Group 6 PowerPoint Presentation Group members and topics: Meghan Tansey -Motivating English Learners Shinan Zhou -Teaching Vocabulary to EFL students Michael Trap -Teaching bottom-up and top-down processing
Motivating English Language Learners Meghan Tansey 01/28/11
1. An important facet of teaching English to second language learners is to maintain a classroom that is open and positive! Make students active participants in learning.
2. Students motivation starts with a teachers enthusiasm followed by relevance of the material, the organization of the course, appropriate level of material, active involvement of the student according to a study done by the University of Hawaii.
If the classroom is maintained with a positive attitude from both the teacher and students, shame or embarrassment won’t be a factor within the class.
Make students active participants in learning: Give students a key phrase and/or question to ask fellow students, followed by appropriate answers, then have them ask one another for a Q&A session.
For an example of this click on the link below.
Q&A Game Video* ( click on the Game Video )
* These were 1st and 2nd graders and we were working on food vocabulary. The key sentence we had worked on was “What do you want ?” and we exchanged -want for -have. “What do you have ?” Each student was given a vocabulary card. Student #1 was in the center and walked up to any seated student to ask the question “What do you want?” that student #2 then answered “I want (vocabulary word ).” Those students who have the same vocabulary card will have to change seats, there will only be one student left standing to repeat the process over again. The question can be changed at anytime as long as you repeat the prompted question.
Make the classroom as less threatening as possible. As the teacher you will be setting the tone of the classroom.
Each classroom of students will be different. It is up to the teacher to make appropriate changes within the lesson to accommodate for the change of energy. What worked with one class may not work for another class.
Special consideration of teaching of listening and speaking Vocabulary I think vocabulary is the most important for teachers to consider when they are in the process of teaching of listening and speaking. Because if there is no vocabulary, there will be no grammar, no structure and no meaning.
Why vocabulary is so difficult for ESL/EFL learners? 1. They can’t get the right pronunciation of the vocabulary. 2. They can’t connect the sounds with the right vocabulary. 3. They have difficulty in memorizing many new words. 4. They don’t fully understand the meaning of the vocabulary in different situations. 5. They don’t have the chance to use the vocabulary often.
When EFL learners start to learn English, teachers and texts will focus on the teaching of phonics, but later when teaching listening and speaking, teachers will assume that the learners will practice the pronunciation by themselves according to the phonetic symbol, but that is not the case. Many learners can’t remember the new vocabulary, one of the reasons is that they can’t read the new words or phrases. So for the new vocabulary I’ll teach the learners how to read and after teach them how to read according to the phonics. Also try to ask them to spell words according to sounds.
The EFL learners have difficulties in memorizing so many vocabularies. First, they don’t have right strategies to memorize the new vocabulary. Second, they don’t spend much time memorizing new words or phrases because they feel it’s boring to memorize the vocabulary just by reciting. Third, they can’t use the new words in daily life. Teachers will help offer the right strategies for learners to memorize the new vocabulary. And the next day, teachers will check the new vocabulary to see whether the learners have mastered them or not. Also try to create authentic tasks or situations for learns to use the new words they have learned.
The EFL learners don’t totally understand the meanings of the word, especially polysemy, synonyms and homophone. When teaching these kinds of vocabularies, teachers just read through the sentences instead of focusing on the differences of the words. Students will be confused about their uses. It’s important for the learners to know about the differences in word use and they will decide when to use them in appropriate situations. Teachers should keep in mind when teaching polysemy, synonyms and homophone, they will focus on distinguishing the different uses among these words.
Teaching bottom-up and top-down processing of spoken discourse EESL 542.d Module 2 By Michael Trap
There are two different types of processes involved in understanding spoken discourse: Bottom-up processing
Refers to using the incoming input as the basis for understanding the message
Comprehension begins with the data that has been received, is analyzed in sequential levels of organization (sounds, words, clauses, sentences, texts)
Comprehension is viewed as a process of decoding that goes from language to meaning
CLICK FOR AUDIO EXAMPLE
Comprehension goes from meaning to language
Refers to the use of background knowledge in understanding the meaning of a message
Comprehension begins with the identification of the topic, background knowledge in the form of previous situational or contextual knowledge about the topic or as “schemata” or “scripts” (assumptions about the overall structure of events and the relationships between them)
The ability to apply prior knowledge about things, concepts, people and events to a particular utterance about a specific topic to obtain comprehension
Ability to use key words to construct the schema of a discourse
Can infer the setting for a text
The ability to infer the role of the participants and their goals
Mastery of the skill to infer unstated details of a situation
Ability to anticipate questions related to the topic or situation
Prepared by: Michael Trap
Activities to develop
top-down listening skills:
Students generate a list of questions they expect to hear about a topic and listen to see if they are addressed
Students generate a list of things they already know about a topic and things they would like to know more about, then listen and compare
Students read one speaker’s part in a conversation, predict the other speaker’s part, then listen and compare
Students read a list of key points to be covered in a talk, then listen to see which ones were mentioned
Student’s listen to part of a story, complete the rest of it, then listen and compare endings
Students read news headlines, guess what happened, then listen to the news items and compare
Key points about bottom-up and top-down processing in listening
University entrance exams and other competency evaluations usually include a listening component, an acknowledgement that listening is now viewed as a core component of second language proficiency
Current views of listening emphasize the role of the listener, who is seen as an active participant in listening, employing techniques such as bottom up processing, top-down processing, or a combination thereof, to improve comprehension.
In real world listening, both bottom-up and top-down processing occur together, the extent to which one or the other dominates being dependent on the listener’s familiarity with the topic and content of a text, the density of information in a text, the text type, and the listener’s purpose for listening
Spoken text is often context dependent and personal, often assuming shared background knowledge, top-down processing makes comprehension possible
A typical lesson sequence in current teaching materials involves a three part lesson sequence consisting of pre-listening, while listening and post-listening and contains activities which link bottom-up and top-down processing