Pre-season Rugby Union
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  • Although both authors discuss the merits of specialisation within a team on the line of backs and forwards neither authors seem to include any variations within the programme.
  • Training load should be increased across the training cycle or the athlete’s career (Stone, O’Bryant, & Garhammer, 1981) this method of loading may only be useful during a short period of time (Fry et al., 1994; Coutts, Wallace, & Slattery, 2007) with the inclusion of rest period a necessity in order to maximise adaptive responses. If however, linear loading is executed over a protracted period of time overtraining may occur and the athlete may exhibit neural fatigue (Komi, 1986) and compromised strength gains Corcoran & Bird to have a LP for 5:1 ratio to increase volume Wk 7. However the greater number of progressive steps the greater the longer the period of unloading, Nadori & Granek, 1989 and Stone 2003 advocate the 4:2 ratio. Plisk & Stone 2003 suggested this loading pattern only suitable for novice athletes who have not lifted high volumes before. Gamble utilising undulating periodisation structure advocated by Poliquin (1988). This biweekly structure was also executed by Baker et al., 1994 who compared LP, UP, NLP whilst equating for volume and intensity. No difference between groups but significant changes across all performance parameters
  • Also the high velocities required to execute the OL are known to be beneficial in the development of power (Deutsch, Maw, Jenkins & Reaburn, 1989). Exercises such as the back squat and front squat offer functional transfer in relation to scrummaging by allowing the body to work through similar muscle recruitment patterns and joint angles through the hips, knees and ankles (Corcoran & Bird, 2009), (Appendix 2). Static strength is also required within the contact areas of the game and therefore development of chest, bicep and torso strength are key components of the max strength phase also (Milburn, 1993). In addition to intensity and load, exercise selection is also important when considering training programmes for muscular-power development because exercise selection would dictate the mechanical specificity of the training (Kawamori & Haff, 2004). Stone, Pilsk and Collins (2002) postulated that the degree of transfer of training effects is high when the training exercise is mechanically similar to the actual performance. Therefore because of the multi-joints actions observed within field sports (running, jumping and passing) research therefore suggests that multi- joint exercises for power development will enhance athletic performance (Newton & Kraemer, 1994). Thus based on the above rationale the Olympic-style lifts and their derivatives formed an integral part of the power exercise programme within this study because they are multi-joint exercises with no deceleration phase which produce high power outputs (Garhammer, 1993; Haff et al., 1997).
  • Both programmes exhibit a taper, however the volume in Corcoran & Bird is still considerable higher than Gamble. Both programmes finish at different spectrums of the F-V Curve in the case of Gamble the termination point is suitable for forwards (str-spd), in the case of Corcoran & Bird the termination point is suitable for backs (spd-str). Progressive tapers of 75% better than 50% (Gurd & Klentrou, 2003) as indicated by (CB) However, overall the literature agrees on between 41-60% results in optimal performance (Atherton et al., 2005) (4). Non-progressive (Gamble) have demonstrated improved physiological and performance adaptations to training (Coutts et al., 2007). Progressive (fast/slow) better than non-progressive (Abernethy et al., 1990) The final increase in volume and intensity may perhaps be a step too far after 14 weeks of training.
  • The addition of ballistic training may be beneficial as it enables the S&C coach to target the velocity compartment of the power equation. The use of this mode of training produces a higher rate of force development (RFD) and therefore providing a superior for enhancing intra & intermuscular coordination during sport specific movements (Haff et al., 1997) A further advantage of using this mode of training that although strength training will increases max strength and RFD in novice athletes (Behm & Sale, 1993) it may have less of an effect on highly trained individuals (Kawamori & Newton, 2004)

Pre-season Rugby Union Pre-season Rugby Union Presentation Transcript

  • STM05 Presentation Comparison of Pre-season Preparation in Rugby Union Tony O’Brien MSc, MSc, BA (Hons), Cert Ed.
  • Overview
    • Gamble (2004): Trainer of London Irish
    • Hypertrophy – Off season x 2 Wks,
    • Hypertrophy – Strength x 8 Wks
    • Power - 3 Wks
    • Total = 13
    • Corcoran & Bird (2009)
    • Hypertrophy – 8 Wks
    • Strength – 6 Wks
    • Power – 6 Wks
    • Total = 20
  • Programme Design
    • RU – primary possession areas demands specialisation.
