Civil war symptoms

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  • 1. The Civil War Symptoms
  • 2. 1. 1619 - FIRST SLAVES IN AMERICA  As Southern Plantations grew, so did the demand for slaves in the south. Africans were brought to America against their will.  Why was it a symptom? Economic Differences: the N’s industrial economy did not need slaves while the S’s farming economy did. By the Rev War, 1 in 5 Americans were black & 90% lived in the S. Opinions about slavery emerge.
  • 3. 2. 1787 - SLAVERY PROHIBITED IN NORTHWEST TERRITORY  The NW Ordinance outlawed slavery in Ohio, MI, IN, IL, WIS, & Minn. The N had more people so it controlled the House of Reps. The balance of power in the Senate was equal. The S would need more slave states to keep power in the Senate.  Why was it a symptom? State Rights: the South did not want a powerful federal government because it was afraid it was going to lose power in Congress. It was afraid the N would control both the House and Senate.
  • 4. 3. BY 1800 - SLAVERY ABOLISHED IN NORTH  The N’s industrial economy did not need slaves. It used immigrants as cheap labor.  Why was it a symptom? Economic Differences: the N could get rid of slavery b/c its economy did not need slaves. The S's economy did. The S was nervous the N would want to abolish slavery throughout the whole US.
  • 5. 4. 1793 - FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT  This act was made during the Const. Conv. & allowed runaways to be arrested and returned no matter where they were.  Why was it a symptom? State's Rights: the N will use this act as a compromise in getting more free states. In order to have harsher punishments for runaways, the S will have to allow more free states, threatening the S's power in Congress.
  • 6. 5. 1808 - SLAVE TRADE ABOLISHED  Delegates at the Const. Conv. agreed to abolish the slave trade in 1808.  Why was it a symptom? Economic Differences: the S wanted the slave trade to continue b/c they needed slaves. They saw this as one step toward ending slavery.
  • 7. 6. 1820 - MISSOURI COMPROMISE  Missouri wanted to become a slave state in 1820. This would upset the 11/11 balance in the Senate. Henry Clay made a comp: Missouri = slave state & Maine = free state & slavery would be outlawed in the top 1/2 of the LA territory. The Senate was now balanced at 12 free/12 slave states.  Why was it a symptom? State Rights: S can't lose power in the Senate and begins leaning harder towards state rights. The S is upset at the new free territory.
  • 8. 7. 1828 - ECONOMIC DIFFERENCES  S= Farming Economy / N = Industrial Economy (they make things).  Why was it a symptom? Economic Differences: The N and the S have different ideas on the future of the US economy. The N wants an industrial economy; the S a farm econ. Their differences are driving them apart.
  • 9. Checking for Understanding What role did slavery have in the formation of the United States? How did the issue of slavery divide the North and South?
  • 10. 8. 1831 - NAT TURNER’S REVOLT  Nat Turner was a slave who led a violent revolt in Virginia. The S believed that people in the N were encouraging revolts.  Why was it a symptom? Fanatics: Southerners were afraid more slaves would revolt. They also believed the N encouraged these fanatics.
  • 11. 9. 1833 – S. CAROLINA NULLIFICATION  S Carolina believed any state could nullify or refuse to enforce a federal law. In 1833, S Carolina nullified or refused to follow a federal law on tariffs (import taxes). Andrew Jackson & Henry Clay came up with a compromise: the N lowers the tariffs and the S agrees they can’t nullify federal laws.  Why was it a symptom? State Rights & Economic Differences: Import taxes were good for the N b/c they made things; they did not need to buy things from other countries like the S. The S hates tariffs believes they should be able to nullify laws.
  • 12. 10. 1840 - ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENT /UNDERGROUND RR  The movement demanded an immediate end to slavery. The U.R. was made up of 3000 blacks and whites guiding slaves to freedom. (1780- 1865).  Why was it a symptom? Slavery: The S felt the N and its Abolitionist Movement were intentionally helping slaves escape (likened to stealing their property.)
  • 13. 11. 1835-36 TEXAS INDEPENDENCE • In early 1836: over 100 Texans die during a 12 day battle at the Alamo. There Texans declare their independence from Mexico. 1838: Mexico grants Texas its independence. • Why was it a symptom? State Rights: Texas wants to join the U.S.; the S wants Texas to join the union. Texas allows slavery = more power for the S. The N. objects. S says Texas should have the right to choose slavery. Texas becomes a slave state.
