Small Group Teaching
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Small Group Teaching Small Group Teaching Presentation Transcript

  • Centre for Educational Development Centre for Educational Development ORHEP Project ORHEP ProjectSmall-Group TeachingCentre for Educational Development www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -1 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectSession learning outcomesBy the end of this session, you will have:• identified and discussed characteristics of small group teaching, within your own subject• identified some common problems associated with small-group teaching and evaluated some potential tutor interventions www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -2 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectSession overview• Introduction & Context• Disciplinary Contexts• Problems in small-group teaching• Teaching through discussion• Review www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -3 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectWhat we are specifically notengaging with in this session…• Issues of students working in groups together on assessed tasks, and theories of group formation, team roles etc.• but see http://www.learnhighergroupwork.com/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -4 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectSmall Group Teaching - Context• Types/‟genres‟ include: – „tutorials‟, „seminars‟, „labs‟, „fieldwork‟, „online discussion groups‟, Problem-based learning (PBL) groups, action learning sets, workshops, syndicates…• Sizes of „small‟ groups can vary considerably www.orhep.brad.ac.uk• Purpose and role may vary considerably This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -5 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectWhat size of group would youconsider not to be a “small” group ?A. 10 – 15B. 15 – 20C. 20 – 25D. 25 – 30E. 30 - 35 www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -6 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectContext – educational role• In comparison to large-group teaching, small group teaching offers more opportunity for interaction and engagement: – tutor-student interaction – student-student interaction• Learning in a social context www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -7 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectContext - educational role• Favoured for developing higher order attributes: – Problem solving – Critical thinking – Self-Awareness – „Functioning‟ rather than „Declarative‟ knowledge (Biggs & Tang, 2007)• Particularly through: – Discussion www.orhep.brad.ac.uk – Practical application – Relation to real-world events & experiences This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -8 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectContextual factors• Size of group• Location, room, layout, furniture, equipment• Characteristics and diversity of group• Resource & staffing issues to address www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -9 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectDisciplinary contextsWhat is the situation at your institution with regard to small group teaching?Here are a few questions to consider. www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -10 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectDisciplinary contextsIndividual questions – What types of small-group teaching are you involved in at your institution? – Are there typical „ways of practicing‟? If so, what are they? www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -11 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectDisciplinary contexts – Are you aware of any examples of what you would consider to be innovative small-group teaching practice at your institution? – What are the typical issues or challenges associated with small-group teaching in your context? www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -12 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectProblems in Small-Group Teaching (Ramsden,2003: 149)• teacher lectures rather than conducts discussion• teacher talks too much• difficult encouraging students to talk• discussion limited to responses to tutor questions• if preparation is required, student don‟t do it• one student too dominant/ too quiet• student focus is on solutions/answers more than www.orhep.brad.ac.uk complexity This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -13 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectTeaching & Learning Through Critical Discussion(Garrison & Archer, 2000)• Allows students to listen, integrate new ideas, critique.• Discussion phases: – Early – identifying issues – Middle – searching for resolution – Late – evaluating conclusions www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -14 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectCritical Discussion (Garrison & Archer, 2000)• Discussion develops higher thinking skills, in an environment where students can relate to interests and experiences - links „cognitive‟ and „affective‟ learning outcomes• “A distinct shift from the excessively teacher-centred approach often www.orhep.brad.ac.uk associated with the lecture.” This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -15 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectEstablishing group rulesOne way to help make small group work a success is to establish some ground rules at the first session.Which of the following rules do you think is the most important:A. Rudeness is not acceptableB. If you can‟t attend, you should let your tutor knowC. The session should begin on timeD. Everyone is responsible for making the session a successE. Everyone is expected to prepare and to have read the required texts beforehand www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -16 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectOther process techniques e.g. Race, 2007: 151-154 – Rounds – Fishbowls – Buzz groups – Brainstorming – Syndicates – Pair Dialogues – Snowballing – Leave the room – Pyramiding www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -17 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectSolutions to the problems?(Ramsden, 2003: 149-151)“At this point it is usual to provide a list of recipes designed to overcome these familiar difficulties. There are many effective techniques…But none of them will succeed for long unless you clearly understand the reasons for the problems. Just for now, forget about detailed solutions: think about what effective teaching consists of and www.orhep.brad.ac.uk how you would try to implement its prescriptions…” This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -18 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectReviewBiggs and Tang (2007: 105): “It helps to think of lectures and tutorials as situations, in which a range of teaching/learning activities can take place, rather than prescriptions for a manner of teaching.” www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -19 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectSuggested readingIn preparation for the forthcoming seminar, you will find the followingreadings helpful:• Biggs & Tang - Chapter 8, pp. 140-143• Ramsden - Chapter 9, pp. 149-151• Race - Chapter 4• Learn Higher Group Work http://www.learnhigher.ac.uk/learningareas/groupwork/home.htm• English Subject Centre – Seminar Teaching: http://www.english.heacademy.ac.uk/explore/resources/seminars/index.php• David Jaques (Oxford Brookes): http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsd/2_learntch/small-group/index.html www.orhep.brad.ac.uk• Small Group Teaching (Nottingham University): http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/pesl/resources/smallgroup/ This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -20 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectReferences• Biggs. J. and Tang, C (2007) Teaching for Quality Learning at University, Third Edition, Maidenhead, Open University Press.• Garrison, D.R. & Archer, W. (2000) A Transactional Perspective on Teaching and Learning, Oxford, Pergamon.• Race, P. (2007) The Lecturer’s Toolkit, Third Edition, London & New York, Routledge.• Ramsden, P. (2003) Learning and Teaching in Higher Education, Second Edition, London & New York, www.orhep.brad.ac.uk Routledge Falmer. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -21 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk