Hashim Khan BBA (Hons) IMStudies University of Peshawar
 
<ul><li>Steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply Obtained Marks with 100 </li></ul><ul><li>Divide the resulting product from step...
Data Information Process
 
Figure 1.1  Input-process-output
Information Data
Instruction Keys Data  Keys
<ul><li>Data is a collection of raw facts, figures and symbols, such as numbers, words, images, video and sound, given to ...
<ul><li>Data that have meaning within a context </li></ul><ul><li>Data in relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Data after manip...
<ul><li>Data Manipulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: customer survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading through da...
 
<ul><li>A computer is an  electronic device , operating under the control of instructions (software) stored in its own mem...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>Entertainment-games-DVD’s, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>World Wide Web and the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Business data ...
<ul><li>Distance learning </li></ul><ul><li>Speech recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation-air traffic </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Speed (Fast) </li></ul><ul><li>Storage (store huge amounts of data) </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>All computer processing requires  data , which is a collection of raw facts, figures and symbols, such as numbers,...
<ul><li>It must be given a detailed list of instructions, called a  compute program  or  software , that tells it exactly ...
 
<ul><li>Information Technology is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based ...
<ul><li>Computers for Individual User </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop Computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workstations </li...
 
 
<ul><li>The most common type of computer </li></ul><ul><li>Sits on the desk or floor </li></ul><ul><li>Performs a variety ...
<ul><li>Specialized computers </li></ul><ul><li>Optimized for science or graphics </li></ul><ul><li>More powerful than a d...
<ul><li>Small portable computers </li></ul><ul><li>Weighs between 3 and 8 pounds </li></ul><ul><li>About 8 ½ by 11 inches ...
<ul><li>Newest development in portable computers </li></ul><ul><li>Input is through a pen </li></ul><ul><li>Run specialize...
 
<ul><li>Very small computers </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) </li></ul><ul><li>Note taking or contact ...
<ul><li>Hybrid of cell phone and PDA </li></ul><ul><li>Web surfing, email access </li></ul>
 
<ul><li>Used in large organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Handle thousands of users </li></ul><ul><li>Users access through a t...
<ul><li>Called midrange computers </li></ul><ul><li>Power between mainframe and desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Handle hundreds ...
 
<ul><li>Centralized computer </li></ul><ul><li>All other computers connect </li></ul><ul><li>Provides access to network re...
<ul><li>The most powerful computers made </li></ul><ul><li>Handle large and complex calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Process...
<ul><li>Computers can perform four general operations, which comprise the information processing cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Computer systems have four parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul...
<ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical devices in the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anything that can be ...
<ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pieces of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer organize and present data </l...
 
<ul><li>Computers use the same basic hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware categorized into four types </li></ul>
 
 
<ul><li>Brain of the computer </li></ul><ul><li>Carries out instructions from the program </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulate the...
<ul><li>Stores data or programs </li></ul><ul><li>Random Access Memory (RAM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatile </li></ul></ul...
<ul><li>Hold data and programs permanently </li></ul><ul><li>Different from RAM </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic storage </li></...
 
3.5” 5.25”
 
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>Input and output devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the user to interact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input device...
<ul><li>Tells the computer what to do </li></ul><ul><li>Reason people purchase computers </li></ul><ul><li>Two types </li>...
<ul><li>System software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system </li></u...
<ul><li>Application software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplishes a specific task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common typ...
<ul><li>Fact with no meaning on its own </li></ul><ul><li>Stored using the binary number system </li></ul><ul><li>Data can...
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Infotech

