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Lighting Workshop

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  • 1. 1 Fundamentals of Energy Efficient Lighting Presented By: Ken Currie, PhD, P.E. September 19, 2013 US DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency
  • 2. 2 Building Lighting Energy
  • 3. 3 Building Lighting Codes
  • 4. 4 Lighting Type First Cost
  • 5. 5 Lighting Type Life Cycle Cost
  • 6. 6 Lighting Energy Efficiency
  • 7. 7 Efficient Lighting
  • 8. 8 Amount of Light
  • 9. 9 Other Considerations
  • 10. 10 Lighting Topics Terminology Light and Color Lighting Levels/Standards Lamp Sources Controls Trends Principles of Energy Management Case Studies
  • 11. 11 Lighting Terminology IESNA Lumens Lamp Efficacy Lamp Loss Factors Lighting Levels Foot-candle (Lux) Lamp Rated Life
  • 12. 12 Electromagnetic Spectrum Cosmic Rays Gamma Rays X-Rays UV Infra- Red Micro- Waves TV Radio Electric Power .00001 nm .001 nm 1 nm 10 nm .0001 ft. . 01 ft. 1 ft. 100 ft. 1 mi. 3100 mi. 400300 500 600 700 1000 1500 Wavelength (Nanometers) Visible Spectrum InfraredUltraviolet ABC HEAT
  • 13. 13 Electromagnetic Spectrum Violet: 380 - 450 nm* Blue: 450 - 490 nm Green: 490 - 560 nm Yellow: 560 - 590 nm Orange: 590 - 630 nm Red: 630 - 760 nm * nm = 10-9 meters
  • 14. 14 Solar Spectrum
  • 15. 15 Lamp Radiation Spectrum
  • 16. 16 Light & Color
  • 17. 17 Color Temperature Color Temperature is noted in degrees Kelvin* or °K 3,000°K - Warm White 3,500°K - Neutral 4,100°K Cool White * The Kelvin Scale is defined as Celsius plus 273.
  • 18. 18 Color Temperature Definition • the electromagnetic radiation emitted from an ideal black body • 1,700 K Match flame • 1,850 K Candle flame, sunset/sunrise • 2,700–3,300 K Incandescent lamps • 3,000 K Soft White compact fluorescent lamps • 3,200 K Studio lamps, photofloods, etc. • 3,350 K Studio "CP" light • 4,100–4,150 K Moonlight • 5,000 K Horizon daylight • 5,000 K tubular fluorescent lamps or Cool White/Daylight CFL • 5,500–6,000 K Vertical daylight, electronic flash • 6,500 K Daylight, overcast • 5,500–10,500 K LCD or CRT screen • 15,000–27,000 K Clear blue poleward sky
  • 19. 19 Typical Color Temperatures Incandescent ……... 2,750 K – 3,400 K Fluorescent ……….. 2,700 K – 6,500 K Mercury vapor ….. 3,300 K – 6,000 K Metal Halide ……… 3,000 K – 4,300 K High Pressure Sodium …………...... 1,900 K – 2,200 K Induction …………… 3,000 K – 4,000 K
  • 20. 20 Color Temperature
  • 21. 21 Color Rendering Index (CRI) Color Rendering Index is a scale from 0-100 that indicates the accuracy with which a lighting source can reproduce colors. The higher the CRI value the more accurate the color reproduction.
  • 22. 22 Color Rendering Index (CRI) Typical high CRI values: 80 to 90 Typical good CRI values: 65 to 80 Typical poor CRI values: <65 Note: The CRI for standard Low Pressure Sodium lamps is extremely poor.
  • 23. 23 Typical CRI Values Incandescent …………….. 100 Fluorescent ………………. 60 - 90 Mercury vapor …………….15 - 30 Metal Halide ……………… 60 - 90 High Pressure Sodium ….. 10 - 60 Low Pressure Sodium ….. Negative Induction ………………….. 85 LEDs……………………………. 30 - 60
  • 24. 24 Color Rendering Index - Example
  • 25. 25 Rated Life of a Lamp The rated life of a lamp is defined as the point at which 50% of a test sample fails.
