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Industrial Process Heating Optimization
J ason Smith, LEED A.P.
Industrial Energy Efficiency Summit
Nashville – TN July 17...
Global Network:
 Global Sales ~ 143,000 Units (~ 12,000,000 BHP)
• Asia ~ 140,500
• North America ~ 2,500
 ~ 500 Trillio...
Miura – North America:
 Current North American
regional offices:
 Sales and service
networt in the U.S. &
Canada via cer...
Presentation Overview:
 Introduction
 Overview of Optimization Approach / Process
 Review of Thermal Energy Management ...
Optimization Approach:
Key Concepts
Holistic / System-wide
Inclusive
BEST PRACTICE-rooted
Data-driven
Process / Load-...
Optimization Approach:
Process
 Assess & benchmark current system
performance relative to process loads
 Maximize heat r...
Unlocking U.S. Energy Efficiency
Bang for Buck – Industrial Sector
 2009 McKinsey EE Report for DOE / EPA:
http://www.mck...
U. S. Boiler Inventory:
Energy Consumption
 U.S. Industrial Boilers – Energy Consumption: ~ 6.5 Qbtu / yr
or up to 40% of...
Optimization Objectives:
Enterprise Sustain-ability
 “Triple Bottom Line”:
Social Responsibility
Environmental
Stewardshi...
Optimization Drivers: Emissions Compliance
NOx
 Map of ozone non-attainment areas in the U.S.
(existing / future projecte...
Optimization Drivers: Emissions Compliance
EPA Boiler MACT
 Focused on regulating large & “dirty” fuel boiler
emissions v...
Optimization Drivers: Emissions Reductions
Carbon Content
 Comparison of carbon content of major fuels:
 Coal ~ twice th...
Targeting Energy Efficiency
Going Backwards to Move Forward
 “Back-cast” or reverse-engineer solutions with a
specific ta...
Targeting Industrial Energy Efficiency
U.S. Industry
 U.S. DOE ITP / AMO:
 Providing training & energy performance
evalu...
Unlocking Energy Efficiency
O&M BEST PRACTICES
10 Steps to Operating Efficiency:
1. Increase Management Awareness
of Facil...
DOE BEST PRACTICES:
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/technical_assistance/m/steam.html#tipsheets
Optimization Are...
Optimization BEST PRACTICES:
Benchmark Energy Costs
 EXAMPLE:
 Operating pressure = 150 psig
 Feedwater Temp. = 150oF
...
Optimization BEST PRACTICES:
Minimize Radiant Losses
 EXAMPLE:
 Radiant Surface Area = 60 ft2
 Liquid Temperature = 170...
Optimization BEST PRACTICES:
Minimize Boiler Blow-down
 EXAMPLE: (Economic Impact)
 M/U Water Savings = 2,312 lb/hr
 Th...
Optimization BEST PRACTICES:
Minimize Boiler Blow-down
 EXAMPLE: (Environmental Impact)
 Steam Pressure = 150 psig
 Boi...
Optimization BEST PRACTICES:
Automatic Blow-down Controls
 EXAMPLE:
 Natural Gas-Fired Boiler
 Boiler Output = 100,000 ...
Optimization BEST PRACTICES:
Efficient Burners
 EXAMPLE:
 Natural Gas-Fired Boiler
 Boiler Output = 50,000 lbs/hr
 Ann...
Optimization BEST PRACTICES:
Efficient Combustion Systems
 EXAMPLE:
 Natural Gas-Fired Boiler
 Operating Pressure = 150...
Optimization BEST PRACTICES:
Minimize Boiler Short-cycling
 EXAMPLE:
 Existing Boiler Output = 1,500 BHP (~50.2 MMBtu/hr...
Optimization BEST PRACTICES:
Waste Heat Recovery via Economizer
 EXAMPLE:
 Existing Steam Boiler
 Boiler Capacity = 45,...
Optimization BEST PRACTICES:
Water Quality Management
 EXAMPLE:
 Annual Fuel = 450,000 MMBtu
 Boiler Capacity = 45,000 ...
Optimization BEST PRACTICES:
Steam Trap Management
 EXAMPLE:
 Existing Failed Steam Trap
 Steam Pressure = 150 psig
 O...
Optimization BEST PRACTICES:
Insulate Steam Piping
 EXAMPLE:
 Existing Steam System Survey
 Un-insulated Steam Pipe:
– ...
Understanding Boiler Efficiency:
Accounting for Load Variability
“Combustion Efficiency” (Ec)
• The effectiveness of the b...
Understanding Boiler Efficiency:
Accounting for Load Variability
 Current boiler efficiency metrics are limited to
best-c...
Understanding Boiler Efficiency:
 Fuel-to-Steam vs. In-Service Efficiency
 Understanding operating efficiency = tracking...
Industrial Energy Assessment
DOE Technical Resources
 DOE Regional Industrial Assessment Centers:
http://www1.eere.energy...
Optimization First Steps:
Energy Assessment & Benchmarking
You are not managing what you do not measure…
 Select assessme...
