This period was the hardest era of all where it started from the 1740’s late and went till the 1900 century here the new innovative ideas were usually discouraged and no new market adventure was fascinated The era was much likely to be the one where people used to be product orientated no steps were taken to make the customer happy this era was the non attractive era where the person had to adjust him self to the product.
And the production used to be on small scale.Where outcome were just oriented to get profitAnd the law and order use to effect the product and its customer.
Here the people got advanced and the era improved by some level although it was still not that working idea but did changed the concept.This era was from 1910 to 1950’sIn this era due to some wars and other effects the entrepreneurs took the problem in hand and started the production instead of making and the industrial era started and every person interested in making some products on large scale to meet the needs of its costumer.
Here although the product was not customer orientated but the customer will put a great importance and in this era the entrepreneurs start to excel some knowledge of how to make profit and started an efficient way of earning profit
In this era when the production took command and started taking an important role in making of the economies.This era is more customer orientated rather then product or profit. The era started in 1960 till now and in this era the production took command and the welfare and profit was affected by the customer this hypothesis was realized and used and this produced the real profit
2nd presentation the history and the study of the entrepreneurship in the historical logic
EntrepreneurshipTopic: The History andthe study of theEntrepreneurship in theHistorical logic
Serial no content1 Entrepreneurship, what is entrepreneurship, approaches, and basic history2 Kinds of approaches, the neo classic approach and the classic approach.3 School of thoughts and the different ways its is defined4 Era’s of entrepreneurship, the different decision of entrepreneurship
Entrepreneur• The starter of the business• The initiator• The launcher• The risk taker• The renewal• The economic developer• The country driver
Entrepreneur• An entrepreneur (i/ˌ ɒntrəprəˌ is an owner or nɜr) manager of a business enterprise who makes money through risk and initiative. The term was originally a loan word from French and was first defined by the Irish-French economist Richard Cantillon.
Cont’d• Jean-Baptiste Says, a French economist, is believed to have coined the word "entrepreneur" in the 19th century - he defined an entrepreneur as "one who undertakes an enterprise, especially a contractor, acting as intermediately between capital and labor
Cont’d• Cantillon recognizes in his economic system three types of agents:• Landowners (capitalists)• entrepreneurs (initiators)• hirelings (wage workers)
some great entrepreneurs Steve Jobs the initiator of the apple I-phones etcThe micro soft Ingvar Kampradentrepreneur one of the leadingearning the brands in thehighest money wood plys hisin the world business is now allBill Gates over the world and is a MNB
The Entrepreneurship• 18th century French writer, Bernard F. de Belidor, who defines entrepreneurship as buying labour and materials at uncertain prices and selling the resultant product at contracted prices.
Cont’d• Entrepreneurship as a concept entered the economic literature mainly through the writings of Richard Cantillon (1680-1734) whose Essai Sur la Naiuredu Commerce en General, published in 1755
Cont’d• According to Cantillon, it is the entrepreneur’s reaction to price movements that continuously brings about a tentative balance between supply and demand in specific markets. A distinguishing feature of Cantillon’s analysis was his emphasis on ’risk’
Cont’d• For a long time, there was no equivalent to the term ’entrepreneur’ in the English language. Three words were commonly used to connote the sense the French term carried: adventurer, undertaker and projector. They were used interchangeably and lacked the precision and characteristic of a scientific expression.
approaches The are two approaches.1. Classic Economic approach2. Neo classic Economic approach
Classic economic approaches• By the middle of the l8th century new forms of production, social relations, governance and social thought began to emerge.• it is commonly believed to have coincided with the publication of Adam Smith’s Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations ( 1776) which set the trend for economic analysis and theorizing in the 18th century• Smith strangely silent about the entrepreneurial function in the economy.
Cont’d• Smith simply fails to distinguish the entrepreneur from other industrious people of economy• This non treatment of entrepreneurship by smith set the trend for later economists.• Like ricardo who assumed that capitalist act rationally in seeking to maximize profits but fail to explain the risk involved in investing
Cont’d• The break with the smithian tradition came about with the publication of his “defence of usuary” by jeremy bentham.• Bentham point out that how laws against usury limit the overall capital for investment and how these laws move away foreign money from domestic capital markets• Jean Beptiste Say , a french economist also made some important contribution.
