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Gamification: The reality of what it is and what it isn't

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Kyle Findlay, TNS Global Brand Equity Centre, South Africa and Kirsty Alberts, TNS Global Brand Equity Centre, South Africa …

Kyle Findlay, TNS Global Brand Equity Centre, South Africa and Kirsty Alberts, TNS Global Brand Equity Centre, South Africa

"Gamification" is a buzzword currently reverberating across the internet - but how much of it is hype vs. reality? Sitting at the cross-roads between behavioural economics and video games, gamification brings behaviour change methodologies into the digital age by explicitly providing us with the mechanics to improve user engagement. In theory, "gamifying" any process, from filling in tax forms in the real world to shopping on Amazon.com, should increase user engagement and overall satisfaction. The presentation will test these claims. It will investigate just what gamification really is and what it is not. The presenters will highlight recent research they have conducted into this topic along with interviews with various members of some of the tech companies that are at the forefront of this trend.


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  • 1.
  • 2. Goal?
    Evaluate the effectiveness of gamification and explore potential applications in business & market research
    How?
    • Literature review
    • 3. Expert interviews
    • 4. Experiment
    • 5. Case studies from market leaders
    Note:
    This deck only covers gamification in business. It does not touch on serious games, entertainment, education, politics, etc.
    Background
  • 6. Jesse Schell
    Chief Executive Officer and Creative Director of Schell Games
    Sebastian Deterding
    Gamification guru and PhD researcher
    Michael Wu
    Principal Scientist of Analytics at Lithium Technologies
    Danny Day
    CEO of QCF Design (IGF award-winning developers of Desktop Dungeons)
    Kevin Spier andDan Maier
    of Bunchball gamification service
    Bo Nielsen
    Associate Director, TNS
    Jon Puleston
    Senior Director of GMI Interactive
    Francesco D’Orazio
    Research Director and Head of Social Media of Face Group
    Phil Groman
    Head of Innovations for Afroes
    Rolfe Swinton
    Director of Lumi Mobile
    Interviewees
  • 7. What it’s not
    Examples
    What it is
    How Does
    It Work?
    How Effective Is It?
    Conclusions
    Where Can
    It Go Wrong?
  • 8. LEVEL 1
    What it’s not
  • 9. LEVEL 1: What it’s not
    Video games
    “Badgification” /
    “Pointsification”
  • 10. LEVEL 2
    What it is
  • 11. LEVEL 2: What is it?
    Definition

    The integration of the mechanics that make games funand absorbing into non-game platforms and experiences in order to improve engagement and participation
    ~ The Authors

  • 12. LEVEL 3
    Examples
  • 13. LEVEL 3: Examples
    Farmville
  • 14. LEVEL 3: Examples
    Foursquare
  • 15.
  • 16. LEVEL 3: Examples
    Klout
  • 17. LEVEL 4:
    How Does It Work?
  • 18. LEVEL 4: How Does It Work?
    Hijacking the brain
    Experience systems
    Rapid, frequent feedback
    Rewards for effort
    Uncertainty
    Short- and long-term goals
    Other people
  • 19. LEVEL 4: How Does It Work?
    Example mechanics
    Appointment dynamic
    Achievement
    Community collaboration
  • 20. LEVEL 4: How Does It Work?
    Can anything be gamified?

    Do people not do something because they are not able to? - then increase ease of use.
    Do people not do it because they have no free time? - then work on that.
    Only if motivation is the issue cangamification be a [legitimate] way [of influencing behaviour]
    ~ Sebastian Deterding, researcher

  • 21. BOSS BATTLE!
    Where Can It Go Wrong?
  • 22.
    If your idea is to create a bribery system to get [users] to try something, it can backfire. When the bribes go away, people are less inclined naturally to do the thing you want, even if it's fun
    ~ Jesse Schell, CEO Schell Games



    In my experience game mechanics have massive potential in the research industry but low-grade gamification is only going to distort social interaction and skew research outputs.
    ~ Francesco "D’Orazio,
    Research Director for Face Group

  • 23. Rewards are not equivalent to achievement
    Limited participation bandwidth
    Unintended consequences /
    Gaming the system
    Undermining intrinsic values and…
    …interfering with social norms
  • 24. Congratulations!
    You defeated the Pitfall Boss
  • 25. BONUS LEVEL:
    How Effective Is It?
    Marketing amplification
    Community curation
    Market research
  • 26. Community curation
    BONUS LEVEL:
    How Effective Is It?
  • 27. User participation
    Community interaction
    Ave. no. user posts
    Non-gamified (control)
    Non-gamified (control)
    n=37
    n=25
    n=30
    Gamified (experiment)
    Gamified (experiment)
    n=68
    n=30
    Evly experiment
    BONUS LEVEL: How effective is it?
    Source: Findlay & Alberts, 2011
  • 28. Awards
    Nominations
    Number of employees
    16