Optimization First Steps:
Energy Assessment & Benchmarking
 Meter existing equipment & collect data on
current consumptio...
Operating Efficiency Analysis:
Benchmarking Tools
 Utilize mass balance approach to account for all
inputs & outputs:
Tan...
Boiler Operating Efficiency:
Tracking Results
 Benchmarked performance of 25 boilers via assessment data:
 Average Opera...
Benchmarking to Save Energy:
In-Service Efficiency (ISE) Study
 Metered ISE study provides
detailed load profile
illustra...
Steam Cost Calculator:
TCO (Total Cost of Operation) Analysis
 Fuel Cost
 Water Cost
 Sewer Cost
 Electricity Costs
 ...
Leveraging Assessment Data:
Natural Gas Rebate Programs
 Utilize assessment data to justify project savings for EE rebate...
U. S. Boiler Inventory:
Age Distribution
 U.S. Boilers – Age Distribution of Boilers > 10 MMBtu/hr:
 C/I Boiler Inventor...
Conventional Boilers – “Gap Analysis”:
Opportunities for Innovation
 Design Limitations of Conventional Boilers:
• Physic...
Modular Boiler Technology:
Filling Performance “Gaps”
 Reduction in system footprint per equivalent
output / improved ass...
Boiler System Operating Efficiency:
Tracking Performance
 Operating Efficiency Comparison:
 Modular systems provide over...
 Optimize system operating efficiency to maximize
efficiency credits in support of compliance
 Optimize system operating...
Managing Energy Load Variability:
“Right-Sizing” Optimization
 Understand load profile for typical production cycle
 Qua...
Managing Energy Load Variability:
Conventional Systems
 Conventional boiler systems expend large amounts of energy to
mee...
Managing Energy Load Variability:
Modular On-Demand Systems
 Modular on-demand boiler systems reduce energy consumption
r...
Optimized Energy Management via
Modularity
 Modular design concept:
200HP
TDR=1:3
Step(H,L)
200HP
TDR=1:3
Step(H,L)
200HP...
Optimized Energy Management via
Modularity
 Modular design concept:
 Each boiler unit acts like a single piston in
the o...
Modular Capacity Range:
Flexibility + Efficiency
 Boiler Types & General Capacity Ranges
 Modular – Point-of-Use to Dist...
Modular Boiler Plant Configuration:
 Optimized load matching / management
 Potential for hybrid base load / peaking
 Op...
 Conventional Approach: Primary + Back-up
 Modular Approach: Integrated Back-up
 Reduce purchased capacity by ~ 30% whi...
Increasing Efficiency = Reducing Losses:
Radiant Losses
 With energy efficiency, size matters…
 Increase efficiency via ...
Increasing Efficiency = Reducing Losses:
Radiant Losses
 Radiant Losses: 12 MMBtu/hr input at 100% output
 Option A – Co...
Increasing Efficiency = Reducing Losses:
Radiant Losses
 Radiant Losses: 12 MMBtu/hr input at 33% output
 Option A – Con...
Increasing Efficiency = Reducing Losses:
Exhaust Losses
 Utilize feed-water economizer for built-in
waste heat recovery
...
Enhanced Heat Recovery:
Temperature Neutral Water Treatment
 Eco-friendly Silicate-based water treatment
 Eliminates nee...
Increasing Efficiency = Reducing Losses:
Start-up Losses
FUEL
IN
IN-SERVICE
EFFICIENCY
Fuel-to-Steam
Efficiency
 Thermal ...
Increasing Efficiency = Reducing Losses:
Losses at High Turn-down
 Modular boiler system:
 Sequential boiler staging via...
Online Monitoring / Management:
“Dashboard” System
 Stand-alone online monitoring
system that interfaces with boiler
cont...
Online Monitoring / Management:
“Dashboard” System
 24/7 Real-time Operational Parameters:
• Firing Rate
• Steam Pressure...
Complete Fully Integrated Boiler Plant
 Typical integrated modular, on-demand boiler plant
Reducing Boiler “Footprint”
20% -
70%
 Physical Footprint:
• Reduced space requirements
• Reduced energy plant constructi...
Case Studies: Chemical Industry
Fuji-Hunt Chemicals (Tennessee)
 Boiler Upgrade – (2) EX-200 BHP units
 Placed into serv...
Jason Smith, LEED A.P.
