AEDG Large Hospitals: A Blueprint for Cutting
Your Hospital Building Energy Use in Half
Terry E. Townsend, P.E., FASHRAE, ...
AEDG Large Hospitals: A Blueprint for Cutting
Your Hospital Building Energy Use in Half
“I do solemnly vow….that above all...
Why Should Owners, Architects and Engineers
be Concerned?
Two Types of Energy Targets
* Energy Use Index/Intensity (EUI) –...
Table 1. BASE Energy Use Intensities based upon ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 by Subsector and Climate Zone, in
kBt...
Large Hospital Energy Use Targets to Achieve
50% Energy Savings
Plug/Process Lighting HVAC
Climate Zone Loads Loads Loads ...
Advanced Energy Design Guidance
Advanced Energy Design Guidance
Advanced Energy Design Guidance
• Present a way, but not the only way to build energy
efficient buildings that use signifi...
Advanced Energy Design Guidance
Advanced Energy Design Guidance for
Large Hospitals – Executive Summary
• Building Envelope 45% better than 90.1-2004
• Wh...
Advanced Energy Design Guidance for
Large Hospitals – Executive Summary
• Aggressive reduction in reheat by decoupling spa...
Advanced Energy Design Guidance
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
• Primary Focus = New Hospitals; Recommendations
are also applicabl...
Advanced Energy Design Guidance
HOW TO ACHIEVE 50% ENERGY SAVINGS
“GAME PLAN”
• Obtain Building Owner Buy-in
• Assemble an...
Advanced Energy Design Guidance
Conditions to Promote Health and Comfort
“GAME PLAN”
• ASHRAE Guideline 10 Interactions Af...
Advanced Energy Design Guidance
Conditions to Promote Health and Comfort
“GAME PLAN”
• Visual Comfort – IES The Lighting H...
Advanced Energy Design Guidance
Project Delivery Methods Comparisons
Traditional Projects Integrated Projects
• Fragmented...
Integrated Design Project’s Phases
Design Phase
• Pre-Design (Project Kickoff, Programming & Concept Design)
• Initiation ...
High Performance Integrated Design
Overview of Design Influences
“A Large Hospital’s Primary Inpatient Units (IPUs) or
War...
High Performance Integrated Design
Overview of Design Influences
• Cooling Loads greatly reduced but still significant.
ST...
High Performance Integrated Design
Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs)
Major ECMs pertain to Envelope, Lighting, HVAC and
...
High Performance Integrated Design
Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs)
Major ECMs pertain to Envelope, Lighting, HVAC and
...
High Performance Integrated Design
Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs)
Major ECMs pertain to Envelope, Lighting, HVAC and
...
High Performance Integrated Design
Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs)
Major ECMs pertain to Envelope, Lighting, HVAC and
...
High Performance Integrated Design
Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs)
Major ECMs pertain to Envelope, Lighting, HVAC and
...
High Performance Integrated Design
Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs)
Major ECMs pertain to Envelope, Lighting, HVAC and
...
High Performance Integrated Design
BIM, BAS and CMMS (Example)
The potential for the integration of Building Information
M...
High Performance Integrated Design
Building Systems Commissioning (CxA)
• Process Cx utilizes a paper-based process that i...
High Performance Integrated Design
Design Phase CxA Deliverables
a. Updated Owner’s Project Requirements (OPR)
b. Issues L...
High Performance Integrated Design
Construction Phase CxA Deliverables
a. Site Observation Inspections & reports
b. Pre-Fu...
High Performance Integrated Design
Construction Phase CxA Deliverables
a. Deferred Tests (PFTs and FPTs)
b. Performance Ve...
Prescriptive Recommendations
• Envelope
– Roof
– Walls
– Floors
– Slabs
– Doors
– Vestibules
– Continuous Air Barriers
– V...
Prescriptive Recommendations
• Equipment Choices
- Computers
- ENERGY STAR Equipment
- Vending Machines
• Controls/Program...
Envelope Recommendations
“Roof”
Zone 3 ; Zone 4
• Insulation entirely above deck = R-25 ci ; R-30 ci
• Solar Reflectance I...
Envelope Recommendations
“Walls”
Zone 3 Zone 4
•R-11.4 ci R-13.3 ci
R-13 + R-7.5 CI
•R-7.5 ci R-7.5 ci
• Mass (HC>7 Btu/ft...
