Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation as an
Engineering Control to improve
Indoor Air Quality and Fight
Healthcare-Associated...
Florence Nightingale. Notes on Hospitals, 1863
“It may seem a strange principal
to enunciate as the very first
requirement...
And Yet…
• The 4th leading cause of death in America are
Healthcare Associated infections?1
– ~ 100,000 American die each ...
Dust, Allergens
and Particulates
Infectious Germs /
Bio-aerosols
Toxic Compounds
Odors /VOCs /
Gases
The EPA says 3 Contam...
Dust, Allergens
and Particulates
Infectious Germs /
Bio-aerosols
Toxic Compounds
Odors /VOCs /
Gases
The EPA says 3 Contam...
Between 30,000 and
40,000 dead skin cells fall
off of your body every
hour.
Over a 24-hour period,
you lose almost a milli...
We Inhale Three Teaspoons of
Dust… Every Day
What Exactly is in the Dust We’re Breathing?
Skin flakes, mold, bacteria, vir...
Filtration:
• Mechanical filtration trap particulates
–Must be changed often as trapped
particulates decrease air flow and...
• Electrostatic Filtration (often marketed
as high-efficiency filters)
–embeds charged polymer strands into
mechanical fil...
• Electronic air cleaners attract
particulates to positively and negatively
charged plates.
– Most produce ozone
–NOT effe...
• HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air)
Filtration is a Mechanical means of
cleaning (not disinfecting) air.
–Hospital-gr...
98% of All Airborne Microbes
Measure Less than 1 micron.
American Lung Association states:
“Respirable Suspended Particles...
Filter Efficiency (even HEPA)
What we cannot capture, we must “KILL”
Dust, Allergens
and Particulates
Infectious Germs /
Bio-aerosols
Toxic Compounds
Odors /VOCs /
Gases
The EPA says 3 Contam...
Odors are caused by:
• chemical out-gassing from carpet glue,
paint, cleaning fluids, etc. (Volatile Organic
Chemicals)
• ...
Dust, Allergens
and Particulates
Infectious Germs /
Bio-aerosols
Toxic Compounds
Odors /VOCs /
Gases
The EPA says 3 Contam...
•Virus; Parasitical microbes released by breathing,
sneezing and coughing. Can lay dormant for long
periods, waiting for a...
Note: Even talking can release ~ 200,000 airborne particles!
Dust, Allergens
and Particulates
Infectious Germs /
Bio-aerosols
Toxic Compounds
Odors /VOCs /
Gases
What’s the
Solution?
...
UVGI (Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation)
Destroys Biological Contaminants
UVGI breaks the DNA of biological contaminants,...
There are no known pathogens resistant to
a lethal dose of UV Germicidal energy.
NONE…
Awarded to Niels Finsen
for his “contribution to the
treatment of diseases
with concentrated light
(UV) radiation, whereby...
Center for Hip and Knee Surgery, St. Francis
Hospital-Mooresville, Indiana. Doctors
reported the use of ultraviolet light ...
1973
"Since the development of
the germicidal lamp
over seventy-five years
ago, into two general
categories have
become st...
2010
Philips
Application
Guide for
Ultraviolet
Germicidal
Irradiation
Where is UVGI Installed Today?
Three general UVGI strategies for infection control:
• Installation into ventilating ducts
• Irradiation of the upper zone...
Within weeks after the UVC installation, static pressure decreased
from 1.8 in.wg to just 0.7 in. wg. Air velocity more th...
“…the use of UVC lights had a clinically
significant impact (17-18% increase) on clinical
pregnancy rates (CPR).”
“Significant reductions in VAP and antibiotic
use were associated with use of UVGI…”
“ UVGI systems kill airborne infectious
contaminates (viruses, bacteria, and
bacterial and fungal spores)...”
EPA Report, ...
“ UVGI can control bio-aerosols in
buildings, which can decrease infectious
disease transmission, healthcare costs,
and si...
