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TMC Glossary

TMC Glossary






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    TMC Glossary TMC Glossary Presentation Transcript

    • TheglossaryFor Transmedia, Multiplatform & Convergent Properties
    • AAffordance(s):  a term referring to the specific design & functional characteristics of a given technology,platform, object or environment. Usually also with the sense of defining what we expect an object,technology or platform to do and/or how we expect to be able to interact with it, often based on theperceived design and/or familiarity with similar technologies, platforms or objects.“The properties of an object that inform people how the object could be used. The term ‘perceivedaffordance’ applies when the object properties are perceived in a way that differs from the real-world,physical properties, especially when the usage of the object depends on perceived rather than real-worldproperties.”  referenceAlternate Reality Game: A narrative experience designed to be encountered and discovered acrossmultiple platforms. Key characteristics include a focus on game playing, puzzles, cryptic clues, and theengagement of the audience as active players and seekers of content. Key features are: the use of digitaland analogue platforms and methods of delivery and distribution (online sites, social media platforms,mobile devices, to fax machines, posters, USB keys, T-shirts, theatre performances, LARPing, UGC,…); thedesign and pre-scripting of a given cryptic story that is rolled out over a finite period of time, often with newcontent being unlocked by the solving of puzzles, unravelling of clues, and discovery of hidden contentonline or in the world, ; the ‘authors,’ now known as Puppet Masters, control the experience as it rolls out,and who monitor and respond to players over time. Shares many defining features of a transmedia propertythough with a central focus on participation and active game-playing.See: Conspiracy for Good; Why So Serious?; The Truth About MarikaAPI: Application Programming Interface: “A language and message format used by an applicationprogram to communicate with the operating system or some other control program such as a databasemanagement system (DBMS) or communications protocol. APIs are implemented by writing function calls inthe program, which provide the linkage to the required subroutine for execution. Thus, an API implies that adriver or program module is available in the computer to perform the operation or that software must belinked into the existing program to perform the tasks.” referenceAugmented Reality: The augmentation of the real world through virtual, digital overlays, often via apps& games designed for mobile devices or webcams on computers. Often designed for use in situ so thatspecific (urban) environments are viewed with augmented content via the screen camera/video capture of agiven mobile or computing device.See: Dickens’ Dark London; Nintendo Augmented Reality 3DS; Junaio; Google Glass; AR Invaders
    • btoiBeta Testing: A deliberate early testing of a given design, platform or interaction intended to locatepossible glitches in interface and/or interaction design. Beta testing can be done through a variety of media– analogue to digital – and can involve the develop of early prototypes. Physical and/or paper prototypesare a great way to test assumptions about how an interface will work or how an interaction will be executedbefore designs are finalized and production begins.Call to Action: The trigger, clue, invitation or prompt that is the catalyst for a User/Player to act. Theaction can be google-ing a name or number that appears in video/image/audio content, a text message,email request or share prompt, to name a few.Convergent: Multi-platform projects that provide content on at least two distribution platforms, one ofwhich is television.Specific definition within the Canadian context defined by the CMF funding guidelines: projectsdesigned to be “available across a minimum of two distribution platforms, including television.” The digitalcomponent can be a VOD platform or “additional, value-added digital content on non-TV platforms”Projects may have multiple ‘rich and substantial’ digital media components (website, app, game, etc)referenceExperiential Marketing: “Experiential marketing allows customers to engage and interact withbrands, products, and services in sensory ways that provide the icing on the cake of providing information.Personal experiences help people connect to a brand and make intelligent and informed purchasingdecisions. The term “Experiential Marketing” refers to actual customer experiences with the brand/product/service that drive sales and increase brand image and awareness. It’s the difference between telling peopleabout features of a product or service and letting them experience the benefits for themselves. When doneright, it’s the most powerful tool out there to win brand loyalty.” Erik Hauser reference reference 2  SeeI’m Here Case Study, see Coca Cola Happiness campaign, Volkswagen Fun Campaign, Campfire Game ofThrones Food TrucksImmersive Design: “Describes the activity of a new generation of designers who work inclusively acrossall story-driven media, from film and interactive media to live audience environments. Immersive designersdeal simultaneously with virtual and dimensional environments and who and what they contain; and withtime-based narrative and story space.” reference