Envelope Recommendations
“Doors”
Zone 3 Zone 4
• U-0.70 U-0.50
• U-0.50 U-0.50
• Swinging
• Nonswinging
Envelope Recommendations
“Vertical Fenestration – View Glass”
Zone 3; Zone 4
40% of Net Wall
• Nonmtl = 0.56;0.38/ Mtl =
0...
Daylighting Recommendations
“Form-driven”
Zones 3 and 4
• All Spaces – LEED for Healthcare credit (IEQ 8.1)
• D&T Block – ...
Daylighting Recommendations
“Nonform-driven”
Zones 3 and 4
• Staff areas (exam rooms, nurse stations, offices &
corridors)...
Interior Lighting
Recommendations
Zone 3; Zone 4
0.9
85
>50
Manual On – Auto/timed-off
- all rooms
Dim all fixtures in day...
Exterior Lighting
Recommendations
Zones 3 & 4
• Façade & Landscapping – LPD = 0.15W/SF
• Parking Lots – LPD = 0.1w/SF
• Al...
HVAC Equipment and Systems
Recommendations for Multiple System Types
Zones 3 & 4
• WSHP w/DOAS
• Fancoil System w/DOAS
• V...
HVAC Equipment Recommendations
- WSHP System w/DOAS
Zones 3 and 4
Efficiency Cooling Heating
Water Source HP 17.6 EER 5.0 ...
HVAC Equipment Recommendations
-Fancoil w/DOAS
and Chiller/Boiler Systems
Zones 3 & 4
Water-cooled Chiller Efficiency 6.5 ...
HVAC Equipment Recommendations
- VAV w/DOAS + Heat Recovery
and Chiller/Boiler Systems
Zones 3 & 4
Heat Recovery Water-coo...
Ventilation and Ductwork
Zones 3 & 4
• Dedicated OA System required on WSHP, FC w/DOAS
& VAV w/DOAS + Energy Recovery syst...
Service Water Heating –
Zones 3 & 4
• Point-of-Use - 0.81 EF or 81% Et
• Heat Pump WH – 2.33 EF
• Pipe d < 1½” – 1 ½ ” ins...
“How-to” Guidance - Envelope
Swedish Issaquah Hospital
Seattle WA
Swedish Issaquah Hospital
Seattle WA
Swedish Issaquah Hospital
Case Study
• Building Information Ancillary Buildings
* 350,000 Sq.Ft. * Medical Office Bldg
* 4...
Swedish Issaquah Hospital
Case Study
• Integrated Design
* EUI Target = 150 kBTU/SF/yr (comparable area
hospitals have EUI...
Swedish Issaquah Hospital
Case Study
• Building Envelope & Daylighting
* Due to energy model development activities, the
b...
Swedish Issaquah Hospital
Case Study
• Energy Modeling
Energy Savings Analyses
Strategy Ttl Cost Yrly $avings SP (yrs)
Lig...
Swedish Issaquah Hospital
Case Study
• Resulting EUI = 135 kBTU/SF/yr (Target – 150)
• Energy Use Breakdowns –
– Space Hea...
Your Role, Your Duty and Your
Responsibility
“Don’t be put off by people who know what is
not possible. Do what needs to b...
