MARCH 4, 1861: LincolnMARCH 4, 1861: Lincoln’s First’s First
Inaugural AddressInaugural Address
March 4, 1861 – Lincoln was inauguratedMarch 4, 1861 – Lincoln was inaugurated
in Washington D.C. He promised toin Washington D.C. He promised to
“preserve, protect, and defend the Union.”“preserve, protect, and defend the Union.”
Several tense weeks followed. TheSeveral tense weeks followed. The
country was heading for war.country was heading for war.
THE SPARKTHE SPARK
APRIL 12, 1861: Fort Sumter - 4APRIL 12, 1861: Fort Sumter - 4
More States SecedeMore States Secede
Since Fort Sumter was in SC, the S asked the US Fort to surrenderSince Fort Sumter was in SC, the S asked the US Fort to surrender
to the CSA. The Fort did not.to the CSA. The Fort did not.
On April 12, 1861, Davis ordered his men to attack. Lincoln sentOn April 12, 1861, Davis ordered his men to attack. Lincoln sent
Fort Sumter supplies, but no men or ammunition. ConfederatesFort Sumter supplies, but no men or ammunition. Confederates
under General Beauregard fired 50 cannons at the fort.under General Beauregard fired 50 cannons at the fort.
After 2 days and 4000 shots the S took the Fort. The N fired 2000After 2 days and 4000 shots the S took the Fort. The N fired 2000
shots. No man was killed, only a horse.shots. No man was killed, only a horse.
Major Anderson surrendered the fort April 14th. (Although no manMajor Anderson surrendered the fort April 14th. (Although no man
was killed, 1 union artillerist was killed and 3 wounded when awas killed, 1 union artillerist was killed and 3 wounded when a
cannon backfired during a salute for evacuation). Immediately, VA,cannon backfired during a salute for evacuation). Immediately, VA,
ARK, TENN, and NC left to join the CSA.ARK, TENN, and NC left to join the CSA.
Fort Sumter sparked the war. Now both sides had to put theirFort Sumter sparked the war. Now both sides had to put their
armies together.armies together.
North & South ComparedNorth & South Compared
JULY 21, 1861 – The First BattleJULY 21, 1861 – The First Battle
of Bull Run (Manassas)of Bull Run (Manassas)
1st major battle of the war. N Gen. Irwin McDowell has1st major battle of the war. N Gen. Irwin McDowell has
pressure from Lincoln to capture Richmond and end thepressure from Lincoln to capture Richmond and end the
war quickly. Lincolnwar quickly. Lincoln’s 3 month enlistments are almost’s 3 month enlistments are almost
up. Confederates hear about the plan and dig in toup. Confederates hear about the plan and dig in to
defend Richmond near Bull Run Creek. S. Gen.defend Richmond near Bull Run Creek. S. Gen.
Beauregard sets up his men near Henry House Hill. TheBeauregard sets up his men near Henry House Hill. The
N chase the S up HH Hill, but they are stopped byN chase the S up HH Hill, but they are stopped by
Jackson. Jackson and Johnston push the N to retreat.Jackson. Jackson and Johnston push the N to retreat.
Significance: 1st casualties of war; N loses 2,775/ SSignificance: 1st casualties of war; N loses 2,775/ S
loses 2,000; Thomasloses 2,000; Thomas “Stonewall Jackson” get his name“Stonewall Jackson” get his name
here; This battle proved the war would last longer thanhere; This battle proved the war would last longer than
expected. “War will be no picnic”expected. “War will be no picnic”
MARCH 8, 1862 – HamptonMARCH 8, 1862 – Hampton
Roads (Naval Battle)Roads (Naval Battle)
The harbor off VA was blocked by the N. The
S’s Merrimack sinks 2 Union ships (the
Congress and Cumberland). On March 9, the S
expects to break the blockade. It’s the
Merrimack v. the Monitor and Minnesota. There
was no real victory, but the S did not break the
Significance: 1st major battle on water. 1st
revolving gun turret (monitor). It signified a new
era of ironclad ships and an end to wooden
Sept 1862 Antietam (Sharpsburg)Sept 1862 Antietam (Sharpsburg)
Lee wanted to invade Maryland & bring the war
to the N. He also was seeking supplies and
local support. He first had to secure Harper’s
Ferry. He issued order 191, sending Jackson
and 2 others to capture the fort with Longstreet
and 1 other behind the Blue Ridge Mtns. All
would meet later in MD. The N finds a copy of
191 wrapped around 3 cigars in an abandoned
campground. McClellan slow to act.
