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TERN Supersites and Carbon Monitoring_Mike Liddell
 

TERN Supersites and Carbon Monitoring_Mike Liddell

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  • The ASN is a network of ecosystem monitoring plots in different biomes around Australia. This network sits within TERN - Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
  • TERN was created in 2009 by the Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research (DIISR) via a $20m funding program through the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and $4.1m from the Queensland State Government.  An additional $25.63m was provided to TERN in 2011 as part of an additional funding allocation from the Australian Government under the Education Investment Fund (EIF) Super Science Initiative. Further funding and in-kind contributions have been received from numerous other partners.There are 15 facilities within TERN.Some facilities will provide snapshot data or mapping data products, while others provide long term recurrent monitoring of biodiversity and/or biogeochemistry data products.
  • The Australian Supersite Network (ASN), a facility of TERN collects a wide range of ecosystem data from 10 Supersites. - located in a wide range of different and significant biomes. Ranging from tropical rainforest in FNQ to peri-urban environment of outer Brisbane, various Ecualyptus forests, Mallee, Mulga, savanna and Mediterranean woodlands
  • ML Diverse biomes and vegetation types : rangelands, open and closed forests
  • Consistent monitoring protocols Long term recurrent monitoringIntensive monitoring of biogeochemistry, weather, soils, fauna, vegetation, floristicsNetwork approach should allow challenging questions to be answered at a continental and eventually a global scale
  • Calperum flux tower
  • Calperum flux tower
  • Calperum flux tower
  • What does the C, N, P stocks
  • Alstoniascholaris AGB equation.Robson Core 1Ha: 266 vascular plant species. 
  • Suzanne ProberTERN-EIF and DEC funded.Linked into the SWATT transect.
  • Total C = Total biomass (AGB + root) – here estimated from Jonson and Freudenberger (2011) A. J. Bot. 59:639-652.assumed 50% C in total biomass for estimation of Total C. Used 0.723 * total biomass = AGBKoolyanobbing is closest BOM station at 265mm MAPStems – 15 in salmon gumGimlet – 33 stems E. salubris and E. salmonophoia
  • 25% is a value from the paper that Suzanne used for allometrics – it is mid-range14% is the value from Warra for the E. obliqua
  • DEEDI and TERN-EIF funded.Cape Tribulation node running for 14 years as an intensive LTERHerbert River Ringtail
  • Our core hectare has 266 vascular plant species.  Our  AGB is made up of 424 Mg/ha in living wood (>1cm DBH) and 30 Mg/ha in CWD.  Total = 454 Mg/ha = 218 Mg/ha C. Our core hectare has 948 stems, and the mean across 25 ha is 936.Just in case, here is my estimate of total Carbon on our one hectare core plot.The above ground biomass to below ground biomass ratio in the Amazon is about 0.14 (Lima et.al 2012).  For our core hectare this equates to approx 60 Mg/ha biomass = 29 Mg/ha CUsed same ratio for the DRO plot equates to approx 37 Mg/ha biomass = 18Mg/ha CBased on past Tableland studies (Laffan 1988), the soil organic Carbon for rainforest is approx 120 Mg/ha for the whole soil profile.So the total estimated Carbon for a hectare at robson is  367 Mg/ha, assuming 48% C in total biomass in all estimations.
  • The black lines are biomass for the whole hectare and the blue lines are the individual subplots. The message is that biomass should be measured in larger units (hectare and multiple hectares) as the smaller units result in too much error. In fact, we calculate that about 4 hectares should be measured to get within an acceptable probability of the true value. The mean and SD shown are for the hectare units.The smaller size class was calculated on a full survey of two hectares (not hectare 6) which is extrapolated to all other hectares.CWD was done on the core hectare.
  • Tim WardlawTERN-EIF and Forestry Tasfunded.Forestry Tas, Utas. Longest running intensive LTER site in Australia – 19 years
  • HistiopterisincisaDicksoniaantarcticaBlechnumwattsiiBlechnumnudumHymenophyllumGahniagrandisCoprosma quadrifidaMonotocaglaucaPomaderrisapetalaPittosporum bicolourMelaleuca ericifoliaAnopterisglandulosaAcacia melanoxylonAtherospermamoschatumNothofaguscunninghamiiEucalyptus obliquaTasmannialanceolataPolystichumproliferumAcacia verticellataTaking roots as 14% of AGB. Nearby 1 ha plot measured by Gemma Woldendorp (TAS 2 in Woldendorp et al. 2004. Forest Ecology & Management, 198: 133-148) of 1235.7 m3/ha. This volume will be overwhelmingly dominated by E. obliqua so we can estimate of the carbon in the CWD fraction as an additional 349 Mg/ha.oXimines' paper This sampled 44 E. obliqua from the aggregated retention harvesting used for allometrics.738 living trees 81 dead trees (but 1100 stems/ha Ausplots forest nearby)
  • TERN-EIF fundedSilvicultural trials.Aggregated Retention (ARN) Harv = harvested area. AGG = unharvested area in ARN. CON = Control. vs CBS – clearfell, burn, sow of old-growth Euc. Obliqua forestThe key story from the aggregated retention harvest is that it is the only silvicultural operation that is able to support an ongoing supply into the future of large logs from mature trees to provide habitat for saproxyxlic beetles WITHIN harvest coupes. The prescriptions call for 30% or more of the potential harvest area to be retained. The aim is still to remove as much of the slash from the harvest area as possible, which is more difficult to do with the slow surface burn method (compared with a high intensity burn that is safe to use on a conventional clearfell coupe).The future role of aggregated retention is in a bit of a cloud given the forest agreement just struck by the greens and industry which leaves very little headroom for additional in-coupe retention if contracted harvest volumes are to be met.