• Writers in Germany, too, made a theoretical distinction between the entrepreneur and the capitalist• Thunen came to the limelight following his seminal contribution to location theory in his celebrated work The Isolated State (1850). He clearly distinguished the return to the entrepreneur from that to the capitalist. ’Entrepreneurial gain’ in Thunen’s view is profit less (i) interest on invested capital, (ii) insurance against business losses and (iii) the wages of management.
Cont’d• Thunen also highlighted the differences between management and entrepreneurship.
Neo classic economic approach• This new era focuses its attention on equilibrium results rather than economic processes• Casson (1982/2003, p. 23) the entrepreneur is someone who “specializes in taking judgmental decisions about the coordination of scarce resources”. because of the characteristics of the real world listed above,• entrepreneurs will differ in decisions and actions. The essence of entrepreneurship is therefore about doing things differently.
Cont’d• As long as opportunities for improved coordination and innovation exist entrepreneurial services will be socially valuable.• Trying to synthesize all this, we will settle on the following definition of entrepreneurship (partly adapted from Wennekers and Thurik 1999): the ability and willingness of individuals, both on their own and within organizations to:• (i) innovate, i.e. perceive and create new economic opportunities;• (ii) face uncertainty, i.e. introduce their ideas in the market, by making decisions on location, form and use of the resources and institutions.
Austrian school of thought(iii) manage their business by competing with others for a share of that market.SCHUMPETERIAN MODEL• The man who brought the entrepreneur to center stage was Schumpeter• He was born in austria• Schumpeter expresses his views in his “theory of economic development” which was publish in 1911.• Schumpeter succeded in integrating the dynamics of technology with business enterprise.
• He conceptualized the equilibrium process, where the production is invariant and factors substitution possible within the limits of known technological horizen.• The agent who disturb this stationary system and lead the economic system to new direction is entrepreneur• Schumpeter refined the role of the entrepreneur in economic theory as an endogenous force in the economy.
Neo austrian school• ISRAEL KIRZNER• Kirzner has emerged in recent years as the most brilliant exponent of neo Austrian school.• He says that equilibrium is a state in which each decision correctly anticipate all other decisions.• He says that the essence of entrepreneurship consist of the alertness in market participants to market opportunities.• According to kirzner , the entrepreneur is a person who discover the opportunity at low prices and sell them at high prices.• By ignoring and concept of risk , kirzner theory cannot explain entrepreneur losses.
• Here we will not attempt to account for every author that has somehow addressed the issue, but rather to provide a systematic survey of the more representative contributions of a given idea of entrepreneurship• In our survey we have identified three crucial attributes of entrepreneurs• that have been stressed in the more substantive modeling efforts: (i) they are (generally speaking) “more talented”, (ii) they have greater tolerance towards risk-bearing and (iii) they are innovators (either as individuals or as firms involved in R&D activities).
The era of the entrepreneurship Prehistoric Era Economics base era Multidisciplinary era
Economic erafrom 1910 to 1950’s , starting ofentrepreneur eraWorking Ideas changed the concept People got advanced, Industry formed, large scale production Entrepreneurs got efficient way to make profit, Every person took interest
Cont’d• Non Customer oriented product• Great importance on customer• Entrepreneurs excel knowledge to make profit• Efficiency
Multidisciplinary era•customer took command•making of the economies.•This era is more customer orientated rather then product or profit.•The era started in 1960 till now•welfare and profit was affected by the customer•this hypothesis was realized and used and this produced the real profit
Cont’d• The factories production was made according to the will of the customer and that really worked efficiently• Large Scale Production• Technological Advancement
ExampleThe charsadawal chapal:1. Pre historic era: They were first produced in a small amount by some shoe maker and used to make the 6 to 20 pairs per month.2. Economic Era: Then it was used to do some production in later times and started to produce the 20 to 40 pairs
Cont’dNow its taking a whole some of manufacturingconcept and now started to make 200 to 300 pairs
PresentersSami Ur RehmanSikandar WadoodHashim Khan