The battle ends in a draw, but S pulls out
on the night of the 18th,; it was the
bloodiest one day of fighting in the war –
20,000 dead. Lincoln calls it a Union
Victory; it allowed Lincoln to issue the
Emancipation Proclamation. The battle
kept France and England from joining the
war for the S. (Jackson and the others did
capture HF and its supplies, but McClellan
took it back shortly after Antietam).
SEPTEMBER 22, 1862 –SEPTEMBER 22, 1862 –
Emancipation ProclamationEmancipation Proclamation
Frees onlyFrees only “Slaves still in rebellion.”“Slaves still in rebellion.”
Purpose was to take away the S’s laborPurpose was to take away the S’s labor
force (slaves) & give the Union moreforce (slaves) & give the Union more
men (blacks) to fight in the war.men (blacks) to fight in the war.
Increased troop morale in the N.Increased troop morale in the N.
Keeps England & France from fullyKeeps England & France from fully
supporting Ssupporting S
DECEMBER 13, 1862 –DECEMBER 13, 1862 –
Burnside replaces McClellan as N Gen.Burnside replaces McClellan as N Gen.
Burnside wants to take Richmond before winterBurnside wants to take Richmond before winter
and before Jackson can arrive to back up Leeand before Jackson can arrive to back up Lee
and Longstreet. He wants to attack in Nov, butand Longstreet. He wants to attack in Nov, but
the pontoon bridges arrive late. By Dec,the pontoon bridges arrive late. By Dec,
Longstreet had dug in on MaryeLongstreet had dug in on Marye’s Heights’s Heights
behind a stone wall. N attacks 14 times andbehind a stone wall. N attacks 14 times and
failed every time. S victory.failed every time. S victory.
Significance: N loses 12,600/ S loses 5,300. ItSignificance: N loses 12,600/ S loses 5,300. It
shows the importance of your position in battle.shows the importance of your position in battle.
MAY 1-5, 1863 – ChancellorsvilleMAY 1-5, 1863 – Chancellorsville
Hooker replaces Burnside as N Gen. Lee gets word ofHooker replaces Burnside as N Gen. Lee gets word of
the N around Chancellorsville & that their rt side is weak.the N around Chancellorsville & that their rt side is weak.
Jackson attacks the rt on May 2nd. Jackson wasJackson attacks the rt on May 2nd. Jackson was
accidentally shot while scouting the area. Jackson diesaccidentally shot while scouting the area. Jackson dies
8 days later. Hill takes over & is shot. Stuart then takes8 days later. Hill takes over & is shot. Stuart then takes
over & pushes the N back. N retreats.over & pushes the N back. N retreats.
Significance: The Confederates managed to defeat aSignificance: The Confederates managed to defeat a
force over twice their size. Stopped Union plans for anforce over twice their size. Stopped Union plans for an
assault on Richmond and made possible Leeassault on Richmond and made possible Lee’s’s
subsequent invasion of the North, resulting in the Battlesubsequent invasion of the North, resulting in the Battle
of Gettysburg. Union casualties totaled about 17,300;of Gettysburg. Union casualties totaled about 17,300;
Confederate losses were about 12,750.Confederate losses were about 12,750.
Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863
Lee invades the Pennsylvania—looking forLee invades the Pennsylvania—looking for
supplies and “decisive blow” Army is splitsupplies and “decisive blow” Army is split
up again.up again.
Day 1Day 1
Armies converge on Gettysburg. SouthArmies converge on Gettysburg. South
captures city, but Union cavalry holds offcaptures city, but Union cavalry holds off
Confederates long enough to secure highConfederates long enough to secure high
Day 2Day 2
Union reinforcements arrive—dig in onUnion reinforcements arrive—dig in on
high ground. (Meade is Union Gen.)high ground. (Meade is Union Gen.)
Lee attacks Union left at Little Round Top.Lee attacks Union left at Little Round Top.
Joshua Chamberlain and the 20Joshua Chamberlain and the 20thth
save the day. Out of ammo—use asave the day. Out of ammo—use a
bayonet charge they had only read aboutbayonet charge they had only read about
in a textbook.in a textbook.