(770) 916-1695 Office
(678) 939-7630 Cell
jason.smith@miuraboiler.com
Qu estion s:
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Transcript of "Leveraging best practices & emerging technologies to optimize industrial process heating"

  1. 1. Industrial Process Heating Optimization J ason Smith, LEED A.P. Industrial Energy Efficiency Summit Nashville – TN July 17 - 18, 2013
  2. 2. Global Network:  Global Sales ~ 143,000 Units (~ 12,000,000 BHP) • Asia ~ 140,500 • North America ~ 2,500  ~ 500 Trillion Btu Annual Energy Savings Worldwide  ~ 180 Million Metric Tons of Annual CO2 Reductions Worldwide
  3. 3. Miura – North America:  Current North American regional offices:  Sales and service networt in the U.S. & Canada via certified local representatives  Satellite offices established in Mexico & Brazil in 2011  Made in the U.S.A.: New U.S. manufacturing operational in 2009 (Rockmart, GA)
  4. 4. Presentation Overview:  Introduction  Overview of Optimization Approach / Process  Review of Thermal Energy Management BEST PRACTICES  First Steps to Optimization – Assessment & Benchmarking  Leveraging New Technologies to Back-fill Performance Gaps  Case Studies of Successful Applications
  5. 5. Optimization Approach: Key Concepts Holistic / System-wide Inclusive BEST PRACTICE-rooted Data-driven Process / Load-specific Controls-focused Target-driven Recurring Long-term
  6. 6. Optimization Approach: Process  Assess & benchmark current system performance relative to process loads  Maximize heat recovery within system  “Right-size” system relative to optimized heat recovery  Optimize system load matching / management capability for process requirements  Configure system to reduce potential for future secondary / infrastructure energy losses  Implement long-term system & infrastructure BEST PRACTICES management program  Implement continuous system monitoring & management  Implement recurring optimization “gap analysis”
  7. 7. Unlocking U.S. Energy Efficiency Bang for Buck – Industrial Sector  2009 McKinsey EE Report for DOE / EPA: http://www.mckinsey.com/clientservice/electricpowernaturalgas/US_energy_efficiency Energy Mgmt for E/I Processes Waste Heat Recovery Steam Systems ~ 13 Quadrillion Btu’s at an avg. capital investment of ~ $7 / MMBtu
  8. 8. U. S. Boiler Inventory: Energy Consumption  U.S. Industrial Boilers – Energy Consumption: ~ 6.5 Qbtu / yr or up to 40% of all energy at industrial facilities  Equivalent CO2 Emissions: ~ 500+ MtCO2 / yr Food BoilerFuelConsumption (TBtu/yr) Paper Chemicals Refining Primary Metals Other Mfg 500 1,000 1,500 2,500 2,000
  9. 9. Optimization Objectives: Enterprise Sustain-ability  “Triple Bottom Line”: Social Responsibility Environmental Stewardship Economic Prosperity • Reduced Fossil Fuels Consumption • Reduced GHG Emissions • Reduced Water Consupmtion • Reduced Fuel Costs • Reduced Operation Costs • Increased Operational Efficiency • Extended Product Stewardship • Online Maintenance System • Safe & Easy Operation
  10. 10. Optimization Drivers: Emissions Compliance NOx  Map of ozone non-attainment areas in the U.S. (existing / future projected counties):  Ground-level ozone pollution - primary driver of NOx emissions regulation in the U.S.
  11. 11. Optimization Drivers: Emissions Compliance EPA Boiler MACT  Focused on regulating large & “dirty” fuel boiler emissions via emissions limits & smaller boilers via regular tuning provisions  Final amendments issued 01/31/2013 for major source & 02/01/2013 for area source boilers  Major source boilers defined as those emitting 10 TPY of any single regulated hazardous air pollutant or 25 TPY of combined pollutants  Area source boilers are those that fall below major source emissions of HAP’s  Establishes “large boilers” as having heat input capacity of 10 MMBtu/hr or greater & “small boilers” as those below 10 MMBtu/hr heat input capacity  Specifies compliance deadline criteria differentiating new vs. existing boilers (including energy assessment)
  12. 12. Optimization Drivers: Emissions Reductions Carbon Content  Comparison of carbon content of major fuels:  Coal ~ twice the carbon content of natural gas CO2 Equivalents (lbs/MMBtu) • Natural Gas – 117 lbs • Propane – 139 lbs • Distillate Fuels – 162 lbs • Residual Fuels – 174 lbs • Coal (BC) – 205 lbs • Coal (AC) – 227 lbs