Advanced energy design guides   a blueprint for cutting your hospital building energy use in half
Advanced energy design guides   a blueprint for cutting your hospital building energy use in half
Advanced energy design guides   a blueprint for cutting your hospital building energy use in half
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Advanced energy design guides a blueprint for cutting your hospital building energy use in half

  1. 1. AEDG Large Hospitals: A Blueprint for Cutting Your Hospital Building Energy Use in Half Terry E. Townsend, P.E., FASHRAE, LEED®AP, ASHRAE Presidential Member June 26, 2013
  2. 2. AEDG Large Hospitals: A Blueprint for Cutting Your Hospital Building Energy Use in Half “I do solemnly vow….that above all else I will serve the highest interest of my patients through the practice of my science and art…” HIPPOCRATIC OATH “I swear …to provide adequately for people’s needs; to preserve and help regenerate the environment, both natural and built…” THE ARCHITECT’S OATH “I pledge to…serve humanity by making the best use of Earth’s wealth; my skill and knowledge shall be given without reservation for the public good… THE ORDER OF THE ENGINEER The Mission of Healthcare Facilities = provide an environment of care for healing patients
  3. 3. Why Should Owners, Architects and Engineers be Concerned? Two Types of Energy Targets * Energy Use Index/Intensity (EUI) – includes no on-site renewable energy generation EUI = Total Annual Energy Use (kBtu/SF-yr) Gross Floor Area * Net Energy Use Intensity (NEUI) – includes photovoltaic and other on-site renewable energy production NEUI = Net Annual Energy Use (kBtu/SF-yr) Gross Floor Area
  4. 4. Table 1. BASE Energy Use Intensities based upon ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 by Subsector and Climate Zone, in kBtu/ft2-yr Subsector Climate Zone All 1A 2A 2B 3A 3B 3C 4A 4B 4C 5A 5B 6A 6B 7 8 All 71 82 68 73 78 58 62 70 55 56 75 64 76 74 74 74 Office/professional 57 55 61 65 52 46 44 60 58 53 60 48 62 61 68 68 Nonrefrigerated warehouse 41 27 31 31 37 30 30 42 49 30 47 51 50 47 45 45 Education 52 52 49 57 42 41 54 60 34 43 53 44 60 64 64 64 Retail (excluding mall) 68 68 66 66 63 54 54 68 58 58 73 71 76 91 100 100 Public assembly 62 66 66 66 72 52 52 54 48 77 68 50 66 51 70 70 Service 83 83 78 78 60 63 63 79 52 52 92 76 102 86 108 108 Religious worship 44 40 40 40 29 29 29 44 59 59 51 35 57 39 44 44 Lodging 55 65 51 51 52 40 40 57 61 61 55 51 60 64 63 63 Food Services 354 354 354 354 380 375 375 368 368 368 336 283 341 341 354 354 Health care (inpatient) 111 108 108 108 118 98 97 106 106 106 115 106 113 116 116 116 Public order and safety 67 54 54 54 67 67 67 60 60 60 78 78 73 87 87 87 Food sales 181 200 200 200 190 151 151 188 188 188 173 182 208 208 181 181 Health care (outpatient) 76 76 80 80 64 79 79 66 66 66 90 76 82 78 107 107 Vacant 30 30 23 23 30 20 20 41 41 41 21 21 40 40 40 40 Other 58 73 73 73 58 58 58 57 57 57 61 61 63 63 63 63 Skilled nursing 131 132 132 132 113 102 103 145 145 145 142 106 132 132 132 132 Laboratory 323 323 323 323 323 369 369 272 272 272 313 313 323 323 323 323 Refrigerated warehouse 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 88 86 86 85 86 86 86 86 86
  5. 5. Large Hospital Energy Use Targets to Achieve 50% Energy Savings Plug/Process Lighting HVAC Climate Zone Loads Loads Loads TOTAL (kBTU/SF-yr) 3A 38 18 62 118 4A 38 18 65 121
  6. 6. Advanced Energy Design Guidance
  7. 7. Advanced Energy Design Guidance
  8. 8. Advanced Energy Design Guidance • Present a way, but not the only way to build energy efficient buildings that use significantly less energy than those built to the minimum code requirements • Energy Savings targets when compared to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Std 90.1-1999 (30%); 90.1- 2004(50%) progress towards NZEB • More advanced savings (70+% NZEB) documents to be covered later.