  • TERN-EIF fundedSilvicultural trials.Aggregated Retention (ARN) Harv = harvested area. AGG = unharvested area in ARN. CON = Control. vs CBS – clearfell, burn, sow of old-growth Euc. Obliqua forestThe key story from the aggregated retention harvest is that it is the only silvicultural operation that is able to support an ongoing supply into the future of large logs from mature trees to provide habitat for saproxyxlic beetles WITHIN harvest coupes. The prescriptions call for 30% or more of the potential harvest area to be retained. The aim is still to remove as much of the slash from the harvest area as possible, which is more difficult to do with the slow surface burn method (compared with a high intensity burn that is safe to use on a conventional clearfell coupe).The future role of aggregated retention is in a bit of a cloud given the forest agreement just struck by the greens and industry which leaves very little headroom for additional in-coupe retention if contracted harvest volumes are to be met.

TERN Supersites and Carbon Monitoring_Mike Liddell TERN Supersites and Carbon Monitoring_Mike Liddell Presentation Transcript

  • TERN Supersites and Carbon Monitoring Presentation by: Mike Liddell, Matt Bradford, Tim Wardlaw, Suzanne Prober
  • Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network What is TERN ? TERN is a research infrastructure investment by the federal government and state governments. TERN has been through 2 rounds of funding to date and is heading into the future with a potential further round of funding. NCRIS-Mark II (and CRIS).
  • FNQ Rainforest SEQ Peri-urban Cumberland Plain Tumbarumba Wet Eucalypt Victorian Dry Eucalypt Warra Tall Eucalypt Calperum Mallee Alice Mulga Litchfield Savanna Great Western Woodland The Australian Supersite Network Biogeochemical Observatories
  • What is a TERN Supersite? 1) An intensive field station in a typical and important biome 2) Physical instrumentation 3) Scientists and technical support staff 4) Transect(s) or Contrasts (10- 400km) Core activities Vegetation plot 1 Ha – field monitoring Plant physiological and soil/water measurements Faunal monitoring – field and sensor monitoring Data / Web portal - linked to TERN portal and ANDS OzFlux system – biogeochemical fluxes, microclimate
  • CARBON MONITORING There are 4 areas where the Supersites contribute to carbon monitoring across the wider TERN network : 1) Providing baseline measures from core 1Ha plots TERN Supersites 2) Link to carbon dynamics at the flux footprint scale TERN Ozflux 3) Link high resolution field data to remote sensing TERN Auscover 4) Linking field measurements to modelling of the carbon (and water) cycles. TERN eMAST
  • TERN Ozflux Each Supersite hosts an Ozflux tower – OzFlux This eddy covariance instrumentation provides measurements on the 30 minute EC fluxes from a footprint around the flux tower. Key fluxes are CO2, H2O (latent) and sensible heat. Some flux towers are in addition carrying out ancillary flux measurements using on the ground GHG systems. Wombat uses an FT-IR based system. SEQ Periurban uses a GC based system.
  • TERN eMAST A team of plant ecophysiologists from ANU (Atkin, Keith et al) have been working at the Supersites to measure a comprehensive and directly comparable set of plant variables. This data will be used subsequently to inform the SVAT type modelling that is being undertaken in eMAST. Development models are being used to evaluate how to most effectively couple Australian plant response to climate and soil into higher level models such as CABLE and LPJ. Enhancing current estimates of both Australia’s and the global carbon balance.
  • TERN Auscover Each Supersite (Alice remains to be done) has had airborne campaigns collecting high resolution Lidar (10cm), hyperspectral and ground based Cal/Val measurements such as terrestrial laser scanning. The aim is to provide detailed 5km x 5km data sets to assist in biomass – carbon assessments. Which in turn can be used to calibrate satellite based products that are produced by Auscover as a national time series. The Supersites are providing the locations and the vegetation plots are assisting in cross comparison of biomass estimates
  • Summary of Supersite Vegetation Protocol Measurements Measure Priority & frequency in core 1 ha plot Vascular plant list * Essential, annual Voucher specimens Essential, at least one per specie, once only Quantitative abundance – floristics, bare ground, litter and woody debris Essential, annual, number of points as per AusPlots protocol in year 1 at least Woody plant DBH and height * Essential, annual for 5 - 10 years then c. 5 years Structural description Essential, once only Photopoints Essential, annual Phenocameras Essential, continuous Fruiting, flowering Desirable, c. monthly/4x/2x year Recruitment dynamics Desirable, annual C, N, P stocks 13C,15N, CHO Desirable, c. 4x/2x year Plant functional traits Desirable, once only
  • BIOMASS TO CARBON In the next section biomass to carbon estimates will be provided. Above Ground Biomass (AGB) is typically expressed as a function of diameter at breast height (D), in addition height and density are used where these are available. eg. AGB = exp{-5.014 + 3.068 ln(D)} AGB is then converted to %C. 1) Great Western Woodlands (GWW) – fire – Suzanne Prober (CSIRO) Arid Mediterranean, Mid-stature-Dry Mixed forest – Salmon Gum. 2) FNQ Rainforest – biodiversity – Matt Bradford (CSIRO) Warm Tropical, Mid-stature – wet rainforest. – Mixed species 3) Warra Tall Eucalypt – forestry – Tim Wardlaw (Forestry Tas) Cool Temperate, Tall-Wet Eucalypt forest – Mountain Ash.
