In General…• Gender inequality in India.• Members of the society tend to put high value on males. • High Masculinity• Indians marriage are usually planned by their parents which they could only abide.• A man is allowed to remarry or initiate divorce, but not a woman
GREETINGS AND GIFTS• Always greet the eldest or most senior person first.• When leaving a group, each person must be bid farewell individually.• Yellow, green and red are lucky colors.
• Hindus should not be given gifts made of leather.• Muslims should not be given gifts made of pigskin or alcoholic products.• Gifts are not opened when received.
DINING• No beef, no pork, no alcohol.• People in India generally eat with their hands (Right).• Start eating as soon as food arrives.• Some food left on the plate= satisfied + had enough food.• No food is left = you are still hungry.
Take note!• Always take off your shoes before entering the house.• Wait to be told where to sit.• Dress modestly and conservatively.• Politely turn down the first offer of tea, coffee, or snacks. Saying no to the first invitation is part of the protocol.
COMMUNICATION Indians thinks that rejecting offers is rude and offensive.• Indians are highly family-oriented.• However there are seldom handshakes between men and woman due to religious beliefs. If you are uncertain, wait for them to extend their hand.
Addressing Use titles to address them ◦ E.g. “Dr Pandian, Miss Chandra” Approach and greet the most senior figure first. „Getting to know you process. ◦ Cricket, latest business news ◦ Avoid sensitive issues
Handshake Short and light, not firm, handshake Shake hands with women at their initiatives Namaste ◦ In the absence of handshake
Business Card Must exchange after the initial handshake and greeting Use the right hand to give and receive business cards. Present your business card so the recipient may read the card
Negotiations Be patient and show good character NEVER express anger or frustration Be polite
Never appear overly legalistic during negotiations Expect concessions in both price and terms.
Criticisms and disagreements should be expressed only with the most diplomatic language. Indians prefer to have long-standing personal relationships prior to doing business ◦ Trust and respect
Decision-making They use intuition, feeling and faith to guide them. Decisions are reached by the person with the most authority. Decision making is a slow process.
Successful negotiations are often celebrated by a meal.
Workforce Norms• Family Oriented/Filial Piety• British Raj Cultural Trait• High Power Distance• Time consideration• Consultation
Family Oriented• Family takes precedence• High-ranking positions in company are usually taken by family membersBritish Raj Cultural Trait• English is the language used in the business world.• Mixed with Indian dialects and Hindi• Speakers of Indian English tend to increase volume when they want recognition
Time Consideration• Businessmen expected to be punctual• Buffer time must be allocated for travelling as transport are not punctualConsultation• Used only in the legal, technology and marketing industry.• Viewed as cost inefficient• Hired only when government provides grants for their hire
High Power Distance• Value opinion of superiors highly• Believes that superiors are always right• Accept decisions according to position of power and not quality of decisionHierarchical• Strictly followed
Recommended Management Style Autocratic management style (I want you to... style)
“Need to knows” by managers...• Negotiations are slow• Multi-tasking• Inductive approach
Who to bring?Jane John IndiaLow power High power High powerdistance distance distanceLow High Lowuncertainty uncertainty uncertaintyavoidance avoidance avoidanceHigh context Low context High contextPolychronic Monochronic Polychronic
Jane, age 26 Reasons: • Low Uncertainty Avoidance • High Context • Polychronic
Some other helpful facts…. Shaking head is a "yes" for the Indians instead for a "no“ Do not walk over books and paper Do not use the same hand for eating and also for taking food from a common dish on the dining table.
Homosexual relations for men are also illegal in India ,according to Section 377 of the National Legislation. Indians are conservative and hence should abstain physical contact among different gender.