe
      French term for philosopher
      Term for intellectuals of the enlightenment
      Middle and Upper classes
      Needed education
      Philosophers were:
      Writers
      Professors
      Journalists
      Economists
      Social Reformers (most important)
    • Role of Philosophy
      Goals:
      “To change the world…”
      “Applying one’s self to the to the study of society, with the purpose of making his kind better and happier.”
      Ideas:
      Often disagreed with each other
      Generations became more radical
      Built off of and changed ideas from the past
    • Montesquieu
      Dominated philosophical landscape
      French Noble
      The Spirit of Laws (1748)
      Famous publication
      Study of Governments
      Applied Scientific Method
      Find natural laws
      Governed the social and political relationships of human beings
    • Montesquieu’sChecks & Balances
      England’s Government
      3 Branches:
      Executive (the Monarch)
      Legislative (Parliament)
      Judicial (Courts of Law)
      Separation of Powers
      Branches limit the power of the others
      Creates “balance: within the government
      System of Checks and Balances
      Most lasting contribution to political thought
    • Voltaire
      Greatest figure of Enlightenment philosophy*
      Background:
      Prosperous middle-class family
      Known for:
      Criticism of Christianity
      Strong belief in religious toleration (France)
      Treatise on Toleration (1763)
    • Voltaire & Deism
      Deism
      Religious philosophy
      Based on reason and natural law
      Ideology
      Build on idea of Newtonian “World Machine”
      Mechanic = God
      He created/designed the universe
      Example
      World is like a clock
      God = clockmaker
      Created it, set it in motion, and allowed it to run without interference, according to its natural laws
    • Dennis Diderot
      Background
      University of Paris
      Father  career in Church law
      Became a writer
      Encyclopedia (1751 – 1772)
      Classified Dictionary of Sciences, Arts, and Trades
      Major Enlightenment contribution
      Goal: “Change the general way of thinking”
      Weapon against Old Society
      Highly scientific
      Spoke out against the Church
      Spread enlightenment ideas
    • The Enlightenment(Part II)
      Chapter 10, Section 2
    • Economics
      Adam Smith
    • Social Justice
      CesareBeccaria
    • The Social Contract
      Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    • Women’s Rights
      Mary Wollstonecraft
    • Religion in the Enlightenment
      John Wesley
    • The Enlightenment(The Salon)
      Chapter 10, Section 2
      Page 316
    • The Salon