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The spark
 

The spark

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    The spark The spark Presentation Transcript

    • MARCH 4, 1861: LincolnMARCH 4, 1861: Lincoln’s First’s First Inaugural AddressInaugural Address  March 4, 1861 – Lincoln was inauguratedMarch 4, 1861 – Lincoln was inaugurated in Washington D.C. He promised toin Washington D.C. He promised to “preserve, protect, and defend the Union.”“preserve, protect, and defend the Union.” Several tense weeks followed. TheSeveral tense weeks followed. The country was heading for war.country was heading for war.
    • THE SPARKTHE SPARK
    • APRIL 12, 1861: Fort Sumter - 4APRIL 12, 1861: Fort Sumter - 4 More States SecedeMore States Secede  Since Fort Sumter was in SC, the S asked the US Fort to surrenderSince Fort Sumter was in SC, the S asked the US Fort to surrender to the CSA. The Fort did not.to the CSA. The Fort did not.  On April 12, 1861, Davis ordered his men to attack. Lincoln sentOn April 12, 1861, Davis ordered his men to attack. Lincoln sent Fort Sumter supplies, but no men or ammunition. ConfederatesFort Sumter supplies, but no men or ammunition. Confederates under General Beauregard fired 50 cannons at the fort.under General Beauregard fired 50 cannons at the fort.  After 2 days and 4000 shots the S took the Fort. The N fired 2000After 2 days and 4000 shots the S took the Fort. The N fired 2000 shots. No man was killed, only a horse.shots. No man was killed, only a horse.  Major Anderson surrendered the fort April 14th. (Although no manMajor Anderson surrendered the fort April 14th. (Although no man was killed, 1 union artillerist was killed and 3 wounded when awas killed, 1 union artillerist was killed and 3 wounded when a cannon backfired during a salute for evacuation). Immediately, VA,cannon backfired during a salute for evacuation). Immediately, VA, ARK, TENN, and NC left to join the CSA.ARK, TENN, and NC left to join the CSA.  Fort Sumter sparked the war. Now both sides had to put theirFort Sumter sparked the war. Now both sides had to put their armies together.armies together.
    • North & South ComparedNorth & South Compared
    • JULY 21, 1861 – The First BattleJULY 21, 1861 – The First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)of Bull Run (Manassas)  1st major battle of the war. N Gen. Irwin McDowell has1st major battle of the war. N Gen. Irwin McDowell has pressure from Lincoln to capture Richmond and end thepressure from Lincoln to capture Richmond and end the war quickly. Lincolnwar quickly. Lincoln’s 3 month enlistments are almost’s 3 month enlistments are almost up. Confederates hear about the plan and dig in toup. Confederates hear about the plan and dig in to defend Richmond near Bull Run Creek. S. Gen.defend Richmond near Bull Run Creek. S. Gen. Beauregard sets up his men near Henry House Hill. TheBeauregard sets up his men near Henry House Hill. The N chase the S up HH Hill, but they are stopped byN chase the S up HH Hill, but they are stopped by Jackson. Jackson and Johnston push the N to retreat.Jackson. Jackson and Johnston push the N to retreat.  Significance: 1st casualties of war; N loses 2,775/ SSignificance: 1st casualties of war; N loses 2,775/ S loses 2,000; Thomasloses 2,000; Thomas “Stonewall Jackson” get his name“Stonewall Jackson” get his name here; This battle proved the war would last longer thanhere; This battle proved the war would last longer than expected. “War will be no picnic”expected. “War will be no picnic”
    • MARCH 8, 1862 – HamptonMARCH 8, 1862 – Hampton Roads (Naval Battle)Roads (Naval Battle)  The harbor off VA was blocked by the N. The S’s Merrimack sinks 2 Union ships (the Congress and Cumberland). On March 9, the S expects to break the blockade. It’s the Merrimack v. the Monitor and Minnesota. There was no real victory, but the S did not break the N’s blockade.  Significance: 1st major battle on water. 1st revolving gun turret (monitor). It signified a new era of ironclad ships and an end to wooden battleships.
    • Sept 1862 Antietam (Sharpsburg)Sept 1862 Antietam (Sharpsburg)  Lee wanted to invade Maryland & bring the war to the N. He also was seeking supplies and local support. He first had to secure Harper’s Ferry. He issued order 191, sending Jackson and 2 others to capture the fort with Longstreet and 1 other behind the Blue Ridge Mtns. All would meet later in MD. The N finds a copy of 191 wrapped around 3 cigars in an abandoned campground. McClellan slow to act.