  9. 9. Advanced Energy Design Guidance
  10. 10. Advanced Energy Design Guidance for Large Hospitals – Executive Summary • Building Envelope 45% better than 90.1-2004 • Whole Building LPDs 25% better than 90.1 -2004 • Diagnostic & Treatment LED Lighting that saves 60% • Exterior Lighting recommendations save 33% • ENERGY STAR exclusive plug-in equipment; best-in- class commercial kitchen equipment; traction elevators + ‘regenerative’ traction elevators for high-use • Service Water Heating 13% better than 90.1-2004
  11. 11. Advanced Energy Design Guidance for Large Hospitals – Executive Summary • Aggressive reduction in reheat by decoupling space conditioning loads & ventilation loads with DOAS and zone level conditioning equipment or advanced VAV w/separate OA treatment, heat recovery chiller, aggressive supply air temperature re-set, and zone airflow setback • Airflow setback in surgery suites, high equipment efficiencies, air-side energy recovery, air side pressure drop & coil face velocity reductions, elimination of steam boilers & high ΔT chiller loops
  12. 12. Advanced Energy Design Guidance BACKGROUND INFORMATION • Primary Focus = New Hospitals; Recommendations are also applicable to renovation projects (partial or complete), remodeling and modernization projects • Basis of AEDG = 427,000 SF Regional Hospital • Energy Savings – ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 = 56% - 64% ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 = 50% - 59% ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 = 49% - 58% ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 = 34% - 45%
  13. 13. Advanced Energy Design Guidance HOW TO ACHIEVE 50% ENERGY SAVINGS “GAME PLAN” • Obtain Building Owner Buy-in • Assemble an Experienced, Innovative Design Team • Adopt an Integrated Design Process • Hire a Daylighting Consultant • Utilize Energy Modeling during Design Phase • Use Building Commissioning Authority (CxA) • Train Building Users and Operations Staff • Monitor the Building Performance/On-going Commissioning (OCx)
  14. 14. Advanced Energy Design Guidance Conditions to Promote Health and Comfort “GAME PLAN” • ASHRAE Guideline 10 Interactions Affecting the Achievement of Acceptable Indoor Environments • Ventilation & IAQ – ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010, ASHRAE Standard 170-2008 Ventilation of Health Care Facilities & ASHRAE IAQ Guide: Best Practices for Design, Construction & Commissioning • Thermal Comfort – ASHRAE Standard 55-2010, ASHRAE Standard 170-2008
  15. 15. Advanced Energy Design Guidance Conditions to Promote Health and Comfort “GAME PLAN” • Visual Comfort – IES The Lighting Handbook, 2012 • Acoustic Comfort – AIA Guidelines for the Design and Construction of Healthcare Facilities, 2010 - 2009 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook, Chapter 8, “Sound and Vibration”
  16. 16. Advanced Energy Design Guidance Project Delivery Methods Comparisons Traditional Projects Integrated Projects • Fragmented TEAMS Key Project Stakeholders • Linear/Segregated PROCESS Concurrent/Multilevel • Individually Mang’d RISK Collectively Managed • Individually Pursued COMPENSATION Team Value-based • Paper based COMMUNICATIONS/ Digitally Based/ TECHNOLOGY Virtual/BIM • Unilateral Effort AGREEMENTS Multilateral Collaboration
  17. 17. Integrated Design Project’s Phases Design Phase • Pre-Design (Project Kickoff, Programming & Concept Design) • Initiation of Commissioning Activities (CxA) • Schematic Design & Design Development • Construction Documents & Bid Process Construction Phase • Design Team & CxA Activities Post Occupancy Phase • Design Team Close-out & CxA M&V Activities • Development of an On-going/Performance Cx Program
  18. 18. High Performance Integrated Design Overview of Design Influences “A Large Hospital’s Primary Inpatient Units (IPUs) or Wards and Diagnostic and Treatment (D&T) Spaces are usually exceeding high energy users due to constant operation of HVAC and lighting systems.” STEP 1 – Assess relationship between ventilation loads and annual/peak heating/cooling loadsdecouple & decentralize systems. Realized Results include: • Heating is the dominant load in every climate & can be eliminated with aggressive heat recovery, • Fan energy is greatly reduced with decoupling and the distributing Htg/Clg w/water-based systems
  19. 19. High Performance Integrated Design Overview of Design Influences • Cooling Loads greatly reduced but still significant. STEP 2 – Attend to building massing and envelope designprioritizing daylighting zones (impact of daylighting on medical outcomes, patient wellbeing & caregiver performance is well documented. • Aggressive reduction in circuited lighting power, • Aggressive lighting controls, • IPU has most aggressive daylighting goals. STEP 3 – Reduce electrical energy consumption associated with lighting, plug and process loads.
  20. 20. High Performance Integrated Design Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) Major ECMs pertain to Envelope, Lighting, HVAC and Controls Envelope • Enhanced insulation for walls and roofs • Thermal mass in opaque envelope for energy storage • Cool Roof (most climates) • Exterior shading on east, west and south-facing windows • Limited use of flay-roof skylights (N-facing celestories) • Vestibules at openings to outdoors • Continuous air barrier (infiltration, condensation & press.)