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  • Teaching tip Figure 1A.1 on page 4 shows a traditional desktop PC and a “tower” model. Insider information System units are commonly called cases. Many computer enthusiasts customize or ‘mod’ their cases with windows and lights. See www.casemodgod.com for examples of cases and products. Sun Microsystems makes the most popular workstations on the planet. Sun’s systems are used in diverse applications such as medical imaging and CGI (computer generated image) animation.
  • Discussion point Have students contrast desktop and notebook computers. Focus on the pros and cons of each type of computer.
  • Teaching tip The tablet PC was designed to simulate a piece of paper. Users interact with the tablet as if it was an unlimited paper notebook. For more information See www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/tabletpc/evaluation/tours/default.mspx for an example of the Tablet PC in action.
  • Insider information There are two main types of handheld computers: Palm and Pocket PC computers. Palm versions use a customized operating system that is similar to an older Macintosh. Compatibility to computers can be tricky. Pocket PC versions use a version of Windows XP. Pocket PC versions usually include versions of Word and Excel that synchronize nicely with their full size cousins. Discussion point Find a features list of a current smart phone. Have students discuss whether the feature list is too large or too small. Be sure to help the students flesh out the learning curve and complexity of the device. Teaching tip At this point, refer the students to the productivity tip on page 13. This tip helps the student determine what type of PC is best for them.
  • Teaching tip A computer server is often analogous to a waiter (server) in a restaurant. Each client asks the waiter (server) for something. The server then delivers it to the client
  • Teaching tip Students have a hard time understanding trillions of calculations. A simple explanation is to add 1 trillion random numbers together in a second. Contrast the speed of a super computer to the fastest desktop computer advertised during the week of class.
  • Teaching tip The interaction between a CPU and secondary processors is much like the interaction between a boss and subordinate. The boss tells the subordinate what to do but not necessarily how to accomplish the task. The subordinate only bothers the boss when guidance or more data is needed.
  • Insider information Intel, the manufacturer of popular CPUs, originally made RAM for mainframe and minicomputers. Today Kingston is a leading RAM manufacturer.
  • Teaching tip Figure 1A.21 on page 15 shows examples of data versus information.
  • Infotech