Day 3Day 3
Lee gambles everything on an attack of
the Union center of Cemetary Ridge.
“Pickett’s Charge” = S Gen Pickett w/
13,000 men are to advance on Union
The S is destroyed.
Lee failed. Huge victory for Meade
The Gettysburg Address—Nov. 19, 1863The Gettysburg Address—Nov. 19, 1863
N turned part of the battlefield into a
cemetery. At the dedication of the
cemetery, Lincoln gave a 2 minute speech
which called for a “New birth of
Freedom.”—echoed Declaration of
Explains the war—why they are fighting.
Country is going through a test.
He was not the main speaker – Edward
North’s Original Plan—Anaconda Plan
Navy Blockade, control Miss. River
LincolnLincoln’s 3 Part Plan:’s 3 Part Plan:
(After Gettysburg)(After Gettysburg)
1. Gen. William Sherman will destroy the
infrastructure of the South. Know as
“Sherman’s March to the Sea.” Destroys
South’s economy. Helps Lincoln get re-
elected in 1864.
2. General Phillip Sheridan will destroy the
breadbasket of the South. (Shenandoah
3. General U.S. Grant will chase Lee’s
Lincoln’s 10% Reconstruction Plan—Dec,
Expecting the war to end, Lincoln announced a plan
for Reconstruction or putting the country back
together. Lincoln’s plan reflected his approach, “Let
‘em up easy.” His plan was broken into 2 parts:
Amnesty. All Southerners, except Confederate
leaders, could be pardoned and regain citizenship
by taking an oath to support the Constitution and
a proposed 13th
Amendment to end slavery.
When 10% of a state’s registered voters took the
oath, that state could re-establish its ties to the
Trench Warfare 1864-1865Trench Warfare 1864-1865
1. Lee heads back to VA—will only fight
2. Introduces trench warfare.
Cold Harbor (May-June 1864)
• Grant vs. Lee
• Lee in trenches
• Grant attacks, 7000 dead in 20 minutes
• Grant gets nickname “the Butcher.”
• Grant to use a battle of attrition
STRONG LINES OF ENTRENCHMENTS STRETCHED FOR NEARLY
SEVEN MILES THROUGH THE COLD HARBOR AREA.
JUNE 1864 – PetersburgJUNE 1864 – Petersburg
LeeLee’s men were starving/low on supplies. Needs’s men were starving/low on supplies. Needs
to reach a RR town, & Grant stops him every time.to reach a RR town, & Grant stops him every time.
stopped the N army outside Petersburg (RR townstopped the N army outside Petersburg (RR town
S of Richmond). Grant placed the city underS of Richmond). Grant placed the city under
siege. Both sides dug in – trenches stretched forsiege. Both sides dug in – trenches stretched for
miles around the city. Lee held for 9 months.miles around the city. Lee held for 9 months.
Grant built tunnel w/ explosives; the explosivesGrant built tunnel w/ explosives; the explosives
created a huge crater. N ran through tunnel intocreated a huge crater. N ran through tunnel into
the crater. S surrounds crater.the crater. S surrounds crater.
Lee leaves Petersburg to re-supply & helpLee leaves Petersburg to re-supply & help
Johnston fight Sherman. N takes PetersburgJohnston fight Sherman. N takes Petersburg
calls it a N victory.calls it a N victory.
Significance:Significance: Signifies a change in fighting toSignifies a change in fighting to
trench warfare. Lee never gets his supplies.trench warfare. Lee never gets his supplies.
The chase continues until Lee is surrounded byThe chase continues until Lee is surrounded by
Grant at a small RR town called Appomattox.Grant at a small RR town called Appomattox.
May-Dec 1864 - ShermanMay-Dec 1864 - Sherman’s March’s March
to the Seato the Sea
ShermanSherman’s army of 60,000 marched’s army of 60,000 marched
through Georgia. Main goal was tothrough Georgia. Main goal was to
destroy the RRs, but he destroyeddestroy the RRs, but he destroyed
everything in his path & burned Atlanta.everything in his path & burned Atlanta.
After capturing part of Savannah, heAfter capturing part of Savannah, he
moved up through S & N Carolina.moved up through S & N Carolina.
Sheridan leads a similar campaign inSheridan leads a similar campaign in
Shenandoah Valley.Shenandoah Valley.