  21. 21. High Performance Integrated Design Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) Major ECMs pertain to Envelope, Lighting, HVAC and Controls Lighting • Fenestration responsive to site-specific solar exposure, • High-performance glazing – meet lighting design, block solar radiation & minimize transmission gains/losses, • Effective shading devices during peak cooling times, • Electric lights automatically dimmed or turned off through use of daylight-responsive photo-sensors
  22. 22. High Performance Integrated Design Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) Major ECMs pertain to Envelope, Lighting, HVAC and Controls HVAC & Controls 1. Water-source heat pumps (WSHP) with DOAS 2. Mixed-air VAV with separate OA treatment 3. Fan Coil with DOAS • Aggressively Address Reheat + Air-side recovery devices + System Type Selection (CAV not an option) + Supply air temperature reset
  23. 23. High Performance Integrated Design Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) Major ECMs pertain to Envelope, Lighting, HVAC and Controls HVAC & Controls • Aggressively Address Reheat + Supply air temperature reset – when bldg is not at peak cooling load & outdoor dewpoint is below 54 °F + Plug Loads/Passive Reheat • Supply Low Dew Point at High Air Temperature • Low Occupancy Mode – Ventilation reset by Occupancy sensors; Time-of-Day sensors; CO2 sensors • Simplify HVAC Systems
  24. 24. High Performance Integrated Design Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) Major ECMs pertain to Envelope, Lighting, HVAC and Controls Central Plant Systems • Wring as many BTUs out of distributed fluid (increase ΔT and reduce flow rates) • Make distribution pipes and ductwork as large as practical • Consider each utility as a system • Design system for specific requirements of a particular building • Recover and reuse energy whenever possible
  25. 25. High Performance Integrated Design Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) Major ECMs pertain to Envelope, Lighting, HVAC and Controls Control Strategies • Shared information technology backbone & routing for web-based access • Shared connections of sensors between HVAC & lighting • Motorized blind control algorithms • Facilities’ scheduling software interlinked with HVAC • Energy-use dashboards showing instantaneous energy use or monthly energy use by department • Overlays of Systems’ energy-use intensities by use
  26. 26. High Performance Integrated Design BIM, BAS and CMMS (Example) The potential for the integration of Building Information Modeling (BIM), Building Automation System (BAS) and a Computer Maintenance Management System (CMMS) is best demonstrated – • BAS High-Temp Alarm in VAV Box; valve cycled;failed • BAS opens ‘Corrective Maintenance Ticket’ in CMMS • CMMS/BAS establish priority based on occupancy type • CMMS queries BIM database for maintenance activity; dispatches Work Order with required information • Technician has exact location, required tools & material for repairs w/o occupant knowledge of ‘a problem’
  27. 27. High Performance Integrated Design Building Systems Commissioning (CxA) • Process Cx utilizes a paper-based process that is usually conducted by the project’s contractors/sub- contractors (First Party Validation) • Technical Cx utilizes a technical testing-based approach that is conducted by the CxA (Third Party Validation) and includes system adjustments and optimizations
  28. 28. High Performance Integrated Design Design Phase CxA Deliverables a. Updated Owner’s Project Requirements (OPR) b. Issues Log c. Commissioning Plan d. Updates to the Basis of Design (BOD) documentation e. Commissioning Specifications
  29. 29. High Performance Integrated Design Construction Phase CxA Deliverables a. Site Observation Inspections & reports b. Pre-Functional Tests (PFTs) c. Functional Performance Tests (FPTs) d. Issues Log & Deficiency Resolutions e. Owner Training in O&M and functions of building’s systems f. Systems’ Manual g. Final Technical Cx Report
  30. 30. High Performance Integrated Design Construction Phase CxA Deliverables a. Deferred Tests (PFTs and FPTs) b. Performance Verification Testing (PVT) c. Updated Final Technical Cx Report with Deferred Tests and PVTs d. Development of an On-going/Operations Technical Cx Plan and Program for Facility O&M Staff.