  13. 13. Targeting Energy Efficiency Going Backwards to Move Forward  “Back-cast” or reverse-engineer solutions with a specific targeted performance outcome in mind  ISO 50001, Energy Star, etc. assist in setting targets  Create portfolio of existing / emerging technologies that meet the targeted path to objective
  14. 14. Targeting Industrial Energy Efficiency U.S. Industry  U.S. DOE ITP / AMO:  Providing training & energy performance evaluations for U.S. industries focused on key energy intensive processes:  Steam  Process Heat  Pumps  Compressors  Motors  Targeting energy intensity reduction of 25% in U.S. industries within the next 10 years
  15. 15. Unlocking Energy Efficiency O&M BEST PRACTICES 10 Steps to Operating Efficiency: 1. Increase Management Awareness of Facility Operating Efficiency 2. Identify Troubled Systems 3. Commit to Address Worst- performing System 4. Commit to O.E. for Selected System 5. Install Metering/Monitoring of Selected System 6. Commit to Trending Diagnostic Data from M+M System 7. Use Trending Data to Select, “Sell” & Complete OE Project 8. Publish Results 9. Select Next Troubled System 10. Start O.E. Process Over Again Fund Future Projects from Previous Energy Savings
  16. 16. DOE BEST PRACTICES: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/technical_assistance/m/steam.html#tipsheets Optimization Areas with Potential Energy Savings:  Benchmark the Fuel Costs of Thermal Energy (~1%)  Minimize Radiant Losses from Boilers (1.5-5%)  Minimize & Automate Boiler Blow-down (0.5%-1.5%)  Utilize Efficient Burners / Combustion Systems (2-10%)  Minimize Boiler Idling & Short-Cycling Losses (5-10%)  Utilize Feedwater Economizer for Waste Heat Recovery (1-4%)  Utilize Boiler Blow-down Heat Recovery (0.5–2%)  Maintain Clean Water-Side Heat Transfer Surfaces (0-10%)  Implement a Steam Trap Management Program (0-2.5%)  Implement a Steam Leak Program (0-3%)  Reduce Steam Pressure of Steam Distribution System (0-3%)  Improve Insulation on Steam Distribution System (0-3%)
  17. 17. Optimization BEST PRACTICES: Benchmark Energy Costs  EXAMPLE:  Operating pressure = 150 psig  Feedwater Temp. = 150oF  Fuel Type = Natural Gas  Fuel Unit Cost = $4.00/MMBtu  Cost of Steam ($/1000 lbs.): ($4.00/MMBtu / 106 Btu/MMBtu) x 1,000 lbs (cost measure) x 1,078 lbs/Btu (energy – steam) / 0.857 (combustion efficiency) = $5.03 / 1000 lbs. steam
  18. 18. Optimization BEST PRACTICES: Minimize Radiant Losses  EXAMPLE:  Radiant Surface Area = 60 ft2  Liquid Temperature = 170oF  Ambient Temperature = 75oF  Operating Hours = 3,000 hrs  Fuel Unit Cost = $4.00/MMBtu  Total Heat Loss: 1,566 Btu/hr X 60 ft2 = $93,960 Btu/hr  Annual Energy Savings: 93,960 Btu/hr X 2000 hrs = 282 MMBtu /yr X $4.00/MMBtu = $1,128 / yr 200 BHP Firetube Boiler 200 BHP Miura Boiler
  19. 19. Optimization BEST PRACTICES: Minimize Boiler Blow-down  EXAMPLE: (Economic Impact)  M/U Water Savings = 2,312 lb/hr  Thermal Energy Savings = 311Btu/lb  Boiler Operation = 8,760 hrs/yr  Fuel Unit Cost = $4.00/MMBtu  Water/Sewer/Chemical = $0.005/gal  Fuel Savings: 2,312 lbs/hr X 8,760 hrs/yr X 311 Btu/lb X $4.00/MMBtu / (0.80 X 106 Btu/MMBtu) = $31,443 / year  Water & Chemical Savings: 2,312 lbs/hr X 8,760 hrs/yr X $0.005/gal / 8.34 lb/gal = $12,142 / year  Total Cost Savings: $31,443 (fuel savings) + $12,142 (water / chemical savings) = $43,585 / year
  20. 20. Optimization BEST PRACTICES: Minimize Boiler Blow-down  EXAMPLE: (Environmental Impact)  Steam Pressure = 150 psig  Boiler Capacity = 100,000 lbs/hr  Fuel Unit Cost = $4.00/MMBtu  Water / Sewer / Treatment Costs = $0.005 / gallon  Blow-down Reduction = 8% to 6%  Boiler Feedwater: Initial = 100,000 lbs/hr / (1-0.08) = 108,695 lbs/hr Final = 100,000 lbs/hr / (1-0.06) = 106,383 lbs/hr M/U Water Savings = 2,312 lbs/hr  Boiler Water Enthalpy = 338.5 Btu/lb  For 60oF M/U Water = 28 Btu/lb  Thermal Energy Savings = 338.5 Btu/lb – 28 Btu/lb = 310.5 Btu/lb  Reduced CO2 Emissions = 0.037 lbs CO2 / lb steam = 37 lbs CO2 / 1,000 lbs steam