    Questions (2010)
    Answers (2010)
    The effect of gamification is
    pretty astounding
    and has even surprised us in what it’s able to do in the case of giffgaff”
    ~ Michael Wu (Principle Scientist of Analytics at Lithium Technologies)
    100,000
    10,000
    Average response time
    95% answered in…
    3mins(24/7)
    60mins (24/7)

    giffgaff
    BONUS LEVEL: How effective is it?
    Source: Lithium Technologies
  • 29. Page views (in millions)
    Ave. no. monthly visits
    Ave. time spent on site (mins)
    Merchandise sales
    Pre-gamification
    Post-gamification
    Pre-gamification
    Post-gamification
    Pre-gamification
    Post-gamification
    Pre sales
    Post sales
    +47%
    Club Psych
    BONUS LEVEL: How effective is it?
    Source: Bunchball
  • 30. Actions before logging out
    % posting to blog
    Pre-gamification
    Post-gamification
    Pre-gamification
    Post-gamification
    Purchases per active user
    DevHub
    BONUS LEVEL: How effective is it?
    Source: TechCrunch
  • 31. Marketing amplification
    BONUS LEVEL:
    How Effective Is It?
  • 32. 85%
    …of users played more
    than once
    50%
    …returned the following month
    60%
    …increase in revenue via game from one month to next
    Playboy
    BONUS LEVEL: How effective is it?
    Source: Bunchball
  • 33. Identified types of abuse
    Mentioned Childline
    n=20
    n=20
    Pre-game
    Pre-game
    Ave. awareness score
    (composite measure)
    Post-game
    Post-game
    Pre-game
    Post-game
    Champ Chase
    BONUS LEVEL: How effective is it?
    Source: Afroes
  • 34. Market research
    BONUS LEVEL:
    How Effective Is It?
  • 35. Completion rate
    Ave. happiness (out of 10)
    UK (non-gamified)
    USA (gamified)
    UK
    (non-gamified)
    USA
    (gamified)
    Consumption diary
    BONUS LEVEL: How effective is it?
    Source: Lumi Mobile
  • 36. Length watching Oscars
    +42%
    Non-players
    Players
    Non-players
    Players
    Enjoyment of Oscars
    +50%
    Disney & Oscars
    BONUS LEVEL: How effective is it?
    Source: Lumi Mobile
  • 37.

    Noticed more details in the show than normally

    Really liked the chat, where people discussed the show



    Fun to be a part of this new kind of test

    It was like being a part of
    a community


    Found it funny to rate the TV-show and see the results

    Benefits:
    • Increased engagement
    • 38. Improved data quality
    Unintended consequences:
    • Drinking game
    • 39. Returning & asking for more questions, and…
    • 40. … to continue chatting
    Eurovision
    BONUS LEVEL: How effective is it?
    Source: TNS
  • 41. Framing
    Visualising
    Which of these do you have in your room?
    Which of these do you have in your room?
    Survey question
    Steak au pouivre
    Pesto Pasta
    fish and chips
    garlic chicken
    ‘Last meal’ game
    “Scotch broth soup as a starter served with garlic bread. Medium grilled gammon steak with a lightly fried egg on top with chips and side salad. A glass of red wine. A sticky toffee pudding, followed by cheese and biscuits.”
    Rapid and frequent feedback
    TV
    Fish
    MP3 player
    Books
    Radio
    Magazines
    Console
    Camera
    Skateboard
    Stereo
    DVDs
    CDs
    Hampster
    Clothes
    Piggy bank
    Rocket
    Question design
    BONUS LEVEL: How effective is it?
    Source: GMI Interactive
  • 42. FINAL BOSS BATTLE
  • 43. FINAL BOSS BATTLE:
    Market Research Considerations
    To make surveys more engaging:
    • visual design
    • 44. reframing language of questions
    • 45. rapid & clear feedback
    • 46. build in novelty/uncertainty
    • 47. build in status (MROCs)
    • 48. incorporate social elements
    Market research industry has been slowin making surveys more engaging
  • 49. FINAL BOSS BATTLE:
    Market Research Considerations
    Gamification can benefit our industry…

    “A double shift in focus and framing:
    (1) from usability(reducing friction) to motivation(increasing drive),
    (2) from extrinsic motivation (incentives) to intrinsic motivation (competence, autonomy, relatedness needs).
    At best, it is a set of lenses and design patterns to improve intrinsic motivation.”
    ~ Sebastian Deterding , researcher
    …if we can step outside our comfort zones

    “In order to truly turn something into a game, it often needs to change so much in order to facilitate player agency that few people are willing to begin the process”
    ~ Danny Day, QCF Design (developers of Desktop Dungeons)


  • 50. FINAL BOSS BATTLE:
    Conclusions
  • 51. FINAL BOSS BATTLE:
    Is it a fad?


    “In some ways it is a fad - adding points and badges in tacky ways, looking at ‘gamification’ as an easy way to make boring things seem interesting - that is a fad.
    However, the idea of designing business processes so that those who engage in them find them more intrinsically rewarding - that is a long term trend”.
    ~ Jesse Schell , CEO Schell Games
    “In three years, we will talk about what is at the core of it - design for motivation - not about the one strategy to get there: getting inspiration from games.”
    ~ Sebastian Deterding, researcher


  • 52. FINAL BOSS BATTLE:
    Conclusions
    Gamification seems to work…
    Gamification can benefit research…
    …but it’s no
    “magic elixir”
    …in subtleand fundamental ways…
    …if we keep an
    open mindset
  • 53. CONGRATS!!!
    You defeated the Final Boss