    •  The battle ends in a draw, but S pulls out on the night of the 18th,; it was the bloodiest one day of fighting in the war – 20,000 dead. Lincoln calls it a Union Victory; it allowed Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. The battle kept France and England from joining the war for the S. (Jackson and the others did capture HF and its supplies, but McClellan took it back shortly after Antietam).
    • SEPTEMBER 22, 1862 –SEPTEMBER 22, 1862 – Emancipation ProclamationEmancipation Proclamation  Frees onlyFrees only “Slaves still in rebellion.”“Slaves still in rebellion.” Purpose was to take away the S’s laborPurpose was to take away the S’s labor force (slaves) & give the Union moreforce (slaves) & give the Union more men (blacks) to fight in the war.men (blacks) to fight in the war.  Increased troop morale in the N.Increased troop morale in the N.  Keeps England & France from fullyKeeps England & France from fully supporting Ssupporting S
    • DECEMBER 13, 1862 –DECEMBER 13, 1862 – FredericksburgFredericksburg  Burnside replaces McClellan as N Gen.Burnside replaces McClellan as N Gen.  Burnside wants to take Richmond before winterBurnside wants to take Richmond before winter and before Jackson can arrive to back up Leeand before Jackson can arrive to back up Lee and Longstreet. He wants to attack in Nov, butand Longstreet. He wants to attack in Nov, but the pontoon bridges arrive late. By Dec,the pontoon bridges arrive late. By Dec, Longstreet had dug in on MaryeLongstreet had dug in on Marye’s Heights’s Heights behind a stone wall. N attacks 14 times andbehind a stone wall. N attacks 14 times and failed every time. S victory.failed every time. S victory.  Significance: N loses 12,600/ S loses 5,300. ItSignificance: N loses 12,600/ S loses 5,300. It shows the importance of your position in battle.shows the importance of your position in battle.
    • MAY 1-5, 1863 – ChancellorsvilleMAY 1-5, 1863 – Chancellorsville  Hooker replaces Burnside as N Gen. Lee gets word ofHooker replaces Burnside as N Gen. Lee gets word of the N around Chancellorsville & that their rt side is weak.the N around Chancellorsville & that their rt side is weak. Jackson attacks the rt on May 2nd. Jackson wasJackson attacks the rt on May 2nd. Jackson was accidentally shot while scouting the area. Jackson diesaccidentally shot while scouting the area. Jackson dies 8 days later. Hill takes over & is shot. Stuart then takes8 days later. Hill takes over & is shot. Stuart then takes over & pushes the N back. N retreats.over & pushes the N back. N retreats.  Significance: The Confederates managed to defeat aSignificance: The Confederates managed to defeat a force over twice their size. Stopped Union plans for anforce over twice their size. Stopped Union plans for an assault on Richmond and made possible Leeassault on Richmond and made possible Lee’s’s subsequent invasion of the North, resulting in the Battlesubsequent invasion of the North, resulting in the Battle of Gettysburg. Union casualties totaled about 17,300;of Gettysburg. Union casualties totaled about 17,300; Confederate losses were about 12,750.Confederate losses were about 12,750.
    • Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863  Lee invades the Pennsylvania—looking forLee invades the Pennsylvania—looking for supplies and “decisive blow” Army is splitsupplies and “decisive blow” Army is split up again.up again.  Day 1Day 1  Armies converge on Gettysburg. SouthArmies converge on Gettysburg. South captures city, but Union cavalry holds offcaptures city, but Union cavalry holds off Confederates long enough to secure highConfederates long enough to secure high ground.ground.
    • Gettysburg—Day 1
    • Day 2Day 2  Union reinforcements arrive—dig in onUnion reinforcements arrive—dig in on high ground. (Meade is Union Gen.)high ground. (Meade is Union Gen.)  Lee attacks Union left at Little Round Top.Lee attacks Union left at Little Round Top.  Joshua Chamberlain and the 20Joshua Chamberlain and the 20thth MaineMaine save the day. Out of ammo—use asave the day. Out of ammo—use a bayonet charge they had only read aboutbayonet charge they had only read about in a textbook.in a textbook.