    • gtohGeocaching: “A high-tech treasure hunt in which trinkets are stored in a waterproof container(“geocache”) that can be located in the wilderness or in a public venue, typically not in plain view. The GPScoordinates of the cache are published on the geocaching Web site, and the object of the hunt is to locatethe cache and enter your name in the log book as well as move objects from one cache to the next. Inaddition, geocachers may want to share their experiences online. Like a traditional treasure hunt, thecontents of one geocache may provide the coordinates to the next one.” referenceGeolocation: “Geolocation is a term used to describe the capability to detect and record where you andother people are located, and to use the information to enhance the desktop using an Internet-connectedcomputer or device. Geolocation information can be obtained in a number of ways including data bout auser’s IP address, MAC address, RFID, Wi-Fi connection location, orGPS coordinates.” referenceGeotagging: “Geotagging a digital photo or other object on a Web site or in a document refers to theattachment of geographical identification data. For example, a geotagged digital image would includeprecise latitude and longitude coordinates, and may also include altitude and other information. Thispermits the image or other object to be easily and precisely positioned on a map, putting the geotaggedimage into context, and making it more easily searchable. A number of popular Web sites permit the uploadof geotagged photos, and digital cameras may include geotagging capability, or may be fitted withaccessories that automatically geotag photos.” referenceHub Site: A ‘hub site’ can be created by the producers of a given project or can be generated by fans. Hubsites function as the central archive organizing what is known about a given property. Sometimes these canbe wikis or dedicated stand-alone websites; sometimes they can be housed within a network or productionsite. They will usually archive details to do with characters, plots summaries, unsolved mysteries,sometimes actor info, links to other related sites, videos, fan created content, chat forums, the possibilitiesare endless. The point of a hub site is to organize and inform fans of everything from the need-to-know tothe trivia related to a given project.Impressions: ‘A single instance of an online advertisement being displayed.’ reference
    • ltopLARP Live Action Role Playing: Think of this as Dungeon and Dragons taken to the streets and intothe ‘real ‘/flesh world. If Dungeons and Dragons remains a touchstone for many transmedia designers asthe immensely popular table-top role-playing game, LARPs involve pre-scripted ‘performances’ situated inpublic space, usually integrating hired actors who perform or intervene in a pre-determined site. Playersusually have some understanding of the narrative frame of engagement and engage with the actors withsome sense of narrative stakes, genre, conflict and possible outcomes in an urban environment. ThinkCommedia del’Arte for the 21st Century.Multiplatform [sometimes Crossplatform]: Multiplatform – when used as a contrast totransmedia, it commonly refers to the same content being distributed through multiple channels (ie. abroadcast tv show on your mobile); OR brand properties that use multiple channels for distributing contentwithout extending the story or story world across channels or distribution platforms. Example: A TV showwith a webpage with character bios, episode summaries, chat rooms, does not extend or contribute to thestory/story world.Participatory Culture: {def. 1} “Participatory Culture is a culture in which private persons (the public)do not act as consumers only, but also as contributors or producers (prosumers). The term is most oftenapplied to the production or creation of some type of published media. Some key components toparticipatory media: relatively low barriers to artistic expression and civic engagement; strong support forcreating and sharing one’s creations with others; some type of informal mentorship whereby what is knownby the most experienced is passed along to novices; members believe that their contributions matter;members feel some degree of social connection with one another (at the least they care what other peoplethink about what they have created).” reference{def. 2} The phenomena of networked, immediate, and sometimes activist behaviours enabled by Web 2.0technologies. The term Participatory Culture also flags the expectation in today’s digitally connected globalcommunities of the capacities for immediate response on a mass scale via viral and/or spreadable content.Participatory culture is also sometimes actively at odds with the legal & proprietory mechanisms ofconsumer culture, particularly in terms of fan culture & participatory practices which often ignore IP.
