Biotechnology Application of scientific and engineering principles for the processing of materials in industrial process to provide goods and services.
Genetic Engineering - makes it possible, through an integrated application of knowledge and techniques of biochemistry, microbiology, genetics and chemical engineering, to draw benefit at the technological level from the properties and capacities of microorganisms and cell culture . Biotechnology
Biotechnology Application potential - agriculture, antibiotics, vitamins, vaccines, dairy industries, fermented products like alcoholic & nonalcoholic beverages, production of biogas, sewage treatment plants, bio-fertilizers, tissue culture, genetic engineering, etc.
- Fundamental unit of heredity.
On chromosome in linear fashion. Locus – position of gene.
r ibo n ucleic a cid 4 bases A = U = C = G = 3 major types of RNA messenger RNA (mRNA); template for protein synthesis transfer RNA (tRNA); adaptor molecules that decode the genetic code ribosomal RNA (rRNA); catalyzing the synthesis of proteins C 5 H 10 O 5 A denine U racil C ytosine G uanine Pyrimidine (C 4 N 2 H 4 ) Purine (C 5 N 4 H 4 ) Nucleoside Nucleotide base + sugar (ribose) base + sugar + phosphate RNA RNA structure Thymine (DNA) Uracil (RNA)
Base interactions in RNA Base pairing: U/A/(T) (2 hydrogen bonds) G/C (3 hydrogen bonds) RNA base composition: A + G = U + C / Chargaff’s rule does not apply (RNA usually prevails as single strand) RNA structure: - usually single stranded - many self-complementary regions RNA commonly exhibits an intricate secondary structure (relatively short, double helical segments alternated with single stranded regions) - complex tertiary interactions fold the RNA in its final three dimensional form - the folded RNA molecule is stabilized by interactions (e.g. hydrogen bonds and base stacking)
Linear, single, longest
Syntheiszed in nucleus
Triplets codons amino acid
The sequence of codon mRNA language / cryptogram/ genetic code
Initiation AUG at 5’ end methionine
Termination codon UAA, UAG or UGA
Function – carries message
Found in ribosome
Synthesized in nucleolus
Function : 1. proper binding site to mRNA on ribosome
2. oriented in such a way to read by tRNA easily
3. release of tRNA after unload
tRNA / sRNA
tRNA / sRNA
Due to early cell differentiation, genetic transformation in animals must occur in the early embryo stage following the union of sex cells
This is accomplished by using microinjection, to randomly inject DNA into the fertilized call
Microinjection- is the injection of materials directly into cells using a small glass pipette.
Genetic Engineering of Animals
The process of creating transgenetic animals involves three major steps:
Culturing and transferring zygotes
Transgenetic integration- is expressed by the animal of that desired trait.