  • 26. 26 Rated Life of a Lamp
  • 27. 27 Rated Life of a Lamp For non-HID lamps (incandescent, fluorescent, etc.) the test sample operating time is 3 hours. For HID lamps (MV, MH, & HPS) the test sample operating time is 10 hours.
  • 28. 28 Lamp Life Comparison
  • 29. 29 Light & Distance
  • 30. 30 Light & Distance The lighting level drops off as the square of the distance. E = I/d2 Where: E = Illuminance (footcandles or lux) I = Intensity of lighting in Candelas D = Distance from the source
  • 31. 31 Light & Distance Therefore, even small changes in the mounting height of a luminaire can have a significant impact on the lighting level.
  • 32. 32 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 100%50% Lumen Maintenance % Rated Life (Lumen output of all light sources depreciates as they age.)
  • 33. 33 Lighting Standards (IESNA Handbook)
  • 34. 34
  • 35. 35 Light Meters
  • 36. 36 Lighting Levels • Specific tasks to be performed • Time required for each task • Speed and accuracy • Age of occupants • Safety and security • Aesthetics • System operating cost
  • 37. 37 Break
  • 38. 38 Lighting Sources
  • 39. 39 Sources Efficacy 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Tungsten LEDwarm Mercury Vapor LEDcool Fluorescent Induction Metal Halide HPS LPS Lumens/Watt Lighting Source Efficiency
  • 40. 40 Source Efficacy
  • 41. 41 Incandescent Lamps Advantages 1. Inexpensive 2. Available in many configurations and colors 3. No warm-up required 4. Not temperature sensitive 5. Easily controlled
  • 42. 42 Incandescent Lamps Disadvantages 1. Inefficient (10 - 25 lumens/watt) 2. Short lamp life 3. Vibration sensitive 4. Over-voltage sensitive
  • 43. 43 Incandescent Upgrades
  • 44. 44 Halogen Lamps Advantages: 1. Higher efficacy than standard lamps 2. Better color rendering 3. Longer life (2,000 hours) Disadvantages: 1. Same as standard incandescent 2. Higher price
  • 45. 45 Ballast Functions
  • 46. 46 Fluorescent Lamps Lamps are available it the following configurations: T-5 T-12 (being phased out) T-8 T-17 (PG-17) T-10 Note: In dual pin configurations, T-8, T-10, and T-12 lamps have the same pin spacing. Therefore, they can be used in the same fixture.
  • 47. 47 Fluorescent Lamps T-12 Lamps Tubular lamp 12/8 of an inch, or 1.5", in diameter. This type lamp comes in a variety of wattages and configurations. Typical Lamp Wattages: 34W, 40W, 60W, and 95W
  • 48. 48 Fluorescent Lamps T-8 Lamps Tubular lamp 8/8 of an inch, or 1.0", in diameter. This type lamp comes in several lengths and is typically used with electronic ballasts. Typical Lamp Wattages: 32W, 59W and 86W 2800 lumens (32 watt bulb)
  • 49. 49 Fluorescent Lamps T-5 Lamps Tubular lamp 5/8 of an inch in diameter. This type lamp comes in several lengths and is typically used with electronic ballasts. Typical Lamp Wattages: 24W(21.6″), 39W(33.4″) , 54W(45.2″), and 80W(57.0″)
  • 50. 50 Low Mercury Lamps In 1980 a four-foot T-12 fluorescent lamp typically contained approximately 100 mg of mercury. By 2000 that value has been cut by over 90%.