  21. 21. Optimization BEST PRACTICES: Automatic Blow-down Controls  EXAMPLE:  Natural Gas-Fired Boiler  Boiler Output = 100,000 lbs/hr  Steam Pressure = 150 psig  M/U Water Temperature = 60oF  Boiler Efficiency = 80%  Water/Sewer/Chemical = $0.004/gallon  Blow-down Reduction = 2%  Energy Savings: = $54,400 (fuel savings) + $8,400 (water/chemical savings) = $62,800 / year
  22. 22. Optimization BEST PRACTICES: Efficient Burners  EXAMPLE:  Natural Gas-Fired Boiler  Boiler Output = 50,000 lbs/hr  Annual Fuel Input = 500,000 MMBtu  Fuel Unit Cost = $4.00/MMBtu  Existing Burner Efficiency = 79%  Burner Efficiency Improvement = 2%  Energy Cost Savings: = 500,000 MMBtu/yr X $4.00/MMBtu X (1 – 79/81) = $49,380 / year
  23. 23. Optimization BEST PRACTICES: Efficient Combustion Systems  EXAMPLE:  Natural Gas-Fired Boiler  Operating Pressure = 150 psig  Boiler Output = 45,000 lbs/hr  Annual Input = 500,000 MMBtu  Stack Gas Excess Air = 44.9%  Net Flue Gas Temp. = 400oF  Existing Combustion Efficiency = 78.2% (E1)  Reduce Net Excess Air - 9.5%  Reduce Net Flue Gas Temp. - 300oF  Improved Combustion Efficiency = 83.1% (E2)  Assume Fuel Unit Cost = $4.00/MMBtu  Energy Cost Savings: = Fuel Consumption X (1-E1/E2) X Fuel Cost = 29,482 MMBtu/yr X $4.00/MMBtu = $117,928 / year
  24. 24. Optimization BEST PRACTICES: Minimize Boiler Short-cycling  EXAMPLE:  Existing Boiler Output = 1,500 BHP (~50.2 MMBtu/hr)  Existing Cycle Efficiency = 72.7% (E1)  Replacement Boiler Output = 600 BHP (~20 MMBtu/hr)  Replacement Boiler Cycle Efficiency = 80% (E2)  Annual Boiler Fuel Consumption = 200,000 MMBtu  Fuel Unit Cost = $4.00/MMBtu  Fractional Fuel Savings: = 1 – (E1 / E2) = 1 – (72.7 / 80) x 100 = 9%  Annual Fuel Savings: = 200,000 MMBtu X 0.09 X $8.00/MMBtu = $72,000 / year
  25. 25. Optimization BEST PRACTICES: Waste Heat Recovery via Economizer  EXAMPLE:  Existing Steam Boiler  Boiler Capacity = 45,000 lbs/hr  Steam Pressure = 150 psig  Pre-heated Feed-Water = 117oF  Stack Temperature = 500oF  Operating Hours = 8,400 hrs/yr  Fuel Unit Cost = $4.00/MMBtu  Annual Energy Cost Savings: = 45,000 lb/hr X (1,195.5 – 84.97) Btu/lb = 50 MMBtu/hr = 4.6 MMBtu/hr (Recoverable Heat) = 4.6 MMBtu/hr X $4.00/MMBtu X 8,400 hr/yr / 0.80 = $193,200 / year
  26. 26. Optimization BEST PRACTICES: Water Quality Management  EXAMPLE:  Annual Fuel = 450,000 MMBtu  Boiler Capacity = 45,000 lbs/hr  Operating Hours = 8,000 hrs  Fuel Unit Cost = $4.00/MMBtu  Scale Thickness = 1/32”  Operating Cost Increase: 450,000 MMBtu / yr x $4.00 / MMBtu x 0.07 (% energy loss, scale) = $126,000 / yr Excessive Scale vs. Efficiency Reduction:  1/8” thick = 25% efficiency reduction  1/4” thick = 40% efficiency reduction
  27. 27. Optimization BEST PRACTICES: Steam Trap Management  EXAMPLE:  Existing Failed Steam Trap  Steam Pressure = 150 psig  Operating Hours = 8,760 hrs/yr  Fuel Unit Cost = $5.00/klbs  Assume 1/8” dia. Trap Orifice Stuck Open:  Steam Loss = 75.8 lbs/hr  Energy Cost Savings: = 75.8 lbs/hr X 8,760 hrs/yr X $5.00/klbs = $3,320 / year
  28. 28. Optimization BEST PRACTICES: Insulate Steam Piping  EXAMPLE:  Existing Steam System Survey  Un-insulated Steam Pipe: – 1,120 ft of 1” pipe @ 150 psig – 175 ft of 2” pipe @ 150 psig – 250 ft of 4” pipe @ 15 psig  Annual Heat Loss: 1” line: 1,120 ft X 285 MMBtu/yr per 100 ft = 3,192 MMBtu/yr 2” line: 175 ft X 480 MMBtu/yr per 100 ft = 840 MMBtu/yr 4” line: 250 ft X 415 MMBtu/yr per 100 ft = 1,037 MMBtu/yr Total Heat Loss = 5,069 MMBty/yr  Annual Cost Savings (80% efficient boiler, 90% efficient insulation): 0.90 X $4.00/MMBtu X 5,069 MMBtu/yr / 0.80 = $22,810 / year
  29. 29. Understanding Boiler Efficiency: Accounting for Load Variability “Combustion Efficiency” (Ec) • The effectiveness of the burner to ignite the fuel • Per ANSI Z21.13 test protocol “Thermal Efficiency” (Et) • The effectiveness of heat transfer from the flame to the water • Per the Hydronics Institute BTS-2000 test protocol • Recognized by ASHRAE 90.1 standard “Boiler Efficiency” • Often substituted for combustion or thermal efficiency “Fuel-to-Steam Efficiency” (A.K.A. Catalog Efficiency) • The effectiveness of a boiler operating at maximum capacity and a steady state, with flue losses and radiation losses taken into account.