    1. 1. Hashim Khan BBA (Hons) IMStudies University of Peshawar
    2. 3. <ul><li>Steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply Obtained Marks with 100 </li></ul><ul><li>Divide the resulting product from step 1 by 1100 </li></ul>
    3. 4. Data Information Process
    4. 6. Figure 1.1 Input-process-output
    5. 7. Information Data
    6. 8. Instruction Keys Data Keys
    7. 9. <ul><li>Data is a collection of raw facts, figures and symbols, such as numbers, words, images, video and sound, given to the computer during the input phase. </li></ul><ul><li>A “given,” or fact; a number, a statement, or a picture </li></ul><ul><li>Represents something in the real world </li></ul><ul><li>The raw materials in the production of information </li></ul>
    8. 10. <ul><li>Data that have meaning within a context </li></ul><ul><li>Data in relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Data after manipulation </li></ul>
    9. 11. <ul><li>Data Manipulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: customer survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading through data collected from a customer survey with questions in various categories would be time-consuming and not very helpful. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When manipulated, the surveys may provide useful information. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 13. <ul><li>A computer is an electronic device , operating under the control of instructions (software) stored in its own memory unit, that can accept data (input), manipulate data (process), and produce information (output) from the processing. Generally, the term is used to describe a collection of devices that function together as a system. </li></ul>
    11. 22. <ul><li>Entertainment-games-DVD’s, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>World Wide Web and the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Business data </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail and e-commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Digital libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Automobiles/trucks/hybrid cars, ABS brakes, night vision drivers </li></ul>
    12. 23. <ul><li>Distance learning </li></ul><ul><li>Speech recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation-air traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Crime fighting-crime reports, records, analysis, database fingerprints,etc </li></ul><ul><li>Health and medicine, MRI, patient monitoring devices, microprocessors, pacemakers, distance surgery, device to control surgeons shaking, computerized gene mapping, protein modeling, telemedicine </li></ul><ul><li>Tools for disabled </li></ul><ul><li>Smart thing sensors </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing paper loss </li></ul>
    13. 24. <ul><li>Speed (Fast) </li></ul><ul><li>Storage (store huge amounts of data) </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Automation </li></ul><ul><li>Convenience </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to communicate with other computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Computers cannot think </li></ul>
    14. 25. <ul><li>All computer processing requires data , which is a collection of raw facts, figures and symbols, such as numbers, words, images, video and sound, given to the computer during the input phase. </li></ul><ul><li>Computers manipulate data to create information. Information is data that is organized, meaningful, and useful. </li></ul><ul><li>During the output Phase, the information that has been created is put into some form, such as a printed report. </li></ul><ul><li>The information can also be put in computer storage for future use. </li></ul>
    15. 26. <ul><li>It must be given a detailed list of instructions, called a compute program or software , that tells it exactly what to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Before processing a specific job, the computer program corresponding to that job must be stored in memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the program is stored in memory the compute can start the operation by executing the program instructions one after the other. </li></ul>
    16. 28. <ul><li>Information Technology is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of computers and other electronic means to access and process large quantities of data. </li></ul>
    17. 29. <ul><li>Computers for Individual User </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop Computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workstations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notebook Computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tablet Computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handheld Computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wearable Computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computers for Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainframe Computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mini Computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Super Computers </li></ul></ul>
    18. 32. <ul><li>The most common type of computer </li></ul><ul><li>Sits on the desk or floor </li></ul><ul><li>Performs a variety of tasks </li></ul>
    19. 33. <ul><li>Specialized computers </li></ul><ul><li>Optimized for science or graphics </li></ul><ul><li>More powerful than a desktop </li></ul>
    20. 34. <ul><li>Small portable computers </li></ul><ul><li>Weighs between 3 and 8 pounds </li></ul><ul><li>About 8 ½ by 11 inches </li></ul><ul><li>Typically as powerful as a desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Can include a docking station </li></ul>
    21. 35. <ul><li>Newest development in portable computers </li></ul><ul><li>Input is through a pen </li></ul><ul><li>Run specialized versions of office products </li></ul>
    22. 37. <ul><li>Very small computers </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) </li></ul><ul><li>Note taking or contact management </li></ul><ul><li>Data can synchronize with a desktop </li></ul>
    23. 38. <ul><li>Hybrid of cell phone and PDA </li></ul><ul><li>Web surfing, email access </li></ul>
    24. 40. <ul><li>Used in large organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Handle thousands of users </li></ul><ul><li>Users access through a terminal </li></ul>1A-
    25. 41. <ul><li>Called midrange computers </li></ul><ul><li>Power between mainframe and desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Handle hundreds of users </li></ul><ul><li>Used in smaller organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Users access through a terminal </li></ul>
    26. 43. <ul><li>Centralized computer </li></ul><ul><li>All other computers connect </li></ul><ul><li>Provides access to network resources </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple servers are called server farms </li></ul><ul><li>Often simply a powerful desktop </li></ul>
    27. 44. <ul><li>The most powerful computers made </li></ul><ul><li>Handle large and complex calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Process trillions of operations per second </li></ul><ul><li>Found in research organizations </li></ul>
    28. 45. <ul><li>Computers can perform four general operations, which comprise the information processing cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul>
    29. 46. <ul><li>Computer systems have four parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User </li></ul></ul>
    30. 47. <ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical devices in the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anything that can be touched </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell the computer what to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called a program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thousands of programs exist </li></ul></ul>
    31. 48. <ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pieces of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer organize and present data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People operating the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell the computer what to do </li></ul></ul>
    32. 50. <ul><li>Computers use the same basic hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware categorized into four types </li></ul>
    33. 53. <ul><li>Brain of the computer </li></ul><ul><li>Carries out instructions from the program </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulate the data </li></ul><ul><li>Most computers have several processors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Processing Unit (CPU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary processors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processors made of silicon and copper </li></ul>
    34. 54. <ul><li>Stores data or programs </li></ul><ul><li>Random Access Memory (RAM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores current data and programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More RAM results in a faster system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Read Only Memory (ROM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent storage of programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds the computer boot directions </li></ul></ul>
    35. 55. <ul><li>Hold data and programs permanently </li></ul><ul><li>Different from RAM </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floppy and hard drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a magnet to access data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optical storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD and DVD drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a laser to access data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solid State Storage </li></ul>
    36. 57. 3.5” 5.25”
    37. 63. <ul><li>Input and output devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the user to interact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input devices accept data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard, mouse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output devices deliver data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor, printer, speakers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some devices are input and output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Touch screens </li></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 64. <ul><li>Tells the computer what to do </li></ul><ul><li>Reason people purchase computers </li></ul><ul><li>Two types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application software </li></ul></ul>
    39. 65. <ul><li>System software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network operating system (OS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Server 2003 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symantec AntiVirus </li></ul></ul></ul>1A-
    40. 66. <ul><li>Application software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplishes a specific task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common type of software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MS Word </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers most common uses of computers </li></ul></ul>
    41. 67. <ul><li>Fact with no meaning on its own </li></ul><ul><li>Stored using the binary number system </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be organized into files </li></ul>

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