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Assessment and Feedback - ORHEP

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  • assessment shapes students’ perceptions of learning in higher education (Ramsden, 1992)key element of the recent drive to make assessment more transparent to both students and tutors has been the articulation of assessment frameworks (Rustet al., 2003), such as assessment criteria and grade descriptors, so that students are provided with written information regarding what is required of them and whatstandards must be obtained to achieve different grades. a mismatch between the content which is taught and the content which is assessed, failure to use appropriate assessment tasks for the type of learning required (such as using multiple choice questions to assess bedside manner among doctors), Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 23, No 4, 1998 351Using Marks to Assess Student Performance, some problems and alternativesJAMES DALZIEL, Department of Psychology, University of Sydney, AustraliaRust et al. (2003) stress the tacit nature of assessment criteria and the difficulty of transferring such tacit knowledge to others.in work on ‘academic literacy’ by Lea and Stierer (2000), which views academic writing as a ‘contexualised social practice’ where the ground rules are not made explicit to students.

Assessment and Feedback - ORHEP Assessment and Feedback - ORHEP Presentation Transcript

  • Centre for Educational Development Centre for Educational Development ORHEP Project ORHEP Project Assessment and Feedback John Dermo Centre for Educational Development www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -1 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development Centre for Educational Development ORHEP Project ORHEP Project www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -2 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectPurposes of AssessmentGibbs (1999):• capturing student time and attention (e.g. through motivation);• generating appropriate learning activity in students;• providing feedback which students pay attention to;• helping students to internalise a discipline’s standards and notions of quality;• marking to enable pass/fail decisions to be made;• quality assurance through providing evidence towww.orhep.brad.ac.uk outsiders enabling judgements about appropriateness of standards to be made. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -3 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP Project Some words used to discuss exam assessment moderation test quiz evaluation marking criteria low-stakes high-stakes norm-referencedassignment item analysis criterion-referenced assessed coursework assessment of learning subjective formative objective summative assessment for learning selected response diagnostic peer review constructed response www.orhep.brad.ac.uk group assessment peer assessment self-assessment This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License - 4 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development Centre for Educational Development ORHEP Project ORHEP Project www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -5 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectFundamental Principles ofassessment• Validity• Reliability• Practicality• Accessibility, Inclusivity, Authenticity www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -6 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectValidity - Bloom’s TaxonomyCombining information to Making decisions andform a unique product: Evaluation supporting views:requires creativity and requiredoriginality. understanding and Synthesis values.Using information to solveproblems: transferring Identifying Analysis components:abstract or theoretical ideasto practical situations. determiningIdentifying connections and arrangement, logic Application and semantics.relationships and how theyapply. Restating in your ownMemorizing verbatim Comprehension words: paraphrasing,information. Being able to summarising, www.orhep.brad.ac.ukremember but not necessarily translating.fully understanding the Knowledgematerial. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -7 7 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectReliability PracticalityTest and item ResourcesRater (inter and intra) “Real world” issues Accessibility, Inclusivity, Authenticity cf University’s Core Values Reflective / Adaptable / Inclusivewww.orhep.brad.ac.uk Supportive / Ethical / Sustainable This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License - 8 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development Centre for Educational Development ORHEP Project ORHEP Project www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -9 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP Project “...institutional assessment efforts should not be concerned about valuing what can be measured but, instead, about measuring that which is valued.” Banta et al (1996: 5) “assessment plays a critical role in Some quotations on determining the quality of student assessment in HE learning” and “a conception of Are they true assessment for learning first and grading today? second implies the use of a spectrum of methods” Ramsden (1992:177 and 185) “Description of a grade: An inadequate report of an inaccurate judgment by a biased and variable judge of the extent to which a student has attained an undefined www.orhep.brad.ac.uk level of mastery of an unknown proportion of an indefinite material.” Dressel (1983:12) This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -10 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectNational Union of Students’ Principles of EffectiveAssessment (2009)1. Should be for learning, not simply of learning.2. Should be reliable, valid, fair and consistent.3. Should consist of effective and constructive feedback.4. Should be innovative and have the capacity to inspire and motivate.5. Should measure understanding and application, rather than technique and memory.6. Should be conducted throughout the course, rather than being positioned as a final event.7. Should develop key skills such as peer and reflective assessment.8. Should be central to staff development and teaching strategies, and frequently reviewed.9. Should be of a manageable amount for both tutors and students.10. Should encourage dialogue between students and their tutors and www.orhep.brad.ac.uk students and their peers. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -11 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectNSS: Assessment and feedback5. The criteria used in marking have been clear in advance.6. Assessment arrangements and marking have been fair.7. Feedback on my work has been prompt.8. I have received detailed comments on my work.9. Feedback on my work has helped me clarify things I did not understand.Since 2005 NSS evidence suggests that students nationally find assessment and feedback among the least satisfactory elements of their experience of higher education.We also know that assessment takes up ever more www.orhep.brad.ac.uk of our time and energy. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -12 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development Centre for Educational Development ORHEP Project ORHEP Project www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -13 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectPlagiarism• “...work which is • Misunderstanding • Pandora’s box not undertaken in of or not (Sutherland-Smith an examination understanding – 2005) room under Academic Integrity • Reluctance to supervision but • Greater discuss plagiarism which is submitted heterogeneity of openly by a student for student body • Application and formal assessment requires new understanding of must be written by consistent University policy on the student and in approach to plagiarism the student’s own detailing what • Integrity, honesty words...” (UoB required and what and 2003) acceptable trustworthiness www.orhep.brad.ac.ukCheating or weak Why does it How to prevent itstudy skills? happen? and deal with it? This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -14 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development Centre for Educational Development ORHEP Project ORHEP Project www.orhep.brad.ac.uk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -15 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectReferences 1Ashby, E. (1985), preface to Brewer, I. Learning more and Teaching less. Guildford: Society for Research into Higher Education & NFER-Nelson.Atkins, M.J., Beattie, J. and Dockerell, W.B. (1993) Assessment Issues in Higher Education, Department of Employment.Banta, T. W., Lund, J. P., Black, K. E., & Oblander, F. W. (1996) Assessment in practice: Putting principles to work on college campuses. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Boud, D (1995) Enhancing learning through self-assessment London, Routledge.Cox, R. (1967) “Resistance to Change in Examining”, Universities Quarterly, 21, pp. 352–358.Dichtl J. (2003) Teaching Integrity The History Teacher 36: 3, 367- 373 Society for History Education www.orhep.brad.ac.ukDressel, P. (1983) "Grades: One more tilt at the windmill." in A.W. Chickering (Ed.), Bulletin. Memphis: Memphis State U. Center for the Study of Higher Education. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -16 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk
  • Centre for Educational Development ORHEP ProjectReferences 2 Gibbs, G. (1999) Using assessment strategically to change the way students learn. In: Assessment matters in Higher Education (eds Brown, S. & Glasner, A.), pp. 41-53, Society for Research in Higher Education and Open University Press, Buckingham. Race, P. (2001) The Lecturers Toolkit. (2nd ed) London: Kogan Page Ramsden, P. (1992) Learning to Teach in Higher Education. London: Routledge. Sutherland-Smith W. (2005) Pandora’s box: academic perceptions of student plagiarism in writing. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 4 (2005) 83–95 UoB (2003) Statement on Academic Integrity. Academic Standards and Support Unit University of Bradford www.orhep.brad.ac.uk http://www.brad.ac.uk/admin/acsec/assu/statement_on_academi c_integrity.htm accessed 20/1/10 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -17 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ www.orhep.brad.ac.uk