Processor Management

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Processor Management

  1. 1. A PRESENTATION ON MICROPROCESSORS… MADE BY AMANJYOTI
  2. 2. Main Components Of A CPU <ul><li>1. Arithmetic Logic Unit </li></ul><ul><li>2. Control Unit </li></ul><ul><li>3. Registers </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Arithmetic Logic Unit <ul><li>it performs arithmetic which includes addition, subtraction,ETC and logical operations which includes compare numbers,ETC. </li></ul><ul><li>Accumolator is the place where the answers are stored temporarily before being put out to the computer's memory </li></ul><ul><li>while registers hold data on which operations are to be performed by the ALU. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Control Unit: <ul><li>Its function is to directs the entire computer system to carry out stored program instructions by communicating with ALU and register.  </li></ul><ul><li>The CU uses instructions contained in Instruction register in order to decide which circuit needs to be activated. </li></ul><ul><li>program counter keeps track of which program instruction comes next. </li></ul>
  5. 5. REGISTER <ul><li>These are special, high-speed storage area within the Central processing unit. </li></ul><ul><li>The data must be represented in a register before it can be processed </li></ul><ul><li>The number of registers that a CPU has and the size of each (number of bits) help determine the power and speed of a CPU i.e. 32-bit CPU is one in which each register is 32 bits wide . Therefore, each CPU instruction can manipulate 32 bits of data. </li></ul>
  6. 6. SOME REGISTERS COMMON TO ALL COMPUTERS… <ul><li>MEMMORY ADDRESS(MAR)- Holds address of active memory location. </li></ul><ul><li>MEMMORY BUFFER(MBR)- Holds info. On its way to and from memory. </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM CONTROL(PCR)- Holds address of next instruction to be executed. </li></ul><ul><li>ACCUMULATOR(AR)- Accumulate results and data to be operated upon. </li></ul><ul><li>INSTRUCTION (IR)- Holds an instruction while it is being executed. </li></ul><ul><li>INPUT/OUTPUT(I/O R)- Communicate with input output devices. </li></ul>
  7. 7. INSTRUCTION SET <ul><li>Every CPU has built-in ability to execute a set of machine instructions called its instruction set. </li></ul><ul><li>Most CPU has 200 or more instructions(such as add,subtract,compare) </li></ul><ul><li>Machine language programs of one computer not run on another computer with diff. CPU. </li></ul><ul><li>Now a days manufacturing strategy is BACKWARD COMPATIBILITY(inst. Of predecessor CPU+new one) </li></ul>
  8. 8. PROCESSOR SPEED <ul><li>CU and ALU perform operations at incredible speed,and these are usually synchronized by a built-in electronic clock.( system clock ) </li></ul><ul><li>System clock emits millions of regularly spaced electric pulse per second known as CLOCK CYCLE. </li></ul><ul><li>One cycle is the time it take to perform one operation such as moving a byte of data from one memory location to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter the clock cycle faster the processor. </li></ul><ul><li>UNITS of clock speed-MHzGHz,Millions of instructions per sec.(MIPS) </li></ul>
  9. 9. TYPES OF PROCESSORS <ul><li>CISC(complex instruction set computer) </li></ul><ul><li>More instructions on instruction set of CPU to insure that CPU support more functions directly. </li></ul><ul><li>This adds more complexity 2 CPU hardware circuitry. </li></ul><ul><li>Make job of programmer easier but become complex and expensive to produce. </li></ul><ul><li>Most PCs of 2day use CISC processors. </li></ul><ul><li>RISC(reduced instruction set computer) </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity of CPU reduced greatly by implementing only basic and frequently used instructions on instruction set in the hardware circuitry,and rest of can be use by using softwares. </li></ul><ul><li>processors become simpler, fast and less expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Job of programmer get increased to implement complex instruction by making it simpler one. </li></ul><ul><li>Used in early 1980’s </li></ul>
  10. 10. COMMONLY USED PROCESSORS …. <ul><li>INTEL PENTIUM SERIES. </li></ul><ul><li>CYRIX </li></ul><ul><li>CELERON </li></ul><ul><li>XEON </li></ul><ul><li>AMD </li></ul><ul><li>MAC CPUs…..ETC…. </li></ul>

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