2008 ASHRAE Handbook
– HVAC Systems and
Equipment
ULTRAVIOLET LAMP SYSTEMS,
CHAPTER 16
2008 ASHRAE Handbook – HVAC Systems and Equipment
Air Handler Component Surface Disinfection; Chapter 16, page 6
“…damp co...
ASHRAE Position Document on
Airborne Infectious Diseases
Approved by ASHRAE Board of Directors
“ ASHRAE’s sole objective is to advance the arts and
sciences in HVAC&R to serve humanity and promote
a sustainable world ...
UVGI in the
News
UVGI in the News
THE LANCET, NOV. 2003.
“UV-C lamps in office ventilation systems
reduced overall worker sickness by about...
UVGI in the News
THE LANCET, NOV. 2003.
“Installation of UV-C in most North
American offices could resolve work
related sy...
UVGI in the News
THE LANCET, NOV. 2003.
“UV-C installations could prove cost-
effective compared with the yearly
losses fr...
Three general UVGI strategies for infection control:
• Installation into ventilating ducts,
• Irradiation of the upper zon...
Airborne concentration of Influenza A virus in a modeled room,
with and without a UVGI system.
Penn State University
Study
Penn State University
Study
Influenza A virus Infection rate in a modeled room,
with and without a UVGI system.
UVC Benefits:
March 2010 RSES Journal
(Refrigeration Service Engineers
Society)
UVC Benefits:
• IAQ & Infection Control
March 2010 RSES Journal
(Refrigeration Service Engineers
Society)
UVC Benefits:
• IAQ & Infection Control
• Energy Savings
March 2010 RSES Journal
(Refrigeration Service Engineers
Society)
UVC Benefits:
• IAQ & Infection Control
• Energy Savings
• Maintenance Savings
March 2010 RSES Journal
(Refrigeration Serv...
UVC Benefits:
• IAQ & Infection Control
• Energy Savings
• Maintenance Savings
• Equipment Service Life
March 2010 RSES Jo...
UVC Benefits:
• IAQ & Infection Control
• Energy Savings
• Maintenance Savings
• Equipment Service Life
• Water Conservati...
UVC Benefits:
• IAQ & Infection Control
• Energy Savings
• Maintenance Savings
• Equipment Service Life
• Water Conservati...
Conclusive Studies that Recommend UVGI
to Eliminate Airborne Microbial
Contamination:
NIOSH
Harvard University
National TB...
CDC Guidelines
• “UVGI is effective reducing transmission of
infectious agents in hospitals, military housing
and classroo...
Conclusion
UVGI Technology is an
evidence-based Science
Proven to:
Control Airborne Infectious Pathogens
Improve Health & ...
Thank You.
QUESTIONS ?
The indoor environment & air quality   uv air & surface disinfection
The indoor environment & air quality   uv air & surface disinfection
The indoor environment & air quality   uv air & surface disinfection
The indoor environment & air quality   uv air & surface disinfection
The indoor environment & air quality   uv air & surface disinfection
The indoor environment & air quality   uv air & surface disinfection
The indoor environment & air quality   uv air & surface disinfection
The indoor environment & air quality   uv air & surface disinfection
The indoor environment & air quality   uv air & surface disinfection
The indoor environment & air quality   uv air & surface disinfection
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The indoor environment & air quality uv air & surface disinfection

  1. 1. Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation as an Engineering Control to improve Indoor Air Quality and Fight Healthcare-Associated Infection David Skelton SAFEAIR SOLUTIONS Cleaning Air, Reducing Risk, Saving Energy
  2. 2. Florence Nightingale. Notes on Hospitals, 1863 “It may seem a strange principal to enunciate as the very first requirement of a hospital that it should do the sick no harm.
  3. 3. And Yet… • The 4th leading cause of death in America are Healthcare Associated infections?1 – ~ 100,000 American die each year from Healthcare Associated Infections?2 – ~ 273 HAI Deaths every single day (about 1 death every 5.5 seconds)? 1Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Campaign to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance in Healthcare Settings: Why a Campaign? Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2001. Available atwww.cdc.gov/drugresistance/healthcare/ problem.htm. 2Neu HC. The crisis in antibiotic resistance. Science 1992;257:1064- 1073.