  31. 31. Prescriptive Recommendations • Envelope – Roof – Walls – Floors – Slabs – Doors – Vestibules – Continuous Air Barriers – Vertical Fenestration – Interior Finishes – Form-driven daylighting – Non-form driven day- lighting • Interior Lighting – Multiple Options • Exterior Lighting • HVAC – WSHP w/DOAS – Fancoil w/DOAS – VAV w/DOAS & heat recovery system – Heating Systems – Humidification Systems
  32. 32. Prescriptive Recommendations • Equipment Choices - Computers - ENERGY STAR Equipment - Vending Machines • Controls/Programs - Power/outlet controls - Occupancy Sensors - Timer Switches • Process Loads - Elevators • Service Water Heating • Kitchen Equipment - Cooking equipment - Refrigeration equipment - Exhaust Hoods
  33. 33. Envelope Recommendations “Roof” Zone 3 ; Zone 4 • Insulation entirely above deck = R-25 ci ; R-30 ci • Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) = 78 ; “No Rec” • “ci” = continuous insulation; “LS” = liner systems • “No Rec” means the more stringent of either 90.1 or the local code requirements • “FC“ = Filled Cavity
  34. 34. Envelope Recommendations “Walls” Zone 3 Zone 4 •R-11.4 ci R-13.3 ci R-13 + R-7.5 CI •R-7.5 ci R-7.5 ci • Mass (HC>7 Btu/ft2F) • Steel framed • Below grade walls • “HC” = Heat Capacity
  35. 35. Envelope Recommendations “Doors” Zone 3 Zone 4 • U-0.70 U-0.50 • U-0.50 U-0.50 • Swinging • Nonswinging
  36. 36. Envelope Recommendations “Vertical Fenestration – View Glass” Zone 3; Zone 4 40% of Net Wall • Nonmtl = 0.56;0.38/ Mtl = 0.65; 0.44 • Nonmtl = 0.41;0.26/ Mtl = 0.60; 0.38 • PF = 0.5 • Window-to-wall Ratio (WWR) • Thermal transmittance • SHGC • Exterior sun control (S only) • “PF” = Projection Factor
  37. 37. Daylighting Recommendations “Form-driven” Zones 3 and 4 • All Spaces – LEED for Healthcare credit (IEQ 8.1) • D&T Block – Area within 15’ of perimeter exceeds 40% of footplate • IPU – 75% of occupied space lies within 20’ of perimeter • Staff Areas; Public & Other – Maximize access to natural light (sidelighting & toplighting) “D&T” = Diagnostic & Treatment “IPU” = Primary Inpatient Units
  38. 38. Daylighting Recommendations “Nonform-driven” Zones 3 and 4 • Staff areas (exam rooms, nurse stations, offices & corridors) and Public spaces (waiting and reception) – Daylighting controls to any space within 15’ of a perimeter window
  39. 39. Interior Lighting Recommendations Zone 3; Zone 4 0.9 85 >50 Manual On – Auto/timed-off - all rooms Dim all fixtures in daylight zones • Lighting Power Density (LPD) (W/ft2 max) • Light Source System Efficacy (mean lumens/watt min) Linear Fluorescent All other sources • Lighting Controls – General • Dimming Controls – Daylight harvesting • “Efficacy” = Lumens/Watt
  40. 40. Exterior Lighting Recommendations Zones 3 & 4 • Façade & Landscapping – LPD = 0.15W/SF • Parking Lots – LPD = 0.1w/SF • All Other Exterior Lighting – No Rec; Auto reduce to 25% (12 am – 6 am)
  41. 41. HVAC Equipment and Systems Recommendations for Multiple System Types Zones 3 & 4 • WSHP w/DOAS • Fancoil System w/DOAS • VAV AHU System w/DOAS & Heat Recovery
  42. 42. HVAC Equipment Recommendations - WSHP System w/DOAS Zones 3 and 4 Efficiency Cooling Heating Water Source HP 17.6 EER 5.0 COP WSHP Compr. Control 2-stage or variable speed WSHP Circ Pumps VFD or NEMA Premium Efficiency WSHP Cooling Tower VFD on Fans Boiler Efficiency 90% EC WSHP Fans 0.4 W/cfm DOAS (Humid;Dry;Marine) 60% Total Effectiveness DOAS Ventilation Control DCV with VFD