    • pParticipatory Storytelling: A mode of engaging with narrative content that allows audiences tointeract and participate in the unfolding narrative. Audiences can, to varying degrees, engage withcharacters, narrators, create and share content within the official production/content and with each other.Usually, participatory storytelling infers more engagement and interaction with fans being invited to interactwith the content and/or each other in some way. This mode of engagement is arguably a response to theupswing in active and activist participatory culture.Pervasive Gaming:  ‘A pervasive game is a game that takes place in the physical world, concurrentlywith the normal activities of players’ everyday lives.’ Pervasive gaming blurs any distinction between ‘game’ and ‘world’ as distinct realms – game elementscome to you through any available platform from theatre to digital code and the game plays out in theworld, potentially at any time. David Fincher’s 1997 film, The Game, starring Michael Douglas, tells the storyof a man who finds himself in an ‘unexpected live-action game’ As Jordan Weisman of 42 Entertainmentsaid, ‘If we could make your toaster print something we would.” referencePervasive Media: Digital media that are embedded in the environment, responsive, networked. Digitaland electronic media that are no longer contained within a desktop computing system but which can usesensors, RFID, GPS, mobile & wireless networks to interact with users in real-time in any location.Prototype & Rapid Prototype: “A prototype is the initial example of a product or program, which actsas a basis for following designs. Prototypes are often made from inexpensive materials and are usuallymade at a lower level of detail than a final product. In software design, prototypes can be made that focuson the visual design or the functionality of a program.Rapid Prototyping refers to the development of a project in an iterative, rather than linear progression.Instead of taking a waterfall method which includes linear decisions and no forward progression until a priorstep is completed, rapid prototyping focuses on quickly and holistically preparing a prototype with testingthroughout the development process. This process is repeated until the final version is completed. Rapidprototyping is similar to “guess and check” mathematics in that one makes a prototype and checks to seehow it is received by users.” reference
    • rtotRabbit Hole: The initial site, page, or clue that brings someone into an alternate reality game. A reference toAlice’s Adventures in Wonderland and her entry into Wonderland following the White Rabbit down the rabbithole.Rich Media: Usually digital, sometimes interactive. Many many variant definitions: • “Rich media refers to media on the web that offers an enhanced, interactive experience. VRML for 3 D, Macromedia Flash and Shockwave would be good examples of languages for rich media. The Rich Media SIG is a good resource for emerging technologies.” reference • a generic term for interactive media mixing text, audio, video, etc. referenceScenario/ User Scenario: “A story which has the key elements of a realistic situation when the userwould interact with the system being designed or evaluated. The scenario includes consideration of the user’sgoals, tasks and interaction. Scenarios can be created for user groups, workflows or tasks to explore,understand and test the different types of needs and goals.” referenceSpreadable Media / “Spreadability”: “Dispersing content widely through both formal and informalnetworks, some approved, many unauthorized.” Jenkins 2012Storyworld: Mike Jones has phrased it: “the Story-World represents the Rules; the governing principles andparameters by which occupants of the Story-World (characters and events) will adhere.” referenceUsually infers a mapping of story or world rules (physics to social interdynamics), story architecture, storyworld in terms of environment, creation of a storybible.See Lance WeilerTentpole: “A term used to describe one big media experience that supports a lot of other related mediaexperiences. A great example of this is the original Star Wars movie. That movie was the tentpole thatsupported all the other games, movies, toys, websites, cartoons, books, comics that followed. Tentpoles canwork in two ways. There can be the one big experience (often a movie or television show) or there can beseveral smaller tentpoles that work together (books, comics, etc). In both cases the result is the creation of afanbase that follows the cross-media experience from media to media in order to get the full story.” DrewDavidson 2010.  Also here.