  30. 30. Understanding Boiler Efficiency: Accounting for Load Variability  Current boiler efficiency metrics are limited to best-case operation (steady-state)  Current boiler efficiency metrics are limited to snapshot-in-time vs. annualized measurement  At any given moment, various boilers may be: • Off and isolated (via modular, on-demand system) • Off, but with through-flow from active boilers • Operating at steady-state high fire • Modulating • Operating at steady-state low fire • Cycling • Idling IncreasedEfficiency
  31. 31. Understanding Boiler Efficiency:  Fuel-to-Steam vs. In-Service Efficiency  Understanding operating efficiency = tracking energy losses FUEL IN Radiation Loss Exhaust Loss Start-up Losses Blow-down Losses Loss @ High Turndown Radiation Loss @ Idle / Stand-by Pre- & Post-purge Losses IN-SERVICE EFFICIENCY Fuel-to-Steam Efficiency Changing Loads
  32. 32. Industrial Energy Assessment DOE Technical Resources  DOE Regional Industrial Assessment Centers: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/tech_assistance/m/ iacs_locations.html
  33. 33. Optimization First Steps: Energy Assessment & Benchmarking You are not managing what you do not measure…  Select assessment method based on targeted objectives  Select assessment period to capture standard operating cycle characteristic of process  Plan on sampling one full additional operating cycle as a back-check to primary data  Utilize measurement interval synergized with production profile (process start/stop intervals)  Review past 24 months utilities statements to account for seasonal, etc. load characteristics not captured during assessment period Courtesy of ENERGY STAR Program Guide
  34. 34. Optimization First Steps: Energy Assessment & Benchmarking  Meter existing equipment & collect data on current consumption, including: • Gas & water consumption rates • Gas pressure at the meter • Gas temperature at the meter • Feedwater temperature • Steam pressure • Blow-down rate (via Conductivity)  Review utilities statements for seasonal load variations / production peaks  Size loads and determine load “profile” (high-low loads) correlated to production  Aggregate over-shoot & part-load operation into overall net operating efficiency relative to production profile Courtesy of ENERGY STAR Program Guide
  35. 35. Operating Efficiency Analysis: Benchmarking Tools  Utilize mass balance approach to account for all inputs & outputs: Tank Existing Boiler Gas Steam Water Gas Meter Water Meter Blow-down Data Logger Radiant Losses Steam Demand
  36. 36. Boiler Operating Efficiency: Tracking Results  Benchmarked performance of 25 boilers via assessment data:  Average Operating Efficiency = 66% at 33% average load factor Every 5 m in. 0.0 50.0 100.0 150.0 200.0 250.0 300.0 350.0 400.0 0:00 0:35 1:10 1:45 2:20 2:55 3:30 4:05 4:40 5:15 5:50 6:25 7:00 7:35 8:10 8:45 9:20 9:5510:3011:0511:4012:1512:5013:2514:0014:3515:1015:4516:2016:5517:3018:0518:4019:1519:5020:2521:0021:3522:1022:4523:2023:55 PSI HPExample Steam Load Profile
  37. 37. Benchmarking to Save Energy: In-Service Efficiency (ISE) Study  Metered ISE study provides detailed load profile illustrating process usage impact on steam demand  Graphing load profile allows for high level of precision in “right sizing” of boiler system optimized for highest efficiency  Executive summary provides estimated energy / cost savings, O&M savings & reduced CO2 emissions
  38. 38. Steam Cost Calculator: TCO (Total Cost of Operation) Analysis  Fuel Cost  Water Cost  Sewer Cost  Electricity Costs  Chemical Costs  Service Contract  O&M Costs  Future CO2 Costs  Projected Lifecycle Costs
  39. 39. Leveraging Assessment Data: Natural Gas Rebate Programs  Utilize assessment data to justify project savings for EE rebates  Growing list of state & utilities sponsored rebate programs…  Refer to www.dsireusa.org
  40. 40. U. S. Boiler Inventory: Age Distribution  U.S. Boilers – Age Distribution of Boilers > 10 MMBtu/hr:  C/I Boiler Inventory – 163,000 units w/ capacity of 2.7 Trillion Btu/hr  Optimization opportunity via implementing “state-of-the-shelf” Pre-1964 1964 - 1978 BoilerCapacity (MMBtu/hr) 800,000 1,000,000 1,200,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 1969 - 1973 1974 - 1978 1979 - 1983 1984 - 1988 1989 - 1993 1994 - 1998 1999 - 2002 47% of existing inventory – 40+ yrs. old 76% of existing inventory – 30+ yrs. Old
  41. 41. Conventional Boilers – “Gap Analysis”: Opportunities for Innovation  Design Limitations of Conventional Boilers: • Physical Size / Footprint • Excessive Warm-up Cycle • Excessive Radiant Losses • Sub-optimal Response to Changing Loads • Sub-optimal System Turn-Down Capability • Sub-optimal Overall Operating Efficiency / Load Management Capability • Innate Safety Issues via Explosive Energy • Lack of Integrated Emissions Controls • Lack of Integrated Heat Recovery • Lack of Integrated Controls / Automation • Lack of Integrated Online Monitoring
