The capability to recover from some disk-related errors automatically, which FAT32 cannot.
Improved support for larger hard disks.
Better security because you can use permissions and encryption to restrict access to specific files to approved users.
Quick format
Quick format is a formatting option that creates a new file table on a hard disk but does not fully overwrite or erase the disk. A quick format is much faster than a normal format, which fully erases any existing data on the hard disk.
A partition is an area of a hard disk that can be formatted and assigned a drive letter.
The terms partition and volume are often used interchangeably.
Your system partition is typically labeled with the letter C.
Letters A and B are reserved for removable drives or floppy disk drives.
How is a letter converted to binary form and back?
Step 2. An electronic signal for the capital letter D is sent to the system unit. Step 3. The signal for the capital letter D is converted to its ASCII binary code (01000100) and is stored in memory for processing. Step 1. The user presses the capital letter D (shift+D key) on the keyboard. Step 4. After processing, the binary code for the capital letter D is converted to an image, and displayed on the output device.
Different coding schemes are used like BCD, EBCDIC, ANSI.
E.g.
In EBCDIC letter “a” is represented by
10000001
In ASCII letter “a” is represented by
01100001
The standard ASCII code uses now 8-bit to represent 255 symbols including upper-case letters, lower-case letters, special control codes, numeric digits & certain punctuation symbols.
A numbering system defined as “A set of values used to represent quantity.”
e.g.
The number of students attending class, the number of subjects taken per student and also use numbers to represent grades achieved by students in class.
In early days, human being counted on fingers, stones, pebbles or sticks were used to indicate values.
This method of counting an additive approach or the non-positional number system.
In this system, symbols such as I, II, III, IV etc.
POSITIONAL NUMBERING SYSTEM
In positional number system, there are only few symbols called digits, and these symbols represent different values depending on the position they occupy in the number.
11.
Types of Positional Number Systems No No 0, 1, … 9, A, B, … F 16 Hexa-decimal No No 0, 1, … 7 8 Octal Yes No 0, 1 2 Binary No Yes 0, 1, … 9 10 Decimal Used in computers? Used by humans? Symbols Base System
The binary number system uses two digits to represent numbers, the values are 0 & 1. This numbering system is sometime called the Base 2 numbering system. (0,1) 2
“ BI nary digi T ” is often referred to by the common abbreviation BIT . Thus, a “bit” in a computer terminology means either a 0 or a 1.
This number system is natural to an electronic machines or devices as their mechanism based on the OFF or ON switching of the circuits.
Therefore, 0 represent the OFF & 1 represent ON state of the circuit.
The hexadecimal number system has 16-digits or symbols (hexa means six & decimal means 10 so sum is sixteen) are (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F) 16 , so it has the base 16.
This system uses numerical values from 0 to 9 & alphabets from A to F.
Alphabets A to F represent decimal numbers from 10 to 15.
Types of Positional Numbering System (Cont’d)
16.
Binary Number System Base (Radix) 2 Digits 0, 1 e.g. 1110 2 The digit 1 in the third position from the right represents the value 4 and the digit 1 in the fourth position from the right represents the value 8. 1 8=2 3 1 1 0 4=2 2 2=2 1 1=2 0
17.
Decimal Number System Base (Radix) 10 Digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 e.g. 7475 10 The magnitude represented by a digit is decided by the position of the digit within the number. For example the digit 7 in the left-most position of 7475 counts for 7000 and the digit 7 in the second position from the right counts for 70. 7 1000 100 4 7 5 1 10
18.
Octal Number System Base (Radix) 8 Digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 e.g. 1623 8 The digit 2 in the second position from the right represents the value 16 and the digit 1 in the fourth position from the right represents the value 512. 1 512=8 3 6 64=8 2 2 8=8 1 3 1=8 0
19.
Hexadecimal Number System Base (Radix) 16 Digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F e.g. 2F4D 16 The digit F in the third position from the right represents the value 3840 and the digit D in the first position from the right represents the value 1. 2 4096=16 3 F 256=16 2 4 16=16 1 D 1=16 0
T tera 10 12 G giga 10 9 M mega 10 6 k kilo 10 3 m milli 10 -3 micro 10 -6 n nano 10 -9 p pico 10 -12 Symbol Preface Power 1000000000000 1000000000 1000000 1000 .001 .000001 .000000001 .000000000001 Value
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