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o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  b e h a v i o r e l e v e n t h  e d i t i o n
What Is Organizational Behavior Chapter One
After studying this chapter, you should be able to: <ul><li>Define organizational behavior (OB). </li></ul><ul><li>Describ...
After studying this chapter, you should be able to: <ul><li>Describe why managers require a knowledge of OB. </li></ul><ul...
What Managers Do <ul><li>Managerial Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Make decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Allocate resources </li>...
Where Managers Work Organization A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on ...
Management Functions Management Functions Planning Organizing Leading Controlling
Management Functions (cont’d) Planning A process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans...
Management Functions (cont’d) Organizing Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be...
Management Functions (cont’d) Leading A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most ...
Management Functions (cont’d) Controlling Monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and corre...
Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles E X H I B I T  1 –1 Source:  Adapted from  The Nature of Managerial Work  by H. Mintzberg. Co...
Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d) E X H I B I T  1 –1 (cont’d) Source:  Adapted from  The Nature of Managerial Work  b...
Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d) E X H I B I T  1 –1 (cont’d) Source:  Adapted from  The Nature of Managerial Work  b...
Management Skills Technical skills The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. Human skills The ability to wo...
Effective Versus Successful Managerial Activities (Luthans) <ul><li>Traditional management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision ...
Allocation of Activities by Time E X H I B I T  1 – 2 Source:  Based on F. Luthans, R.M. Hodgetts, and S.A. Rosenkrantz,  ...
Enter Organizational Behavior Organizational behavior (OB) A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals,...
Replacing Intuition with Systematic Study Systematic study Looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and ef...
Replacing Intuition with Systematic Study The Facts Preconceived Notions ≠
Toward an OB Discipline E X H I B I T  1 –3
Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field E X H I B I T  1 –3 (cont’d) Psychology The science that seeks to measure, explai...
Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) E X H I B I T  1 –3 (cont’d) Sociology The study of people in relation t...
Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) E X H I B I T  1 –3 (cont’d) Social Psychology An area within psychology...
Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) E X H I B I T  1 –3 (cont’d) Anthropology The study of societies to lear...
Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) E X H I B I T  1 –3 (cont’d) Political Science The study of the behavior...
E X H I B I T  1 –4 Source:  Drawing by Handelsman in  The New Yorker , Copyright © 1986 by the New Yorker Magazine. Repri...
There Are Few Absolutes in OB Contingency Variables x y Contingency variables Situational factors: variables that moderate...
Challenges and Opportunities for OB <ul><li>Responding to Globalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased foreign assignment...
Major Workforce Diversity Categories Domestic Partners Race Non-Christian National Origin Age Disability E X H I B I T  1 ...
Challenges and Opportunities for OB (cont’d) <ul><li>Improving Quality and Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality mana...
What Is Quality Management? <ul><li>Intense focus on the customer. </li></ul><ul><li>Concern for continuous improvement.  ...
Improving Quality and Productivity <ul><li>Quality management (QM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The constant attainment of custom...
Challenges and Opportunity for OB (cont’d) <ul><li>Improving People Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Empowering People </li></ul><...
Basic OB Model, Stage I E X H I B I T  1 –7 Model An abstraction of reality. A simplified representation of some real-worl...
The Dependent Variables Dependent variable A response that is affected by an independent variable. x y
The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Productivity A performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency. Effectiven...
The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Absenteeism The failure to report to work. Turnover The voluntary and involuntary permane...
The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) Discretionary behavior that is not part of an e...
The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Job satisfaction A general attitude toward one’s job, the difference between the amount o...
The Independent Variables Independent Variables Independent variable The presumed cause of some change in the dependent va...
Basic OB Model, Stage II E X H I B I T  1 –8
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Transcript of "Chapter 1 what is organizational behaviour"

  1. 1. o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r e l e v e n t h e d i t i o n
  2. 2. What Is Organizational Behavior Chapter One
  3. 3. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: <ul><li>Define organizational behavior (OB). </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what managers do. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the value of the systematic study of OB. </li></ul><ul><li>List the major challenges and opportunities for managers to use OB concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the contributions made by major behavioral science disciplines to OB. </li></ul>L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S
  4. 4. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: <ul><li>Describe why managers require a knowledge of OB. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the need for a contingency approach to the study of OB. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the three levels of analysis in this book’s OB model. </li></ul>L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S (cont’d)
  5. 5. What Managers Do <ul><li>Managerial Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Make decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Allocate resources </li></ul><ul><li>Direct activities of others to attain goals </li></ul>Managers (or administrators ) Individuals who achieve goals through other people.