    • Day 3Day 3  Lee gambles everything on an attack of the Union center of Cemetary Ridge.  “Pickett’s Charge” = S Gen Pickett w/ 13,000 men are to advance on Union troops  The S is destroyed.  Lee failed. Huge victory for Meade
    • The Gettysburg Address—Nov. 19, 1863The Gettysburg Address—Nov. 19, 1863  N turned part of the battlefield into a cemetery. At the dedication of the cemetery, Lincoln gave a 2 minute speech which called for a “New birth of Freedom.”—echoed Declaration of Independence. “Equality”  Explains the war—why they are fighting.  Country is going through a test.  He was not the main speaker – Edward Everett was.
    • North’s Original Plan—Anaconda Plan Navy Blockade, control Miss. River
    • LincolnLincoln’s 3 Part Plan:’s 3 Part Plan: (After Gettysburg)(After Gettysburg)  1. Gen. William Sherman will destroy the infrastructure of the South. Know as “Sherman’s March to the Sea.” Destroys South’s economy. Helps Lincoln get re- elected in 1864.  2. General Phillip Sheridan will destroy the breadbasket of the South. (Shenandoah Valley, Virginia)  3. General U.S. Grant will chase Lee’s army.
    • Lincoln’s 10% Reconstruction Plan—Dec, 1863  Expecting the war to end, Lincoln announced a plan for Reconstruction or putting the country back together. Lincoln’s plan reflected his approach, “Let ‘em up easy.” His plan was broken into 2 parts:  Amnesty. All Southerners, except Confederate leaders, could be pardoned and regain citizenship by taking an oath to support the Constitution and a proposed 13th Amendment to end slavery.  When 10% of a state’s registered voters took the oath, that state could re-establish its ties to the union.
    • Trench Warfare 1864-1865Trench Warfare 1864-1865  1. Lee heads back to VA—will only fight defensive war.  2. Introduces trench warfare.  Cold Harbor (May-June 1864) • Grant vs. Lee • Lee in trenches • Grant attacks, 7000 dead in 20 minutes • Grant gets nickname “the Butcher.” • Grant to use a battle of attrition
    • STRONG LINES OF ENTRENCHMENTS STRETCHED FOR NEARLY SEVEN MILES THROUGH THE COLD HARBOR AREA.
    • JUNE 1864 – PetersburgJUNE 1864 – Petersburg LeeLee’s men were starving/low on supplies. Needs’s men were starving/low on supplies. Needs to reach a RR town, & Grant stops him every time.to reach a RR town, & Grant stops him every time. stopped the N army outside Petersburg (RR townstopped the N army outside Petersburg (RR town S of Richmond). Grant placed the city underS of Richmond). Grant placed the city under siege. Both sides dug in – trenches stretched forsiege. Both sides dug in – trenches stretched for miles around the city. Lee held for 9 months.miles around the city. Lee held for 9 months. Grant built tunnel w/ explosives; the explosivesGrant built tunnel w/ explosives; the explosives created a huge crater. N ran through tunnel intocreated a huge crater. N ran through tunnel into the crater. S surrounds crater.the crater. S surrounds crater.
    •  Lee leaves Petersburg to re-supply & helpLee leaves Petersburg to re-supply & help Johnston fight Sherman. N takes PetersburgJohnston fight Sherman. N takes Petersburg calls it a N victory.calls it a N victory.  Significance:Significance: Signifies a change in fighting toSignifies a change in fighting to trench warfare. Lee never gets his supplies.trench warfare. Lee never gets his supplies. The chase continues until Lee is surrounded byThe chase continues until Lee is surrounded by Grant at a small RR town called Appomattox.Grant at a small RR town called Appomattox.
