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Lighting

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  • 1. 1 Fundamentals of Energy Efficient Lighting Presented By: Ken Currie, PhD, P.E. July 17, 2013
  • 2. 2 Building Lighting Energy
  • 3. 3 Lighting Type First Cost
  • 4. 4 Lighting Type Life Cycle Cost
  • 5. 5 Lighting Energy Efficiency
  • 6. 6 Efficient Lighting
  • 7. 7 Amount of Light
  • 8. 8 Other Considerations
  • 9. 9 Light & Color
  • 10. 10 Color Temperature Color Temperature is noted in degrees Kelvin* or °K 3,000°K - Warm White 3,500°K - Neutral 4,100°K Cool White * The Kelvin Scale is defined as Celsius plus 273.
  • 11. 11 Color Temperature Definition • the electromagnetic radiation emitted from an ideal black body • 1,700 K Match flame • 1,850 K Candle flame, sunset/sunrise • 2,700–3,300 K Incandescent lamps • 3,000 K Soft White compact fluorescent lamps • 3,200 K Studio lamps, photofloods, etc. • 3,350 K Studio "CP" light • 4,100–4,150 K Moonlight • 5,000 K Horizon daylight • 5,000 K tubular fluorescent lamps or Cool White/Daylight CFL • 5,500–6,000 K Vertical daylight, electronic flash • 6,500 K Daylight, overcast • 5,500–10,500 K LCD or CRT screen • 15,000–27,000 K Clear blue poleward sky
  • 12. 12 Typical Color Temperatures Incandescent ……... 2,750°K – 3,400°K Fluorescent ……….. 2,700°K – 6,500°K Mercury vapor ….. 3,300°K – 6,000°K Metal Halide ……… 3,000°K – 4,300°K High Pressure Sodium …………...... 1,900°K – 2,200°K Induction …………… 3,000°K – 4,000°K
  • 13. 13 Color Rendering Index (CRI) Color Rendering Index is a scale from 0-100 that indicates the accuracy with which a lighting source can reproduce colors. The higher the CRI value the more accurate the color reproduction.
  • 14. 14 Color Rendering Index (CRI) Typical high CRI values: 80 to 90 Typical good CRI values: 65 to 80 Typical poor CRI values: <65 Note: The CRI for standard Low Pressure Sodium lamps is extremely poor.
  • 15. 15 Typical CRI Values Incandescent …………….. 100 Fluorescent ………………. 60 - 90 Mercury vapor …………….15 - 30 Metal Halide ……………… 60 - 90 High Pressure Sodium ….. 10 - 60 Low Pressure Sodium ….. Negative Induction ………………….. 85 LEDs……………………………. 30 - 60
  • 16. 16 Lamp Life Comparison
  • 17. 17 Light & Distance
  • 18. 18 Light & Distance The lighting level drops off as the square of the distance. E = I/d2 Where: E = Illuminance (footcandles or lux) I = Intensity of lighting in Candelas D = Distance from the source
  • 19. 19 Light & Distance Therefore, even small changes in the mounting height of a luminaire can have a significant impact on the lighting level.
  • 20. 20 Lighting Levels • Specific tasks to be performed • Time required for each task • Speed and accuracy • Age of occupants • Safety and security • Aesthetics • System operating cost
  • 21. 21 Lighting Sources
  • 22. 22 Lighting Sources
  • 23. 23 Sources Efficacy 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Tungsten LEDwarm Mercury Vapor LEDcool Fluorescent Induction Metal Halide HPS LPS Lumens/Watt Lighting Source Efficiency
  • 24. 24 Source Efficacy
  • 25. 25 Reflectors
  • 26. 26 Reflectors • Reflectors allow the user to direct most of the light downward toward surfaces of interest instead of lighting the ceiling. • Reduce electric consumption by reducing the number of lamps required for desired light output. • 3 Types (Reflective Efficiency) – Standard Aluminum Reflector (86%) – Reflective White Paint (91%) – Enhanced Specular Aluminum (95%)
  • 27. 27 LED Lamps – Efficacy
  • 28. 28 Basic Principles of Lighting Energy Management 1. If you don’t need it, turn it off - Employee Awareness, Sensors, Timers, Photocells, Timed Switches, Energy Management Systems, etc. 2. Proper maintenance - Group cleaning and relamping
  • 29. 29 Basic Principles of Lighting Energy Management 3. Enhanced lighting control - Photocells and occupancy sensors 4. More efficient sources - Electronically ballasted fluorescent fixtures, - Compact fluorescents - Induction lamps - Light emitting diodes (LEDs)
  • 30. 30 Comparisons & Case Studies
  • 31. 31 Incandescent Upgrades
  • 32. 32 Case 1: Manufacturer
  • 33. 33 Case 1: Manufacturer
  • 34. 34 Case 1: Manufacturer
  • 35. 35 Case 2: Automotive Components Manufacturer Electric Rates: Usage: $.040/kWh Demand: $0.0/kW Operating Hours of Fixtures: 8,760 hours/yr Background: (31) Exit fixtures are equipped with (2) 20-watt lamps each Power Rating: 40-watts Annualized Maintenance Cost per fixture: $25.81 Recommendation: Replace with (31) LED exit fixtures, each with (2) 2-watt LED lamps Power Rating: 4-watts Annualized Maintenance Cost per fixture: $9.32
  • 36. 36 Savings: Usage: 9,776 kWh/yr $391 / yr Demand: 13 kW/yr $0 / yr Maintenance: $511 / yr Total Savings: 902 / yr Implementation Cost: $1,513 TVA Rebate: $978 Simple Payback Period: 1.68 years (0.59 yrs) Case 2: Automotive Components Manufacturer
  • 37. 37 Case 3: Auto Parts Manufacturer Electric Rates: Usage: $.065/kWh Demand: $12.47/kW Operating Hours of Fixtures: 8,736 hours/yr Background: There are (114) 400-watt metal halide fixtures throughout the facility Power Rating: 450-watts/fixture Annualized Maintenance Cost per fixture: $19.71 Recommendation: Replace with (114) 220-watt T8 fluorescent fixtures Power Rating: 220-watts Annualized Maintenance Cost per fixture: $11.76
  • 38. 38 Savings: Usage: 229,058 kWh/yr $14,889 / yr Demand: 314.6 kW/yr $3,924 / yr Maintenance: $906 / yr Total Savings: $19,719 / yr Implementation Cost: $45,326 TVA Rebate: $22,906 Simple Payback Period: 2.30 years (1.14 yrs) Case 3: Auto Parts Manufacturer
  • 39. 39 Questions ???????????

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