  • 51. 51 Fluorescent Ballasts Electromagnetic Ballast (no longer produced)
  • 52. 52 Fluorescent Ballasts Ballasts perform two basic functions: 1. Provide the higher voltage required to start lamps 2. Stabilize the lamp current
  • 53. 53 Fluorescent Ballasts Solid State Electronic Ballast
  • 54. 54 Electronic Ballast Advantages 1. Power (energy) savings 2. Reduce heat generation – potentially lower air conditioning requirement 3. Longer life than electromagnetic ballasts 4. Potentially fewer ballasts required per fixture 5. Additional control flexibility
  • 55. 55 Electronic Ballasts Input Wattage Comparison of Four-Lamp Fluorescent Fixtures Electromagnetic Electronic 144 110 -124 Approximate wattage comparisons
  • 56. 56 Compact Fluorescent Lamps Typical Lamp Wattages 9W, 11W, 15W, 18W, 20W, 23W, and 28W (Larger wattages available)
  • 57. 57 Reflectors
  • 58. 58 Reflectors • Reflectors allow the user to direct most of the light downward toward surfaces of interest instead of lighting the ceiling. • Reduce electric consumption by reducing the number of lamps required for desired light output. • 3 Types (Reflective Efficiency) – Standard Aluminum Reflector (86%) – Reflective White Paint (91%) – Enhanced Specular Aluminum (95%)
  • 59. 59 HID Lamp Types
  • 60. 60 HID Lamp Characteristics All HID lamps share certain physical and operating characteristics. – All HID lamps utilize an internal arc tube and outer envelope construction. – They all require a ballast for operation. – All HID lamps require a warm-up period. – They all require a cool-down period before they can re-strike. – A stroboscopic effect may occur prior to lamp failure
  • 61. 61 Mercury Vapor Lamps
  • 62. 62 Mercury Vapor Lamps Mercury vapor lamps produce a bluish-green color light. Due to their lower efficacy and poor color rendition they are seldom used in new construction. Interior applications are minimal. Most current uses are for outdoor area/ parking lot lighting.
  • 63. 63 Metal Halide Lamps
  • 64. 64 Metal Halide Lamps
  • 65. 65 Metal Halide Lamps All MH lamps offer a number of advantages over MV lamps, including: - Higher efficacy (~ 100 lumens/watt) - A crisp clear white light - Excellent color rendition (CRI 70 - 80) Also, reduced wattage lamps are available for selected sizes of standard MH lamps.
  • 66. 66 Metal Halide Lamps Disadvantages for MH lamps include: - Shorter lamp life for equivalent sizes, when compared to other HID sources (6,000 to 16,000+ hours) - Higher lamp cost - Orientation sensitive
  • 67. 67 Metal Halide Lamps Disadvantages for MH lamps include: - Color shift near the end of lamp life - NEC 2005 requirements: The use of metal halide lamps must be - enclosed to provide contamination barrier (Type S lamps) or - used in a lamp holder that will only accept ANSI Type O (shrouded) lamps
  • 68. 68 Probe-Start Metal Halide Lamps
  • 69. 69 Pulse-Start Metal Halide Lamps
  • 70. 70 Electronic-Start MH Lamps
  • 71. 71 Metal Halide Lamps • UV Protection • Can Explode
  • 72. 72 HPS Lamps
  • 73. 73 HPS Lamps High pressure sodium lamps have been used extensively for both interior and exterior applications. Due to their high efficacy (~120 lumens per watt). Since the mid 70’s HPS fixtures have been used extensively for street lighting.
  • 74. 74 HPS Lamps High pressure sodium lamps provide a golden-yellowish color light. This is due to the fact that they do not produce light in the blue spectrum (450 - 490 nm). While not a concern in exterior applications, some find the resulting color unacceptable for interior use, especially if color is a consideration.
  • 75. 75 HPS Lamps
  • 76. 76 HPS Lamps In many applications high pressure sodium lamps are being changed to fluorescent. Often, a 460 Watt HPS lamp can be replaced with a 210 Watt T-5 fluorescent fixture or a 220 Watt T-8 fixture
  • 77. 77 LPS Lamps Typical LPS Lamp Design
  • 78. 78 LPS Lamps Low Pressure Sodium is not an HID source. It is a gaseous discharge type lamp, similar in operation to fluorescent lamps.
  • 79. 79 LPS Lamps While very efficient, (producing about 160 lumens/watt), LPS lamps are a monochromatic light source. They produce only one color of light, a dirty yellow.
  • 80. 80 LPS Color
  • 81. 81 LPS Color Color reproduction is so poor that under the Coloring Rendering Index scale the CRI for low pressure sodium is Negative.