    • Different positions lie on various points of the strength/speed continuum.
    Adaptation of F-V curve with inclusion of terms (Verkhoshansky, 1966 )
  • Hypertrophy & Strength Strength ( Poliquin, 1988) (Komi, 1986) (Stone, 2003) Strength Hypertrophy Volume
  • Exercise Selection: Strength
    • Gamble:
    • Strength cycle 1: 1 x upper body, 2 x lower, 1 x assistance.
    • Strength cycle 2: 1 x whole body, 1 upper body, 1 x lower body, 1 x assistance.
    • Corcoran & Bird:
    • Strength cycle 1: 2 x lower body, 1 x upper body, 2 x upper body, 1 x lower body.
    • Strength cycle 2: 2 x lower body, 1 x upper body, 2 x upper body, 1 x lower body.
  • Exercise Selection: Strength
    • Exercise selection it can dictate the mechanical specificity of the training (Kawamori & Haff, 2004).
    • Stone, Pilsk and Collins (2002)transfer of training effects is high when the training exercise is mechanically similar to the actual performance.
    • Multi- joint exercises for power development will enhance athletic performance (Newton & Kraemer, 1994).
  • Strength & Power 80-90% 1RM 30% 1RM Reduction in Volume 62% (non-progressive) Volume
  • Corcoran & Bird Power(2009) ( Haff et al., 1997) (Behm & Sale, 1993) (Kawamori & Newton, 2004)
  • References
    • Abernethy, P.J., Thayer, R., & Taylor, A.W. (1990). Acute and chronic responses of skeletal muscle to endurance and sprint exercise. Sports Medicine. 10: 365-389.
    • Behm, D.G., & Sale, D.G. (1993). Velocity specificity of resistance training. Sports Medicine. 15: 374-388.
    • Corcoran, G. & Bird, S. (2009). Pre-season strength training for Rugby Union: The general and specific preparatory phases. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 31 :6.
    • Coutts, A.J., Wallace, L.K., & Slattery, K.M. (2007). Monitoring changes in performance, physiology, biochemistry and psychology during overreaching and recovery in tri-athletes. International Journal of Sports Medicine.28 :125-134.
    • Fry, A.C., Kraemer, W.J., Stone, M.H., Warren, B.J., Fleck, S.J., Kearney, J.T., & Gordon, S.E. (1994). Endocrine responses to overreaching before and after 1 year of weightlifting. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology.19 :400-410.
    • Gamble, P. (2004). Physical preparation for elite-level Rugby Union. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 26(4) :10-23.
    • Haff, G.G., Stone, M.H., O’Bryant, H.S., Harman, E., Dinan, C., Johnson, R., & Han, K.H. (1997). Force time dependent characteristics of dynamic and isometric muscle actions. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 11:269-272.
    • Kawamori, N., & Newton, R.U.(2006). Velocity specificity of resistance training: Actual movement velocity versus indentation to move explosively. Strength & Conditioning Journal. 28: 86-91.
    • Newton, R.U., & Kraemer, W.J. (1994). Developing explosive muscular power: Implications for a mixed methods training strategy. Strength Conditioning Journal. 16 (4): 20-31.
    • Poliquin, C. (1988). Five ways to increase the effectiveness of your strength training programme. National Strength Conditioning Association. 10 :34-39.
    • Stone, M.H., O’Bryant, H., & Garhammer, J.A. (1981). A hypothetical model for strength training. Journal Sports Medicine. 21 :342-351.
    • Stone, M.H., Plisk, S., & Collins, D. (2002). Training principles: Evaluation of modes and methods of resistance training- A coaching perspective. Sports Biomechanics. 1 : 79-103. Verkhoshansky, Y.U. (1966). Perspectives in the development of speed strength preparation in the development of jumper. Track and Field . 11-12.
    • Verkhoshansky, Y.U. (1966). Perspectives in the development of speed strength preparation in the development of jumper. Track and Field . 11-12.