Total Warfare needed to end war.Total Warfare needed to end war.
War is hellWar is hell
MARCH 4, 1865 – LincolnMARCH 4, 1865 – Lincoln’s’s
Second Inaugural AddressSecond Inaugural Address
After winning re-election in NovemberAfter winning re-election in November
1864, Lincoln called for a time of healing.1864, Lincoln called for a time of healing.
He said,He said, “With malice toward none; with“With malice toward none; with
charity toward all; with firmness in thecharity toward all; with firmness in the
right…let us strive on to finish the work weright…let us strive on to finish the work we
are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds…toare in; to bind up the nation’s wounds…to
do all which may achieve and cherish ado all which may achieve and cherish a
just, and a lasting peace.”just, and a lasting peace.”
APRIL 3, 1865 – The Burning ofAPRIL 3, 1865 – The Burning of
Richmond, VirginiaRichmond, Virginia
Realizing the end of the war was near, theRealizing the end of the war was near, the
S didnS didn’t want the N to have the glory of’t want the N to have the glory of
taking Richmond. So they burnt theirtaking Richmond. So they burnt their
capital to the ground. Jefferson Davis andcapital to the ground. Jefferson Davis and
his cabinet fled the city. Davis was laterhis cabinet fled the city. Davis was later
caught and put in prison. After 2 years, hecaught and put in prison. After 2 years, he
was released and lived the rest of his life awas released and lived the rest of his life a
APRIL 9, 1865 – The Surrender atAPRIL 9, 1865 – The Surrender at
Appomattox CourthouseAppomattox Courthouse
Lee surrendered. Grant and the rest ofLee surrendered. Grant and the rest of
the country were anxious to put the nationthe country were anxious to put the nation
back together. Grant went easy on Leeback together. Grant went easy on Lee
and let Leeand let Lee’s men return home unharmed.’s men return home unharmed.
APRIL 14, 1865 PresidentAPRIL 14, 1865 President
LincolnLincoln’s Assassination’s Assassination
President and Mrs. Lincoln attended aPresident and Mrs. Lincoln attended a
play at Fordplay at Ford’s Theatre. During the play, S’s Theatre. During the play, S
sympathizer John Wilkes Booth shot thesympathizer John Wilkes Booth shot the
President in the back of the head. LincolnPresident in the back of the head. Lincoln
died 8 hours later. Booth escaped for 2died 8 hours later. Booth escaped for 2
weeks, but was eventually caught andweeks, but was eventually caught and
killed. People on both sides were shockedkilled. People on both sides were shocked
and grief stricken. The S hadand grief stricken. The S had
surrendered, but the nation was still badlysurrendered, but the nation was still badly
Andersonville PrisonAndersonville Prison
13,000 Union soldiers died from malnutrition or disease
Term “deadline” attributed to Andersonville
Andersonville PrisonAndersonville Prison
MinieMinie’ Ball’ Ball
On its way, the iron bullet expanded,On its way, the iron bullet expanded,
gripping the spiral rifling and spinning sogripping the spiral rifling and spinning so
tightly along its course that its range andtightly along its course that its range and
accuracy were greatly increased, withaccuracy were greatly increased, with
fewer misfires. The effective range of afewer misfires. The effective range of a
minié bullet was from 200 to 250 yards, aminié bullet was from 200 to 250 yards, a
huge improvement on earlier ammunition.huge improvement on earlier ammunition.
Amputation of a woundedAmputation of a wounded
arm or leg was the mostarm or leg was the most
common operation, duecommon operation, due
largely to the .58 caliberlargely to the .58 caliber
Minie ball ammunition usedMinie ball ammunition used
during the war. This heavyduring the war. This heavy
conical-shaped bullet ofconical-shaped bullet of
soft lead distorted onsoft lead distorted on
impact causing large,impact causing large,
gaping wounds filled withgaping wounds filled with
dirt and pieces of clothing.dirt and pieces of clothing.
Its heavy weight shatteredIts heavy weight shattered
any bone it contacted.any bone it contacted.
Because of the severity ofBecause of the severity of
the wounds and thethe wounds and the
overwhelming case load,overwhelming case load,
surgeons usually electedsurgeons usually elected
for fast and easyfor fast and easy
amputation over trying toamputation over trying to
remove the bullet and saveremove the bullet and save
the limb.the limb.