  • 14. 12. 1848-49- WAR WITH MEXICO/CAL GOLD RUSH • The U.S. won the war w/ Mexico in 1848. Civil War Generals got their war experience here. The U.S. gets Texas, AZ, CA, NM, NV, Utah, and part of Colorado for $10 million. The N feared slavery in the new terr. David Wilmot wrote a bill called the “Wilmot Proviso” to outlaw slavery in all lands won by Mexico. • Why was it a symptom? State Rights: the Proviso outraged the S. S believed states have the right to choose slavery or not. Bill failed in the Senate. S victory.
  • 15. 13. 1850 - COMPROMISE OF 1850 • The 1849 Gold Rush populated CA quickly. CA had enough people to become a state in 1 year. Would CA be free? Henry Clay & Stephen Douglas made a compromise: CA = free/ Utah & NM = decide themselves; the Fug Slave Act would be strengthened while slavery outlawed in D.C. • Why was it a symptom? State Rights: S power in the Senate again threatened. S fully supports state rights.
  • 16. 14. 1852 - UNCLE TOM’S CABIN • Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote about the evils of slavery in her book called Uncle Tom’s Cabin. • Why was it a symptom? Slavery: N increases their hatred for slavery; S considered the book an insult to their way of life.
  • 17. 15. 1854 - KANSAS/NEBRASKA ACT • KS & Neb were free territories through the Miss Comp. The N wants the Transcontinental RR built through the N. Stephen Douglas offers a deal called the Kansas/Nebraska Act: KS & Neb would get to decide the issue of slavery themselves and the N would get the RR built in the N. • Why was it a symptom? State Rights: Neb = free state. A small civil war breaks out in KS over whether or not it will allow slavery.
  • 18. 16. 1856 – BLEEDING KANSAS • KS would have elected to be a free state, but citizens from Missouri (border ruffians) crashed the election and the results were in favor of slavery. KS set up two state governments. • Why was it a symptom? Civil war broke out. John Brown leads a raid against pro-slavery forces. Kansas becomes known as “Bleeding Kansas.”
  • 19. 17. 1854 – BIRTH OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY • The Republican Party was created in 1854 after the Kansas/Neb Act. It was backed by Abolitionists; it favored a strong Federal governement and it opposed slavery in the territories. To gain power, it will need a leader. • Why was it a symptom? Slavery: The S fears this party not only b/c it favors a strong fed gov, but also b/c it is against slavery in the territories. Fears it might also want to abolish slavery in the US.
  • 20. 18. 1857 - DRED SCOTT DECISION • Scott was a slave who sued for his freedom on the grounds that he was free b/c his master took him to free territory and state. He lost. Chief Justice Taney said he did not have the right to sue b/c he was black &, therefore, not a citizen of the US. He also said slaves were property no matter where they were in the US. • Why was it a symptom? Slavery: Taney’s decision made all “free” territory in the US illegal on the grounds that it prevented citizens from having their property.
  • 21. 19. 1858 – LINCOLN/DOUGLAS DEBATES • 1858: Illinois Senate Race: Senator Stephen Douglas. Lincoln runs against him and loses. However, he makes his name by debating Douglas on slavery. “A house divided against itself cannot stand.” • Why was it a symptom? Slavery: The Republicans (abolitionists) need a candidate for President in 1860. They pick Lincoln.
  • 22. 20. 1859 - JOHN BROWN’S RAID • 1859: Brown planned attack at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. He wanted to take the weapons, arm slaves, & together they would free slaves in VA and the rest of the S. • Why was it a symptom? Fanatics: N considered him a hero. S believed the Republican Party supported people like Brown. The S threatened secession and started to prepare for war.
  • 23. NOVEMBER 1860: Presidential Election/7 Southern States Secede • Lincoln, the Republican candidate for President, won all free states except part of New Jersey. Democrats broke into 2 groups: N Democrats supported Stephen Douglas & S Democrats supported John Breckenridge. John Bell ran for the Constitutional Union Party. Lincoln won. The S was horrified a Rep was President.
  • 24. FEBRUARY 4, 1861: The Confederate States of America (CSA) • Soon after Lincoln’s election, S Carolina’s legislature called for a state convention. On December 20, S Carolina seceded from the union. By February 1, 1861, 6 states had joined S Carolina: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. On Feb 4, they met in Montgomery, Alabama and created the CSA. They elected Jefferson Davis their President.
  • 25. MARCH 4, 1861: Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address • March 4, 1861 – Lincoln was inaugurated in Washington D.C. He promised to “preserve, protect, and defend the Union.” Several tense weeks followed. The country was heading for war.