    • tTransmedia:{def. 1}“Transmedia stories are those which ‘unfold across multiple media platforms with each new text making adistinctive and valuable contribution the whole.’” Henry Jenkins, Convergence Culture 2006{def. 2}“Transmedia storytelling, a concept identified by Henry Jenkins, is storytelling by a number of decentralizedauthors who share assets and create content for distribution across multiple forms of media. Transmediaimmerses an audience in a story’s universe through a number of dispersed entry points, providing acomprehensive and coordinated experience of a complex story.”Lina Srivastava  2008{def. 3}‘Each part of the story is unique and plays to the strengths of each medium, and the audience is ofteninvited to participate and somehow interact with the narrative.’‘Simply put, transmedia is the art of conveying a rich message, theme or storyline to a mass audience usingmultiple media platforms in concert.’Jeff Gomez 2009Example: Nurse Jackie’s Dr. Cooper tweets during the episodes and those following ‘his’ account are givenan inside window into the character’s in-the moment thoughts & responses.{def. 4}“A Transmedia Narrative project or franchise must consist of three (or more) narrative storylines existingwithin the same fictional universe on any of the following platforms:  Film, Television, Short Film,Broadband, Publishing, Comics, Animation, Mobile, Special Venues, DVD/Blu-ray/CD-ROM, NarrativeCommercial and Marketing rollouts, and other technologies that may or may not currently exist. Thesenarrative extensions are NOT the same as repurposing material from one platform to be cut or repurposedto different platforms” Producers Guild of America reference
    • uUbiquity/ Ubiquitous Computing: “When discussing the connectivity, wireless networks come intoplay and these networks enable ubiquity in our cross-media communications. A ubiquitous experience isone that we can have whenever and wherever we want. As wireless networks spread and cellphones getmore media features, we’re able to always have media content at our fingertips. This allows for cross-mediaexperiences to be as much, or as little, a part of our daily lives as we like.”Drew DavidsonUGC: User Generated Content. Because of the popularity and ubiquity of social media and participatoryengagement, interactive and online storytellers are increasingly designing opportunities and invitations toaudiences to play with, remix and create new content extending existing official content.User Experience (UX): “Every aspect of the user’s interaction with a product, service, or company thatmake up the user’s perceptions of the whole. User experience design as a discipline is concerned with allthe elements that together make up that interface, including layout, visual design, text, brand, sound, andinteraction. UE works to coordinate these elements to allow for the best possible interaction by users.”referenceUser Scenario: “In art and design, used to communicate an idea for a product or experience involvinginteractivity. The designer shows and/or tells an engaging short story, about a fictitious person using theinteractive product or interacting with the “smart” architectural space, artwork, or virtual environment (froma web page to immersive virtual reality experience). User scenarios are an evolution of thought experiments,historically used to explain natural phenomena with simple logical stories, helping readers grasp complexideas, non-technically, without equations. Einstein’s elevator and train, Newton’s apple, Maxwell’s demon,and Schrödinger’s cat are classic examples.” referenceWeb 2.0: ‘Web 2.0 is the term given to describe a second generation of the World Wide Web that isfocused on the ability for people to collaborate and share information online. Web 2.0 basically refers to thetransition from static HTMLWeb pages to a more dynamic Web that is more organized and is based onserving Web applications to users. Other improved functionality of Web 2.0 includes open communicationwith an emphasis on Web-based communities of users, and more open sharing of information. Over timeWeb 2.0 has been used more as a marketing term than a computer-science-based term. Blogs, wikis, andWeb services are all seen as components of Web 2.0.Web 2.0 was previously used as a synonym for Semantic Web, but while the two are similar, they do notshare precisely the same meaning.’ reference
    • wWeb 2.0: ‘Web 2.0 is the term given to describe a second generation of the World Wide Web that isfocused on the ability for people to collaborate and share information online. Web 2.0 basically refers to thetransition from static HTMLWeb pages to a more dynamic Web that is more organized and is based onserving Web applications to users. Other improved functionality of Web 2.0 includes open communicationwith an emphasis on Web-based communities of users, and more open sharing of information. Over timeWeb 2.0 has been used more as a marketing term than a computer-science-based term. Blogs, wikis, andWeb services are all seen as components of Web 2.0.Web 2.0 was previously used as a synonym for Semantic Web, but while the two are similar, they do notshare precisely the same meaning.’ reference 
    • Get in Touchcontactus TMC Resource Kit info@tmcresourcekit.com tmcresourcekit.comTMC Glossary was prepared by: anthea foyer & Dr. Siobhan O’Flynn antheafoyer.com @antheafoyer siobhanoflynn.com @Sioflynn
    • tmcrkpartnersTHANKS to...
    • TMC Glossary is released under a NonCommercialShareAlike Creative Commons license to be shared,remixed and expanded non-­‐commercially, as long as youcredit the TMC Resource Kit, the creator of the TMCGlossary, Anthea Foyer & Dr. Siobhan O’Flynn, and licenseyour new creations under the identical terms.