  • 82. 82 Induction Lamps • Electromagnetic transformers create a field around a glass tube containing a gas • The high frequency ballast creates a flow of free electrons which collide with mercury atoms and increase their energy state • When the mercury atoms return to their lower energy state they emit ultraviolet radiation • The UV radiation is converted to visible light as it passes through a phosphor coating on the surface of the tube
  • 83. 83 Induction Lamps • Induction lamps are basically electrodeless fluorescent lamps • Without electrodes the life of the lamp can be extended to 100,000 hours • Efficacy is 85 lumens/watt • CRI is 85
  • 84. 84 Induction Lamps Advantages: 1. Efficient (~50% less energy consumption) 2. CRI of 85 3. Longer life (100,000 hours) 4. Instant On & Off 5. 85+ Lumens per Watt
  • 85. 85 Induction Lamps Disadvantages: 1. Contains Mercury 2. Slow Start in the Cold 3. Cannot be dimmed or focused 4. Produces UV Light
  • 86. 86 Induction Lamps
  • 87. 87 Break
  • 88. 88 LED Lamps
  • 89. 89 LED Lamps LEDs are made from semi-conductor materials on a die
  • 90. 90 LED Lamps An Individual LED Die is Very Small
  • 91. 91 LED Lamps Making White Light with LEDs - Can mix light from Red, Blue and Green LEDs - Can use phosphor conversion
  • 92. 92 LED Lamps – Mix RBG Light
  • 93. 93 LED Lamps – Phosphor Conversion Blue LED Excites the Phosphor Excited Phosphor Emits White Light
  • 94. 94 LED Lamps Phosphor Conversion is Similar to Fluorescent Lamp Operation
  • 95. 95 LED Lamps – White Light with Phosphor Conversion
  • 96. 96 LED Lamps – Efficacy
  • 97. 97 LED Lamps – Packaging
  • 98. 98 LED Lamps – Packaging
  • 99. 99 LED Lamps – Packaging
  • 100. 100 LED Lamps – Packaging
  • 101. 101 LED Lamps – Lamp Life
  • 102. 102 LED Lamps
  • 103. 103 LED Lamps
  • 104. 104 LED Lamps
  • 105. 105 LED Lamps - Applications
  • 106. 106 LED Lamps - Applications
  • 107. 107 Lamp Comparison
  • 108. 108 Lamp Comparison
  • 109. 109 Exit Signs Types of Illuminated Exit Signs - Incandescent - Fluorescent - LED - Tritium - Photoluminescent
  • 110. 110 Illuminated Exit Signs
  • 111. 111 Incandescent Exit Signs Incandescent signs typically utilize two 20 or 25 watt tubular lamps. Inefficient and short lamp life (2,000 hours).
  • 112. 112 Fluorescent Exit Signs Fluorescent signs typically utilize one or two lamps. More efficient that incandescent with longer lamp life (6,000 - 10,000 hours).
  • 113. 113 LED Exit Signs In new or retrofit applications two lamps are typically used. Very efficient (4-8 W/fixture), excellent lamp life (20 years). LED retrofit lamp
  • 114. 114 Tritium Exit Signs No energy required, rated life 10 -20 years However, disposal problems exit
  • 115. 115 Photoluminescent Exit Signs No energy required, glow in the dark (non-tritium) exit signs Rated life 5 -25 years depending on model Should comply with UL924 for exit signs Courtesy of American Permalight
  • 116. 116 Exterior Lighting
  • 117. 117 Exterior Lighting • LED Street Lights • Wall Packs – High Pressure Sodium – Mercury Vapor – Metal Halide – Induction • Controls – Photocells – Timers
  • 118. 118 Lighting Controls
  • 119. 119 Occupancy Sensors Most sensors in commercial applications utilize either passive infrared (PIR) or ultrasonic technology. There are hybrid sensors employing both technologies.
  • 120. 120 Occupancy Sensors Typical sensor fields of view
  • 121. 121 Timeclocks Timeclocks can be effectively utilized for basic on/off operation of lighting fixtures. By utilizing low voltage relays, large numbers of fixtures can be controlled by a single timeclock, thereby making it very cost effective.
  • 122. 122 Timed Switches Timed Switches are switches that incorporate a timed function, to ensure that the fixtures are turned off after a preset interval of time, typically one to two hours.
  • 123. 123 Timed Switches They are available in both standard toggle switch and programmable models. Prior to the controlled fixtures being turned off, these switches will provide a warning; in the form of blinking lights or an audible beeping sound (or both on some models).