  6. 6. Where Managers Work Organization A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
  7. 7. Management Functions Management Functions Planning Organizing Leading Controlling
  8. 8. Management Functions (cont’d) Planning A process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities.
  9. 9. Management Functions (cont’d) Organizing Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.
  10. 10. Management Functions (cont’d) Leading A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts.
  11. 11. Management Functions (cont’d) Controlling Monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations.
  12. 12. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles E X H I B I T 1 –1 Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright © 1973 by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education.
  13. 13. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1 –1 (cont’d) Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright © 1973 by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education.
  14. 14. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1 –1 (cont’d) Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright © 1973 by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education.
  15. 15. Management Skills Technical skills The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. Human skills The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups. Conceptual Skills The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations.
  16. 16. Effective Versus Successful Managerial Activities (Luthans) <ul><li>Traditional management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision making, planning, and controlling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchanging routine information and processing paperwork </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human resource management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing, and training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socializing, politicking, and interacting with others </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Allocation of Activities by Time E X H I B I T 1 – 2 Source: Based on F. Luthans, R.M. Hodgetts, and S.A. Rosenkrantz, Real Managers (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1988).
  18. 18. Enter Organizational Behavior Organizational behavior (OB) A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.
  19. 19. Replacing Intuition with Systematic Study Systematic study Looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence. Provides a means to predict behaviors. Intuition A feeling not necessarily supported by research.
  20. 20. Replacing Intuition with Systematic Study The Facts Preconceived Notions ≠
  21. 21. Toward an OB Discipline E X H I B I T 1 –3
  22. 22. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field E X H I B I T 1 –3 (cont’d) Psychology The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.
  23. 23. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1 –3 (cont’d) Sociology The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.
  24. 24. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1 –3 (cont’d) Social Psychology An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another.
  25. 25. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1 –3 (cont’d) Anthropology The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.
  26. 26. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1 –3 (cont’d) Political Science The study of the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment.
  27. 27. E X H I B I T 1 –4 Source: Drawing by Handelsman in The New Yorker , Copyright © 1986 by the New Yorker Magazine. Reprinted by permission.
  28. 28. There Are Few Absolutes in OB Contingency Variables x y Contingency variables Situational factors: variables that moderate the relationship between two or more other variables and improve the correlation.
  29. 29. Challenges and Opportunities for OB <ul><li>Responding to Globalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased foreign assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working with people from different cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coping with anti-capitalism backlash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managing Workforce Diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embracing diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing U.S. demographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implications for managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing and responding to differences </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Major Workforce Diversity Categories Domestic Partners Race Non-Christian National Origin Age Disability E X H I B I T 1 –5 Gender
  31. 31. Challenges and Opportunities for OB (cont’d) <ul><li>Improving Quality and Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality management (QM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process reengineering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responding to the Labor Shortage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing work force demographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer skilled laborers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early retirements and older workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improving Customer Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased expectation of service quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer-responsive cultures </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. What Is Quality Management? <ul><li>Intense focus on the customer. </li></ul><ul><li>Concern for continuous improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement in the quality of everything the organization does. </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate measurement. </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment of employees. </li></ul>E X H I B I T 1 –6
  33. 33. Improving Quality and Productivity <ul><li>Quality management (QM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The constant attainment of customer satisfaction through the continuous improvement of all organizational processes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires employees to rethink what they do and become more involved in workplace decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process reengineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asks managers to reconsider how work would be done and their organization structured if they were starting over. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of making incremental changes in processes, reengineering involves evaluating every process in terms of its contribution. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Challenges and Opportunity for OB (cont’d) <ul><li>Improving People Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Empowering People </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulating Innovation and Change </li></ul><ul><li>Coping with “Temporariness” </li></ul><ul><li>Working in Networked Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Helping Employees Balance Work/Life Conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Improving Ethical Behavior </li></ul>
  35. 35. Basic OB Model, Stage I E X H I B I T 1 –7 Model An abstraction of reality. A simplified representation of some real-world phenomenon.
  36. 36. The Dependent Variables Dependent variable A response that is affected by an independent variable. x y
  37. 37. The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Productivity A performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency. Effectiveness Achievement of goals. Efficiency The ratio of effective output to the input required to achieve it.
  38. 38. The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Absenteeism The failure to report to work. Turnover The voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization.
  39. 39. The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.
  40. 40. The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Job satisfaction A general attitude toward one’s job, the difference between the amount of reward workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive.
  41. 41. The Independent Variables Independent Variables Independent variable The presumed cause of some change in the dependent variable. Individual-Level Variables Organization System-Level Variables Group-Level Variables
  42. 42. Basic OB Model, Stage II E X H I B I T 1 –8
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