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Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
Plant morphology
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Plant morphology

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  • 1. Plant Morphology
    By
    Jacob Thomas
  • 2.
  • 3. Plants have three basic organs: roots, stems, and leaves
    Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 4. ROOT
    Root is a non-green, underground, descending portion of the plant axis
    Develops from radicle
  • 5.
  • 6. Characteristics of root
    Descending part
    Negatively phototrophic
    Non-green
    Root cap /root pockets
    Unicellular root hair
    No nodes
    Lateral roots Endogenously
  • 7. Regions of typical root
    Root cap – mucigel to lubricate
    Zone of cell division
    Zone of elongation
    Zone of root hair or absorption
    Zone of maturation or differentiation
  • 8. Functions of root
    Anchorage
    Absorption
    Conduction of water & minerals
    Transport of nutrients
  • 9. Types of root system
    Tap root system
    Roots develops, usually from the radicle of an embryo of seed is called tap root & the system is called tap root system.
    2. Fibrous Root System
    The roots which develop from any other part of the plant except the radicle is called adventitious root and this system is called adventitious or fibrous root system.
    eg. Monocot plants
  • 10. Tap root system
    Fibrous root System
  • 11. Modifications of root for storage
    Conical roots
    eg. Carrot
    (Daucuscarota)
  • 12. Modifications of root for storage
    b) Fusiform roots
    eg. Radish
    (Raphanussativus)
  • 13. Modifications of root for storage
    c) Napiform roots
    eg. Beet
    (Beta vulgaris)
  • 14. Modifications of root for mechanical support
    Epiphytic roots
    • clinging roots
    • 15. Hanging roots -
    velamen tissue
    • Absorbing roots
    eg. Orchids
  • 16. Modifications of root for mechanical support
    Stilt roots
    eg.
    Maize,
    Jowar,
    Sugarcane
  • 17. Modifications of root for Physiological functions
    Pneumatophores or
    Breathing roots
    eg.
    Avicennia,
    Rhizophora,
    Sonneratia
  • 18. Modifications of root for Physiological functions
    Parasitic roots / Haustoria / Sucking roots
    eg.
    Total parasite – Cuscuta
    Partial - Loranthus
  • 19. Stem
    Stem is the ascending axis of a plant and develops from the plumule and epicotyle of the embryo
    Node
    Shoot system
    Internode
  • 20. Characteristics of stem
    • Terminal bud for growth
    • 21. Ascending axis
    • 22. Developing from plumule & epicotyle
    • 23. Phototrophic
    • 24. Nodes & internodes
    • 25. Branches & leaves exogenous
    • 26. Multicellular hair
    • 27. Bears flowers & fruits
  • BUDS
    Young underdeveloped shoot consisting of a shoot apex, compressed axis and a number of tender leaves arching over the growing apex
  • 28. BUDS
    Vegetative buds
    Grow to only leafy shoot
  • 29. BUDS
    Apical bud
    Axillary Bud
    Mixed Buds
    Produce both vegetative & floral branches
    Borne at the apex of main branch
    Occur in theaxis of leaf
  • 30. Modifications of stem
    The structural and functional change in the normal form and structure of the stem due to change in normal function of the stem is called modification of the stem
  • 31. 1. Underground stem Modifications
    Herbaceous plants to overcome unfavorable season
    Examples
    Root stock
    Rhizome
    • Perennial stem of the plant grows below soil surface.
    • 32. Fleshy due to storage of food
    • 33. Nodes, internodes, scaly leaves, axillary buds, & adventitious roots
    Straggling rhizome
  • 34. Bulb
    • Stem underground, disc like, small & modified and reduced
    • 35. Convex / conical , compressed internodes
    • 36. Nodes bear fleshy scales
    • 37. Leaves in concentric
    • 38. Axillary buds
    • 39. Adventitious roots
  • Bulb
    Tunicated bulb
    (scaly leaves covering fleshy leaves in concentric)
    Scaly or naked bulb
    No covering / overlap one another
    Tulip
  • 40. Tuber
    The tuber stores starch as reserve food material
  • 41. Corm
    • Fleshy underground round stem
    • 42. Buds at nodes
    • 43. Adventitious roots
    • 44. Food storage
  • 2. Sub-aerial modifications
    • Delicate stem unable to stand erect
    A. Runner
    Oxalis
    Oxalis
    Doob grass
  • 45. 2. Sub-aerial modifications
    B. Stolon
    Fern
    Nepenthes
  • 46. 3. Aerial modification
    A. Tendril
    • weak stem
    • 47. Requires support
    • 48. Axillary buds  spring like tendrils
    • 49. Sensitive to touch
    • 50. Coil around
    • 51. Support to climb up
    • 52. Expose leaves to sunlight
    Passiflora
    Apical bud  tendril
    Cucumber
    Extra axillary bud
    Grapes
  • 53. 3. Aerial modification
    B. Thorn
    • Xerophytic plants
    • 54. Vascular connections with stem
    • 55. Axillary branches  hard sharp pointed thorns
    • 56. Protects from animals
    • 57. Reduces transpiration & desiccation
    Citrus
    Bougainvillea
    Duranta
  • 58. 3. Aerial modification
    C. Phylloclade
    • Xerophytic plants
    • 59. Leaves
    • 60. stem flat green phylloclade
    • 61. Check the rate of transpiration
    Opuntia
  • 62. 3. Aerial modification
    D. Cladode
    • Xerophytic plants
    • 63. Modification of stem & branches of limited growth
    • 64. Phylloclade with one or two internodes  Cladode
    Asparagus  needle like, slightly flattened, green, appear in clusters in the axil of a scaly leaf
    Ruscus looks like leaf. Develops from axil of a scaly leaf. Bearing floral bud
    Asparagus
  • 65. 3. Aerial modification
    E. Bulbil
    • Axillary Bud / vegetative bud  large & fleshy due to storage of food
    Helps in vegetative Reproduction
    Dioscorea
    Allium
    Agave
  • 66. Functions
    Primary
    Secondary
  • Leaf Structure
    A leaf is held away from its stem by a stem-like appendage called a petiole.
    The base of the petiole is attached to the stem at a node.
    The blade is the expanded thin structure on either side of the midrib and is usually the largest, most conspicuous part of a leaf
  • 76. Leaf Parts
    The cuticle is part of the epidermis
    It produces a waxy layer called cutin, which protects the leaf from dehydration and disease.
    On the top and bottom is a layer of thick, tough cells called the epidermis. Its primary function is to protect the other layers of leaf tissue.
  • 77. Leaf Parts Continued
    Special epidermal cells called guard cells open and close in response to environmental stimuli, such as changes in weather and light.
    They regulate the passage of water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide into and out of the leaf through tiny openings called stomata.
    Located between the upper and lower epidermis is the mesophyll.
    Located within the mesophyll cells are chloroplasts, where photosynthesis takes place.
  • 78. BUDS
    • A bud is an undeveloped shoot from which embryonic leaves or flower parts arise
    • 79. A leaf budiscomposed of a short stem with embryonic leaves
    • 80. A flower bud is composed of a short stem with embryonic flower parts.
    • 81. Buds are named for the location they inhabit on the stem surface.
    • 82. Enlarged buds or parts of buds form the edible portion of some horticultural crops

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