  • Great Western Woodlands Supersite 16 million hectare mosaic of semi-arid woodland, heathland and mallee vegetation in south-west WA. Globally unique - nowhere else does woodlands persist on 250 mm MAP. “ Are old-growth semi-arid woodlands carbon sources or carbon sinks?” “Where do woodland trees source their water from?” Menzies line fragmented wheatbelt woodland, shrubland intact eucalypt woodland, shr ubland low acacia woodland (mulga)
  • Great Western Woodlands Supersite Credo Station node First vegetation type: Salmon gum woodland Core 1Ha vegetation plot established in 2012 Salmon Gum woodland. Proximity to flux tower. Above ground biomass (ton/ha) 35 Estimated total living biomass C (ton/ha) 24 Second vegetation type: Gimlet woodland 1Ha vegetation plot established in 2012. Above ground biomass (ton/ha) 33 Estimated total living biomass C (ton/ha) 23 Credo Station ~ 250mm MAP. Groundwater bores drilled in 2013. No water to bedrock (~ 50m)!
  • Great Western Woodlands Supersite The Supersite will be investigating the carbon/water dilemma. Just how do the eucalypts survive as a woodland with no groundwater and only 250mm of annual rainfall? Ecophysiology Future work will include studying the water relations of the individual species. Roots A much greater proportion of root biomass has been found in these dry adapted species in related areas. eg. 25% vs 14%
  • FNQ Tropical Rainforest Supersite 1) Robson Creek node Upland tropical rainforest 2) Daintree node Lowland tropical rainforest Major clines in • Altitude • Rainfall • Temperature Robson Creek Daintree Rainforest Observatory “What are the fundamental carbon & water stocks and flows in FNQ tropical forests and are these likely to change significantly in the future? “How does seasonal water availability relate to species distribution, growth and phenology?”
  • FNQ Rainforest Supersite Robson Creek node Core 1Ha vegetation plot established in 2012 Mixed species upland rainforest 266 species. Above ground biomass (ton/ha) 409 Estimated total living biomass C (ton/ha) 247 Robson 2000mm MAP. Daintree node Core 1Ha vegetation plot established in 2000 Above ground biomass (ton/ha) 270 Estimated total living biomass C (ton/ha) 148 DRO 5700mm MAP. Groundwater bores (3) drilled in 2008. near constant 10m water table. Carbon stocks are not reliant on ground water.
  • FNQ Rainforest Supersite 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Abovegroundbiomass(Mg/ha) Robson Creek Node – spatial variation in AGB ≥10 cm DBH Sampling unit (1 ha, 20 x 20 m) Mean = 402.0 ton/ha ± 56.9 SD CWD volume for core hectare is 87 m3. = 14 ton/ha C
  • Warra Tall Eucalypt Supersite Managed / Unmanaged Wet Eucalyptus obliqua forest “Understand fundamental ecological processes in E. obliqua wet forests” “Determine long-term effects of different forest management regimes on natural diversity and ecological processes”
  • Warra Supersite Warra 1Ha Core 1Ha vegetation plot established 2012-13 Mixed species wet temperate 19 species. Above ground biomass (ton/ha) 1205 Estimated total biomass C (ton/ha) 687 Warra 1650mm MAP. CWD volume in this forest 1236 m3. = 349 ton/ha C! Longest running Intensive LTER in Australia – 15 years. Ecosystem measurements used to inform management practice. WARRA Long Term Ecological Research 15900 ha World Heritage State Forest
  • Aggregated retention (ARN) has been adopted by Forestry Tasmania based on long term studies at the Warra Supersite (Warra LTER). • ARN has replaced CBS Clearfell, Burn and Sow. Supe rb Fairywre n 0 0 .2 0 .4 0 .6 ARNhar AGG CON Tasmanian Thornbill 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Crescent Honeyeater 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Pink Robin 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 ARNhar AGG CON ARNhar AGG CON ARNhar AGG CON Warra Supersite : Managing production native forests • In general the biodiversity outcomes of ARN are high. • The study of the ecological and carbon balance continues.
  • • Field work has been undertaken by a large number of scientists and support staff from around the country. • Funding for the infrastructure used in this research has been provided by DIISRTE and State governments. • This session aims to showcase how the TERN Supersites along with other TERN Facilities are able to contribute to Australia’s understanding of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS