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  1. 1. History Of Manchester And Computers Computers have been on something of a miraculous journey since the Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM) or Baby ran its first program in Manchester in 1948.21 June 1948 – Baby runs the worlds first stored program, effectively becoming theworld’s first computer. Developed by Frederic C. Williams and Tom Kilburn, thecomputer was 5.2m long x 2.2m high, weighed one tonne and had less computingpower than a modern calculator; one operation could take up to 25 minutes
  2. 2. 1951 - The first commercial computer, the Ferranti MARK I is now 1951 – Christopher Strachey functional at the University of Manchester programs the first computer- generated music, using the 1954 – the first high level programming languages are used by John Manchester Mark 1 to play God Save The Queen Backus and IBM in the US (FORTRAN or formula translation) and Tony Brooker in Manchester (the Mark 1 Autocode) 1958 – The integrated circuit or chip is invented by Americans Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce, which allows the size and cost of computers to begin to decrease (Kilby won the Nobel Prize in physics in 2000 for the invention of the chip)February 1962 - SpaceWar!, the first computer game is released1964 - Douglas Engelbart makes the first computer mouse so called because, as Engelbart explained, "thetail came out the end"October 1965 - In Manchester, the University forms the Department of Computer Science and anundergraduate course in Computer Science, the first of its kind, begins1969 – ARPAnet, a forerunner of the Internet, is invented as a US military device. ARPAnet would also sendthe first email in 1971A 1983 Atari home computer1970 – the DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) chip takes the place of the original integratedcircuit. Coupled with the invention of the microprocessor the following year in 1971, the push towardssmaller computers truly begins1971 –the production of the first floppy disc, allowing for transport of info from one computer to another1972 - the compact disc is invented in the United States, though it is many years before it takes over fromthe floppy disc as the standard portable format for computers1972 - Magnavox releases the first home video game console, the Magnavox Odyssey, invented by RalphH. Baer
  3. 3. March 1974 – the first PC (personal computer) is released, though it would be threemore years until they were truly available as home computersOsborne 1, the first luggable computer1979 – the first word processing software is released1981 – MS-DOS, the Microsoft Operating System, is available to the public for the firsttime, making PCs easier to use1982 – the first luggable computer is introduced. While being physically unlike alaptop, the small and portable nature of the luggable computer would lead to theinvention of the less clumsy laptop1990 - Tim Berners-Lee proposes a hypertext system, allowing for the invention ofthe Internet as we know it today
  4. 4. 10 September 1990 - Archie, the first Internet search engine, is introduced6 August 1991 - The World Wide Web is launched to the public by Tim Berners-Lee, who developed it as a research tool1995 – the first social networking websites begin to appear, with a leading one,, focusing on ties with former school mates1997 – IBMs Deep Blue computer defeats world champion chess player Garry Kasparov, becoming the first machineto win a chess game against a reigning world champion1998 – The University of Manchester celebrates 50 years of computing in the city by rebuilding of the originalSmall-Scale Experimental Machine of 1948 and running newly-written programs on itPart of the IBM Roadrunner1998 – the first mp3 player is introduced, sparking a revolution in the music industry which would see downloaded music outsell physical formats 2008 – the world’s fastest computer, the IBM Roadrunner at US Department of Energys National Nuclear Security Administration, performs 10,000,000,000,000,000 operations per second. The supercomputer is made up of 296 racks of hardware and occupies approximately 550 square meters
  5. 5. Manchester unitedThe full name for this club is Manchester united, this clubwas founded in the year 1878 it was founded as NewtonHeath LYR F.C.The owners for this club now Glazer family. The ground theunited play own is called old Trafford which can fit up to 75,765.The manager for the club is Sir Alex Ferguson. Manchesterunited have won 19 Premier League titles which making themthe most successful team in the Premier League. Also they havewon 3 Champions league titles. This here is the current team for Manchester united.
  6. 6. Manchester unitedThis here is a chart which show the progress thatManchester united have done over the years. football is a very competitive sport and teams canhave many rivals for Man united there most rivalledteam is Manchester City.
  7. 7. Manchester united Manchester United has won many trophies in English football, including a record 19 league titles, a record 11 FA Cups, four League Cups and a record 19 FA Community Shields. The club has also won three European Cups, one UEFA Cup Winners Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one Intercontinental Cup and one FIFA Club World Cup. In 1998–99, the club won a Treble of the Premier League, the FA Cup and the UEFA Champions League, an unprecedented feat for an English club.The current manager, Sir AlexFerguson, has won 24 majorhonours since he took over inNovember 1986. Making himone of the best managers in theworld today.
  8. 8. Football and Goal-line technologyIn association football, goal-line technology is atechnology which determines when the ball hascompletely crossed the goal line, assisting thereferee in calling a goal or not. In the wake ofcontroversial calls made in the Premier League,2010 World Cup and the Euro 2012, FIFA(previously against the technology) is testingpotential candidates for goal-line technology. Ninesystems were initially tested, but only two remain.Using this technology its all mostlike using the tennis technology. Asshown in the image below. By doingthis It can help the football game tobecome much more better
  9. 9. Football and Goal-line technologyProduced by a German company Carios Technologies AG, alongside Adidas, the GLT systemused a magnetic field to track a ball with a sensor suspended inside. Thin cables withelectrical current running through them are buried in the penalty box and behind the goal lineto make a grid. The sensor measures the magnetic grids and relays the data to a computerwhich determines if the ball has crossed the line or not. If the ball does cross the line a radiosignal is sent to the referee’s watch within a second. Adidas designed a ball that couldsuspend and keep a sensor safe and intact even when the ball is struck with great force. Alsothe use for this technology Cairos claims the process is practically instantaneous, addressing criticsconcerns that the technology might slow down the game. An older system developed by Cairos wastrialled at the 2005 FIFA U-17 World Championship, but was found not to be fast or accurate enough.