    • May-Dec 1864 - ShermanMay-Dec 1864 - Sherman’s March’s March to the Seato the Sea  ShermanSherman’s army of 60,000 marched’s army of 60,000 marched through Georgia. Main goal was tothrough Georgia. Main goal was to destroy the RRs, but he destroyeddestroy the RRs, but he destroyed everything in his path & burned Atlanta.everything in his path & burned Atlanta. After capturing part of Savannah, heAfter capturing part of Savannah, he moved up through S & N Carolina.moved up through S & N Carolina.  Sheridan leads a similar campaign inSheridan leads a similar campaign in Shenandoah Valley.Shenandoah Valley.  Total Warfare needed to end war.Total Warfare needed to end war.  War is hellWar is hell
    • Sheridan’s Shenandoah RaidsSheridan’s Shenandoah Raids
    • MARCH 4, 1865 – LincolnMARCH 4, 1865 – Lincoln’s’s Second Inaugural AddressSecond Inaugural Address  After winning re-election in NovemberAfter winning re-election in November 1864, Lincoln called for a time of healing.1864, Lincoln called for a time of healing. He said,He said, “With malice toward none; with“With malice toward none; with charity toward all; with firmness in thecharity toward all; with firmness in the right…let us strive on to finish the work weright…let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds…toare in; to bind up the nation’s wounds…to do all which may achieve and cherish ado all which may achieve and cherish a just, and a lasting peace.”just, and a lasting peace.”
    • APRIL 3, 1865 – The Burning ofAPRIL 3, 1865 – The Burning of Richmond, VirginiaRichmond, Virginia  Realizing the end of the war was near, theRealizing the end of the war was near, the S didnS didn’t want the N to have the glory of’t want the N to have the glory of taking Richmond. So they burnt theirtaking Richmond. So they burnt their capital to the ground. Jefferson Davis andcapital to the ground. Jefferson Davis and his cabinet fled the city. Davis was laterhis cabinet fled the city. Davis was later caught and put in prison. After 2 years, hecaught and put in prison. After 2 years, he was released and lived the rest of his life awas released and lived the rest of his life a freeman.freeman.
    • APRIL 9, 1865 – The Surrender atAPRIL 9, 1865 – The Surrender at Appomattox CourthouseAppomattox Courthouse  Lee surrendered. Grant and the rest ofLee surrendered. Grant and the rest of the country were anxious to put the nationthe country were anxious to put the nation back together. Grant went easy on Leeback together. Grant went easy on Lee and let Leeand let Lee’s men return home unharmed.’s men return home unharmed.
    • APRIL 14, 1865 PresidentAPRIL 14, 1865 President LincolnLincoln’s Assassination’s Assassination  President and Mrs. Lincoln attended aPresident and Mrs. Lincoln attended a play at Fordplay at Ford’s Theatre. During the play, S’s Theatre. During the play, S sympathizer John Wilkes Booth shot thesympathizer John Wilkes Booth shot the President in the back of the head. LincolnPresident in the back of the head. Lincoln died 8 hours later. Booth escaped for 2died 8 hours later. Booth escaped for 2 weeks, but was eventually caught andweeks, but was eventually caught and killed. People on both sides were shockedkilled. People on both sides were shocked and grief stricken. The S hadand grief stricken. The S had surrendered, but the nation was still badlysurrendered, but the nation was still badly divided.divided.
    • Andersonville PrisonAndersonville Prison 13,000 Union soldiers died from malnutrition or disease Term “deadline” attributed to Andersonville
    • Andersonville PrisonAndersonville Prison
    • MinieMinie’ Ball’ Ball  On its way, the iron bullet expanded,On its way, the iron bullet expanded, gripping the spiral rifling and spinning sogripping the spiral rifling and spinning so tightly along its course that its range andtightly along its course that its range and accuracy were greatly increased, withaccuracy were greatly increased, with fewer misfires. The effective range of afewer misfires. The effective range of a minié bullet was from 200 to 250 yards, aminié bullet was from 200 to 250 yards, a huge improvement on earlier ammunition.huge improvement on earlier ammunition.
    •  Amputation of a woundedAmputation of a wounded arm or leg was the mostarm or leg was the most common operation, duecommon operation, due largely to the .58 caliberlargely to the .58 caliber Minie ball ammunition usedMinie ball ammunition used during the war. This heavyduring the war. This heavy conical-shaped bullet ofconical-shaped bullet of soft lead distorted onsoft lead distorted on impact causing large,impact causing large, gaping wounds filled withgaping wounds filled with dirt and pieces of clothing.dirt and pieces of clothing. Its heavy weight shatteredIts heavy weight shattered any bone it contacted.any bone it contacted. Because of the severity ofBecause of the severity of the wounds and thethe wounds and the overwhelming case load,overwhelming case load, surgeons usually electedsurgeons usually elected for fast and easyfor fast and easy amputation over trying toamputation over trying to remove the bullet and saveremove the bullet and save the limb.the limb.