  43. 43. HVAC Equipment Recommendations -Fancoil w/DOAS and Chiller/Boiler Systems Zones 3 & 4 Water-cooled Chiller Efficiency 6.5 COP Water Circ Pumps VFD and NEMA Premium Efficiency Cooling Towers VFD on tower fans Gas Boiler 90% Ec Max Fan Power 0.4 W/cfm Fancoil Fans Multiple Speed Exhaust-air energy recovery DOAS 60% Total Effectiveness DOAS Control DCV with VFD
  44. 44. HVAC Equipment Recommendations - VAV w/DOAS + Heat Recovery and Chiller/Boiler Systems Zones 3 & 4 Heat Recovery Water-cooled Chiller 4.55 COP Water-cooled Chiller Efficiency 6.5 COP Water Circ Pumps VFD and NEMA Premium Efficiency Cooling Towers VFD on tower fans Gas Boiler 90% Ec Max Fan Power bhp < supply cfm * 0.0012 + A Economizer No Rec DOAS Energy Recovery(Humid;Dry;Marine) 60% Total Effectiveness DOAS Control DCV with VFD
  45. 45. Ventilation and Ductwork Zones 3 & 4 • Dedicated OA System required on WSHP, FC w/DOAS & VAV w/DOAS + Energy Recovery systems • Motorized outside air damper control required • Energy Recovery required • Lower duct friction (design them better) (0.08in WC/100 ft) • Interior only ductwork (reduce impact of possible leakage) • Duct insulation: R-6 • Ductwork sealing Class A
  46. 46. Service Water Heating – Zones 3 & 4 • Point-of-Use - 0.81 EF or 81% Et • Heat Pump WH – 2.33 EF • Pipe d < 1½” – 1 ½ ” insulation • Pipe d ≥ 1½” – 1½ ” insulation • “EF” = Energy Factor
  47. 47. “How-to” Guidance - Envelope
  48. 48. Swedish Issaquah Hospital Seattle WA
  49. 49. Swedish Issaquah Hospital Seattle WA
  50. 50. Swedish Issaquah Hospital Case Study • Building Information Ancillary Buildings * 350,000 Sq.Ft. * Medical Office Bldg * 4-story Acute Care Hospital (200,000 SF) * 175 Beds * Central Utility Plant * Emergency Rooms * Surgery Suites * Imaging Department * Labor & Delivery * Intensive Care Unit * Cancer Facilities
  51. 51. Swedish Issaquah Hospital Case Study • Integrated Design * EUI Target = 150 kBTU/SF/yr (comparable area hospitals have EUIs ranging between 260 – 265 kBTU/SF/yr * Design Team created a decision matrix that gave a delivery schedule of components that shaved 1 year off project delivery - CUP piping & utility tunnel piping + racks and MOB Mechanical Room prefabricated off-site - All Terminal Units were procured early
  52. 52. Swedish Issaquah Hospital Case Study • Building Envelope & Daylighting * Due to energy model development activities, the baseline envelope was not changed. • HVAC Systems * All HVAC & SWH Systems recover and reuse heat * Core of HVAC System = heat recovery chiller (HRC) * Heating & SWH Systems supplemented by a condensing boiler (operates when OA < 40 °F) * Cooling Air Temp (avg) = 62 °F
  53. 53. Swedish Issaquah Hospital Case Study • Energy Modeling Energy Savings Analyses Strategy Ttl Cost Yrly $avings SP (yrs) Light Occ. Sens $22,941 VAV $973,047 $342,183 3 Heat Rec Sys $1,103,971 $115,081 10 Low Stat P AHU $398,312 $31,742 13 Low Stat P Duct $314,983 $19,538 16 VSD Chiller $208,998 $11,144 19 Over 70 Strategies were studied.
  54. 54. Swedish Issaquah Hospital Case Study • Resulting EUI = 135 kBTU/SF/yr (Target – 150) • Energy Use Breakdowns – – Space Heating = 22.7 kBTU/SF/yr – Space Cooling = 1.6 kBTU/SF/yr – Lighting = 22.9 kBTU/SF/yr – Steam Process = 10.3 kBTU/SF/yr – Ventilation/Fans = 24 kBTU/SF/yr – Pumps = 6.1 kBTU/SF/yr
  55. 55. Your Role, Your Duty and Your Responsibility “Don’t be put off by people who know what is not possible. Do what needs to be done, and then check to see if it was impossible only after you are done.” Paul Hawken University of Portland Graduation Address May 2009

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