  4. 4. Dust, Allergens and Particulates Infectious Germs / Bio-aerosols Toxic Compounds Odors /VOCs / Gases The EPA says 3 Contaminates are present in Indoor Air (and must be removed for IAQ)
  5. 5. Dust, Allergens and Particulates Infectious Germs / Bio-aerosols Toxic Compounds Odors /VOCs / Gases The EPA says 3 Contaminates are present in Indoor Air (and must be removed for IAQ)
  6. 6. Between 30,000 and 40,000 dead skin cells fall off of your body every hour. Over a 24-hour period, you lose almost a million skin cells. MRSA, acinetobactor, and other pathogens are found on human skin!
  7. 7. We Inhale Three Teaspoons of Dust… Every Day What Exactly is in the Dust We’re Breathing? Skin flakes, mold, bacteria, virus, insect excrement, fungi spores, yeast, pollen, pesticides, dander, fiber, insulation, pollution (auto & industrial emissions), and dust mites, a microscopic crab/spider critter. (About 42,000 dust mites live in an ounce of dust) Short term health effects: sore eyes, blocked nose, sore throat, coughing, runny nose, wheezing, and breathlessness. Long term health effects: damage to internal organs, blood disorders, asthma, bronchitis, lung disease and cancer.
  8. 8. Filtration: • Mechanical filtration trap particulates –Must be changed often as trapped particulates decrease air flow and increase in back pressure (static). –Technically become more efficient over time as trapped particulates clog openings, eventually nothing can pass through…not even clean air!
  9. 9. • Electrostatic Filtration (often marketed as high-efficiency filters) –embeds charged polymer strands into mechanical filtration that causes ‘static-cling’; particulates cling to charged polymers in the media.
  10. 10. • Electronic air cleaners attract particulates to positively and negatively charged plates. – Most produce ozone –NOT effective in eliminating small microbes, such as virus, smoke, chemicals and odors.
  11. 11. • HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) Filtration is a Mechanical means of cleaning (not disinfecting) air. –Hospital-grade HEPA trap > 0.3 microns; (virus are < 0.3 microns) – Not effective in removing gasses odors, VOC’s, and pathogens < 0.3 microns –High Static Pressure / energy inefficient
  12. 12. 98% of All Airborne Microbes Measure Less than 1 micron. American Lung Association states: “Respirable Suspended Particles (RSP’s) evade capture by the protective cilia and mucosa of our upper respiratory system to invade the deepest reaches of our lungs and cause serious health problems. Particles smaller than 5 microns are the direct cause of many respiratory illnesses and chronic ailments.
  13. 13. Filter Efficiency (even HEPA) What we cannot capture, we must “KILL”
  14. 14. Dust, Allergens and Particulates Infectious Germs / Bio-aerosols Toxic Compounds Odors /VOCs / Gases The EPA says 3 Contaminates are present in Indoor Air (and must be removed for IAQ)
  15. 15. Odors are caused by: • chemical out-gassing from carpet glue, paint, cleaning fluids, etc. (Volatile Organic Chemicals) • by decomposition and evaporation Odors can pleasant, offensive or dangerous; trigger allergies, and cause sickness. We ‘Smell’ Odors by Inhaling Particles of the Very ‘Thing’ we are Smelling. Think About It… (or don’t!)