  • 124. 124 Scheduling Controls
  • 125. 125 Centrailzed Controls
  • 126. 126 Photocells Photocells are low cost reliable controls that utilize a photo- sensitive element to control on/off operation of a fixture or fixtures. While primarily used in outdoor applications they can also used in building atriums.
  • 127. 127 Light Control Panels Typical Industrial Lighting Panel
  • 128. 128 Lighting Control Panels Today, control panels have become very sophisticated, with control capabilities far beyond basic on/off operation, i.e. “smart panels”.
  • 129. 129 Daylight Harvesting
  • 130. 130 Building Automation Systems
  • 131. 131 Twilight Switch
  • 132. 132 HVAC Impact
  • 133. 133 Basic Principles of Lighting Energy Management 1. If you don’t need it, turn it off - Employee Awareness, Sensors, Timers, Photocells, Timed Switches, Energy Management Systems, etc. 2. Proper maintenance - Group cleaning and relamping
  • 134. 134 Basic Principles of Lighting Energy Management 3. Enhanced lighting control - Photocells and occupancy sensors 4. More efficient sources - Electronically ballasted fluorescent fixtures, - Compact fluorescents - Induction lamps - Light emitting diodes (LEDs)
  • 135. 135 Case 1: Manufacturer
  • 136. 136 Case 1: Manufacturer
  • 137. 137 Case 1: Manufacturer
  • 138. 138 Case 2: Dairy Product Processor Electric Rates: Usage: $.0400/kWh Demand: $0.0/kW Operating Hours of Fixtures: 8,760 hours/yr Background: Portions of the production area are lit with (125) 2x4 T12 fixtures (4 – 4’ T12 lamps with magnetic ballasts) Power Rating: 144-watts Annualized Maintenance Cost per fixture: $17.11 Recommendation: Replace with (125) 2-lamp T8 fixtures with (1) parallel-wired electronic ballast and reflectors. Power Rating: 55-watts Annualized Maintenance Cost per fixture: $6.63
  • 139. 139 Savings: Usage: 97,455 kWh/yr $3,898 / yr Demand: 134 kW/yr $0 / yr Maintenance: $1,310 / yr Total Savings: $5,208 / yr Implementation Cost: $11,100 TVA Rebate: $9,746 Simple Payback Period: 2.13 years (0.26 yrs) Case 2: Dairy Product Processor
  • 140. 140 Case 3: Automotive Components Manufacturer Electric Rates: Usage: $.040/kWh Demand: $0.0/kW Operating Hours of Fixtures: 8,760 hours/yr Background: (31) Exit fixtures are equipped with (2) 20-watt lamps each Power Rating: 40-watts Annualized Maintenance Cost per fixture: $25.81 Recommendation: Replace with (31) LED exit fixtures, each with (2) 2-watt LED lamps Power Rating: 4-watts Annualized Maintenance Cost per fixture: $9.32
  • 141. 141 Savings: Usage: 9,776 kWh/yr $391 / yr Demand: 13 kW/yr $0 / yr Maintenance: $511 / yr Total Savings: 902 / yr Implementation Cost: $1,513 TVA Rebate: $978 Simple Payback Period: 1.68 years (0.59 yrs) Case 3: Automotive Components Manufacturer
  • 142. 142 Case 4: Auto Parts Manufacturer Electric Rates: Usage: $.065/kWh Demand: $12.47/kW Operating Hours of Fixtures: 8,736 hours/yr Background: There are (114) 400-watt metal halide fixtures throughout the facility Power Rating: 450-watts/fixture Annualized Maintenance Cost per fixture: $19.71 Recommendation: Replace with (114) 220-watt T8 fluorescent fixtures Power Rating: 220-watts Annualized Maintenance Cost per fixture: $11.76
  • 143. 143 Savings: Usage: 229,058 kWh/yr $14,889 / yr Demand: 314.6 kW/yr $3,924 / yr Maintenance: $906 / yr Total Savings: $19,719 / yr Implementation Cost: $45,326 TVA Rebate: $22,906 Simple Payback Period: 2.30 years (1.14 yrs) Case 4: Auto Parts Manufacturer
  • 144. 144 Questions ???????????