  42. 42. Modular Boiler Technology: Filling Performance “Gaps”  Reduction in system footprint per equivalent output / improved asset mgmt flexibility  Reduction in system load profile-specific energy losses via optimized load-matching capability  Integrated heat recovery via packaged feedwater economizer  Optimized heat recovery via low-temperature DA- less feedwater system  Optimized low-emissions burner design  Integrated online monitoring dashboard system for real-time mgmt of boiler controls & water treatment systems (i.e., 24/7 system commissioning)
  43. 43. Boiler System Operating Efficiency: Tracking Performance  Operating Efficiency Comparison:  Modular systems provide overall higher operating energy efficiency with greater consistency from low to high LF 100 20 Load (%) In-ServiceEfficiency(%) 80 60 40 20 40 60 80 100 Modular System Watertube Boiler Firetube Boiler
  44. 44.  Optimize system operating efficiency to maximize efficiency credits in support of compliance  Optimize system operating efficiency to minimize economic impact of MACT compliance  Leverage system modularity to minimize boiler emissions “footprint” by strategic system configuration  Leverage compact modular design to capture supplemental energy savings by short-circuiting existing aged infrastructure via point-of-use configuration  Utilize low-emissions combustion technologies to avoid impact of supplemental emissions mitigation (FGR / SCR) Modular Boiler Technology: Emissions Compliance
  45. 45. Managing Energy Load Variability: “Right-Sizing” Optimization  Understand load profile for typical production cycle  Quantify disparities between utility output & process needs • Utility Design Safety Factor (1.33 – 1.5 ~2% EE Potential) • Avg. LF over typical production cycle (LF<60% = EE Potential) • Aggregate over-shoot + part-load intervals to identify potential ECM’s  Investigate opportunities to mitigate sub-optimal LF via scheduling time Max. Capacity (100% LF) load Avg. Output (~33% LF) DSFMax. Output (50-66% LF)
  46. 46. Managing Energy Load Variability: Conventional Systems  Conventional boiler systems expend large amounts of energy to meet variable load conditions  Design limitations of conventional boilers prevent them from efficiently responding to every-changing load demands  Result: Significant wasted energy & emissions at load swings Single 1000 BHP Boiler time load
  47. 47. Managing Energy Load Variability: Modular On-Demand Systems  Modular on-demand boiler systems reduce energy consumption required to meet variable loads by dividing the output capacity among multiple small units (like gears in a transmission)  Modular systems are designed specifically to meet varying load demands  Result: Significantly reduced energy & emissions at load swings 5-200 BHP Modular Boilers time load
  48. 48. Optimized Energy Management via Modularity  Modular design concept: 200HP TDR=1:3 Step(H,L) 200HP TDR=1:3 Step(H,L) 200HP TDR=1:3 Step(H,L) 200HP TDR=1:3 Step(H,L) 200HP TDR=1:3 Step(H,L)
  49. 49. Optimized Energy Management via Modularity  Modular design concept:  Each boiler unit acts like a single piston in the overall boiler system 1000HP boiler system TDR=1:15 (15 steps of modulation)
  50. 50. Modular Capacity Range: Flexibility + Efficiency  Boiler Types & General Capacity Ranges  Modular – Point-of-Use to District Energy Capacities BoilerCapacity (MMBtu/hr) 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 Firetube Boilers Small Watertube Boilers Large Watertube Boilers Stoker Boilers Fluidized Bed Boilers Pulverized Coal Boilers MIURABoilers Max. Individual Boiler Capacity (+/- 10 MMBtu/hr or 10,350 lbs/hr) Multiple Boiler Installation to Meet Specific Demand (Multiple Boilers & Controllers) Max. Multi-Unit Boiler Capacity w/ Single Controller (+/- 150 MMBtu/hr or 150,000 lbs/hr)
  51. 51. Modular Boiler Plant Configuration:  Optimized load matching / management  Potential for hybrid base load / peaking  Optimized space utilization via compact footprint  Optimized flexibility in capacity expansion via modularity  Optimized N+1 via integrated back-up capacity
  52. 52.  Conventional Approach: Primary + Back-up  Modular Approach: Integrated Back-up  Reduce purchased capacity by ~ 30% while also complying with N+1 requirements 200 BHP Modularity = Flexibility: Optimize System N+1 200 BHP 600 BHP 600 BHP 200 BHP Primary N+1 200 BHP Primary N+1 Total Capacity = 1,200 BHP Total Capacity = 800 BHP
  53. 53. Increasing Efficiency = Reducing Losses: Radiant Losses  With energy efficiency, size matters…  Increase efficiency via reduced boiler thermal footprint 200 BHP Firetube Boiler 200 BHP Modular Boiler 1,000+ Gallons 65+ GallonsVS Smaller Boiler Surface Area = Significant Reduction in Radiant Losses FUEL IN IN-SERVICE EFFICIENCY Fuel-to-Steam Efficiency