  16. 16. Dust, Allergens and Particulates Infectious Germs / Bio-aerosols Toxic Compounds Odors /VOCs / Gases The EPA says 3 Contaminates are present in Indoor Air (and must be removed for IAQ)
  17. 17. •Virus; Parasitical microbes released by breathing, sneezing and coughing. Can lay dormant for long periods, waiting for a host cell to mutate via DNA. Virus can stay airborne for days. •Bacteria; Parasitical microbes released from plant and animal growth, decomposition and out-gassing (evaporation from foods, bodily fluids and waste). •Mold; Parasitical spores that will ‘die’ without food and moisture. Billions of spores grow on the moist coils of your A/C system and contaminate indoor air every time the fan is on. Infectious Pathogens are in Search of a Host Cell to Feed and Breed…
  18. 18. Note: Even talking can release ~ 200,000 airborne particles!
  19. 19. Dust, Allergens and Particulates Infectious Germs / Bio-aerosols Toxic Compounds Odors /VOCs / Gases What’s the Solution? The EPA says 3 Contaminates are present in Indoor Air (and must be removed for IAQ)
  20. 20. UVGI (Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation) Destroys Biological Contaminants UVGI breaks the DNA of biological contaminants, destroying its ability to reproduce and colonize. BROKEN DNA
  21. 21. There are no known pathogens resistant to a lethal dose of UV Germicidal energy. NONE…
  22. 22. Awarded to Niels Finsen for his “contribution to the treatment of diseases with concentrated light (UV) radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science". Niels Finsen 1860–1904 Physician, Scientist and Danish Nobel Laureate. 1903 Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology
  23. 23. Center for Hip and Knee Surgery, St. Francis Hospital-Mooresville, Indiana. Doctors reported the use of ultraviolet light “reduced overall infection rates from 10% to 0.24%”. Orthopedic infection rates dropped from 16.5% to .75%. The overall infection rate was 0.34% over the next 26 years of collected data. 1937 Duke University Study:
  24. 24. 1973 "Since the development of the germicidal lamp over seventy-five years ago, into two general categories have become standard: A. Air Irradiation to kill bacteria floating or suspended in it. B. Surface Irradiation of the product to be protected.“
  25. 25. 2010 Philips Application Guide for Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation
  26. 26. Where is UVGI Installed Today?
  27. 27. Three general UVGI strategies for infection control: • Installation into ventilating ducts • Irradiation of the upper zones of occupied spaces • In-room irradiation after one occupant and before the next
  28. 28. Within weeks after the UVC installation, static pressure decreased from 1.8 in.wg to just 0.7 in. wg. Air velocity more than doubled, from 230 fpm to 520 fpm. Both the coil and drain pan areas looked absolutely clean, with no visible evidence of mold or organic buildup. The air exiting wetbulb temperature decreased significantly, from 57°F to 53°F. We calculated the increase in capacity to be approximately 7.9 tons of air conditioning. If we use 1 kW/ton and multiply by 24 (hours/day) by 365 (days/year) by $0.07 (electric rate), we arrive at a total of $4,867 in savings for this one unit. The total cost of the UVC was less than $2000 By installing UVC into all AHU at the facility, “We estimate yearly energy savings well into six figures, not including additional savings from reduced maintenance.
  29. 29. “…the use of UVC lights had a clinically significant impact (17-18% increase) on clinical pregnancy rates (CPR).”
  30. 30. “Significant reductions in VAP and antibiotic use were associated with use of UVGI…”
  31. 31. “ UVGI systems kill airborne infectious contaminates (viruses, bacteria, and bacterial and fungal spores)...” EPA Report, “Building Retrofits for Increased Protection Against Airborne Chemical and Biological Releases” Pg. 56
  32. 32. “ UVGI can control bio-aerosols in buildings, which can decrease infectious disease transmission, healthcare costs, and sick leave.” EPA Report, “Building Retrofits for Increased Protection Against Airborne Chemical and Biological Releases” Pg. 57
  33. 33. 2008 ASHRAE Handbook – HVAC Systems and Equipment ULTRAVIOLET LAMP SYSTEMS, CHAPTER 16
  34. 34. 2008 ASHRAE Handbook – HVAC Systems and Equipment Air Handler Component Surface Disinfection; Chapter 16, page 6 “…damp coil and drain pan conditions are excellent forums for growth of bacteria and mold. … contribute to sick building syndrome and building-related illnesses, from mild irritation to the spread of infectious agents. ”
  35. 35. ASHRAE Position Document on Airborne Infectious Diseases Approved by ASHRAE Board of Directors
  36. 36. “ ASHRAE’s sole objective is to advance the arts and sciences in HVAC&R to serve humanity and promote a sustainable world ... Therefore, the health effects of airborne infectious disease transmission are relevant to ASHRAE.” “ASHRAE holds a strong position that engineers play a key role in reducing disease transmission that occurs in buildings.” “ASHRAE should commit to improving the health of individuals that occupy buildings and to reduce the risk of airborne infectious disease transmission.”