  54. 54. Increasing Efficiency = Reducing Losses: Radiant Losses  Radiant Losses: 12 MMBtu/hr input at 100% output  Option A – Conventional System:  Single 12 MMBtu/hr unit input  Rated at 2% radiant loss  240,000 Btu/hr energy loss  Option B – Modular System:  3 x 4 MMBtu/hr unit input  Rated at 0.5% radiant loss  3 x 20,000 Btu/hr losses = 60,000 Btu/hr energy loss FUEL IN IN-SERVICE EFFICIENCY Fuel-to-Steam Efficiency 2% 0.5%0.5%0.5%
  55. 55. Increasing Efficiency = Reducing Losses: Radiant Losses  Radiant Losses: 12 MMBtu/hr input at 33% output  Option A – Conventional System:  Single 12 MMBtu/hr unit at 33% = 4 MMBtu/hr input  240,000 Btu/hr energy loss  Results in 6% total radiant loss  Option B – Modular System:  3 x 4 MMBtu/hr units (only 1 operating)  1 x 20,000 Btu/hr losses = 20,000 Btu/hr energy loss  Only 0.5% total radiant loss FUEL IN IN-SERVICE EFFICIENCY Fuel-to-Steam Efficiency 6% 0%0%0.5%
  56. 56. Increasing Efficiency = Reducing Losses: Exhaust Losses  Utilize feed-water economizer for built-in waste heat recovery  Feed-water economizers increase efficiency by capturing waste exhaust gases to preheat feed- water entering the boiler  Boiler efficiency can be increased by 1% for every 40oF decrease in stack gas temperature FUEL IN IN-SERVICE EFFICIENCY Fuel-to-Steam Efficiency
  57. 57. Enhanced Heat Recovery: Temperature Neutral Water Treatment  Eco-friendly Silicate-based water treatment  Eliminates need for high temperature feed-water (i.e., DA tank) to activate chemical treatment  Provides increased boiler efficiency by +1-2% via reduced blow-down & low temperature feed-water  Reduces boiler chemical treatment costs due to more effective tube protection & computer controlled chemical feed system  Reduces maintenance issues related to constant monitoring & adjustment of boiler water chemistry  Reduces boiler performance issues such as feed-water pump cavitation, increasing pump efficiency by +10-20% FUEL IN IN-SERVICE EFFICIENCY Fuel-to-Steam Efficiency
  58. 58. Increasing Efficiency = Reducing Losses: Start-up Losses FUEL IN IN-SERVICE EFFICIENCY Fuel-to-Steam Efficiency  Thermal shock - primary constraint on boiler performance  Conventional boiler performance is limited by thermal stress resulting in inefficiency by requiring slow start-up & perpetual idling  Firetube boilers: 60-90 min warm-up cycle & must remain idling in stand-by mode 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 0 (min) 20 40 60 80 100 (psi) On-Demand Boiler Coil-tube Boiler Fire-tube Boiler
  59. 59. Increasing Efficiency = Reducing Losses: Losses at High Turn-down  Modular boiler system:  Sequential boiler staging via “master” & “slave” controllers for precise load matching capability MP1 (master) MT1 (slaves) Twisted pair cable FUEL IN IN-SERVICE EFFICIENCY Fuel-to-Steam Efficiency
  60. 60. Online Monitoring / Management: “Dashboard” System  Stand-alone online monitoring system that interfaces with boiler control system as thermal energy management “dashboard”  Provides 24/7 online M&T/ M&V online maintenance system  Real-time 24/7 operation, fuel/water consumption, efficiency & emissions tracking capabilities  Communicates with operations staff via workstation interface, PDA, email alerts  Provides monthly reports ER internet Web Server Client PC Local network
  61. 61. Online Monitoring / Management: “Dashboard” System  24/7 Real-time Operational Parameters: • Firing Rate • Steam Pressure • Scale Monitor • High Limit • Flue Gas Temp • Feedwater Temp • Flame Voltage • Next Blow-down • Surface B/down • Conductivity • Date / Time
  62. 62. Complete Fully Integrated Boiler Plant  Typical integrated modular, on-demand boiler plant
  63. 63. Reducing Boiler “Footprint” 20% - 70%  Physical Footprint: • Reduced space requirements • Reduced energy plant construction costs • Reduced boiler “hardware”  Energy Footprint: • Reduced energy consumption / wasted energy • Reduced explosive energy • Reduced embodied energy  Environmental Footprint • Reduced consumption of natural resources • Reduced harmful emissions • Reduced carbon footprint 20% 60%
  64. 64. Case Studies: Chemical Industry Fuji-Hunt Chemicals (Tennessee)  Boiler Upgrade – (2) EX-200 BHP units  Placed into service: 2011  Actual System Efficiency Improvement: +24%  Estimated annual fuel cost savings: $165,000 / yr (370,000 therms / yr)  Estimated annual O&M cost savings: $107,000 / yr  Project Simple Pay-back: 1.85 yrs  Estimated annual reduced CO2 emissions: 1,850 metric tons CO2 / yr
  65. 65. Jason Smith, LEED A.P. (770) 916-1695 Office (678) 939-7630 Cell jason.smith@miuraboiler.com Qu estion s:
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