  37. 37. UVGI in the News
  38. 38. UVGI in the News THE LANCET, NOV. 2003. “UV-C lamps in office ventilation systems reduced overall worker sickness by about 20%, including a 60% reduction in muscle complaints and a 40% drop in breathing problems.”
  39. 39. UVGI in the News THE LANCET, NOV. 2003. “Installation of UV-C in most North American offices could resolve work related symptoms in about 4 million employees, caused by contamination of HVAC systems.”
  40. 40. UVGI in the News THE LANCET, NOV. 2003. “UV-C installations could prove cost- effective compared with the yearly losses from absence because of building-related illness.”
  41. 41. Three general UVGI strategies for infection control: • Installation into ventilating ducts, • Irradiation of the upper zones of occupied spaces, • In-room irradiation after one occupant and before the next.
  42. 42. Airborne concentration of Influenza A virus in a modeled room, with and without a UVGI system. Penn State University Study
  43. 43. Penn State University Study Influenza A virus Infection rate in a modeled room, with and without a UVGI system.
  44. 44. UVC Benefits: March 2010 RSES Journal (Refrigeration Service Engineers Society)
  45. 45. UVC Benefits: • IAQ & Infection Control March 2010 RSES Journal (Refrigeration Service Engineers Society)
  46. 46. UVC Benefits: • IAQ & Infection Control • Energy Savings March 2010 RSES Journal (Refrigeration Service Engineers Society)
  47. 47. UVC Benefits: • IAQ & Infection Control • Energy Savings • Maintenance Savings March 2010 RSES Journal (Refrigeration Service Engineers Society)
  48. 48. UVC Benefits: • IAQ & Infection Control • Energy Savings • Maintenance Savings • Equipment Service Life March 2010 RSES Journal (Refrigeration Service Engineers Society)
  49. 49. UVC Benefits: • IAQ & Infection Control • Energy Savings • Maintenance Savings • Equipment Service Life • Water Conservation March 2010 RSES Journal (Refrigeration Service Engineers Society)
  50. 50. UVC Benefits: • IAQ & Infection Control • Energy Savings • Maintenance Savings • Equipment Service Life • Water Conservation • LEED Contribution March 2010 RSES Journal (Refrigeration Service Engineers Society)
  51. 51. Conclusive Studies that Recommend UVGI to Eliminate Airborne Microbial Contamination: NIOSH Harvard University National TB Coalition Penn State University University of Colorado Center of Disease Control World Health Organization Tennessee Valley Authority Center for Disease Control CDC Environmental Protection Agency FEMA Reference Manual 495
  52. 52. CDC Guidelines • “UVGI is effective reducing transmission of infectious agents in hospitals, military housing and classrooms.“ FEMA Risk Management Series • Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI) is lethal to microorganisms. All viruses and almost all bacteria are vulnerable. The Lancet Medical Journal • “Sickness among office workers could be reduced by using ultraviolet lamps in ventilation systems.” Penn State University • “… airborne respiratory diseases could be eradicated.” "Reducing the transmission rate could halt epidemics in their path." The Lancet
  53. 53. Conclusion UVGI Technology is an evidence-based Science Proven to: Control Airborne Infectious Pathogens Improve Health & Performance Save Energy
  54. 54. Thank You. QUESTIONS ?

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