Southeast Queensland Peri-Urban SupersiteInfluence of land use change on the catchmentwater balance and nutrient cycle of s...
Outline  1   Background  2   Project Aims  3   Study Area  4   Methods  5   Results  6   Overall Outcomes                 ...
Background    Project Aims     Study Area           Methods                 Results              Overall Outcomes Peri-Urb...
Background    Project Aims     Study Area           Methods                 Results              Overall Outcomes Peri-Urb...
Background            Project Aims   Study Area    Methods      Results     Overall Outcomes Project Aims             1   ...
Background   Project Aims        Study Area                        Methods                       Results                Ov...
Background        Project Aims         Study Area                Methods      Results                Overall Outcomes Stud...
Background     Project Aims        Study Area                  Methods                Results                Overall Outco...
Background                      Project Aims                Study Area              Methods              Results          ...
Background   Project Aims         Study Area       Methods       Results      Overall Outcomes Study Approach – Sample Col...
Background    Project Aims   Study Area   Methods        Results       Overall Outcomes Surface Water   Physico-chemistry ...
Background    Project Aims   Study Area   Methods        Results       Overall Outcomes Surface Water   Physico-chemistry ...
Background    Project Aims   Study Area   Methods        Results       Overall Outcomes Surface Water   Physico-chemistry ...
Background      Project Aims   Study Area      Methods        Results   Overall Outcomes Surface Water       Creek Dischar...
Background          Project Aims    Study Area   Methods        Results         Overall Outcomes Surface Water   Sampling ...
Background         Project Aims        Study Area         Methods           Results         Overall Outcomes Results – Phy...
Background   Project Aims             Study Area                   Methods              Results    Overall Outcomes Result...
Background                   Project Aims            Study Area             Methods             Results             Overal...
Background                   Project Aims            Study Area             Methods             Results             Overal...
Background        Project Aims   Study Area   Methods   Results   Overall Outcomes Typical Median Nutrient Concentration R...
Background          Project Aims         Study Area            Methods               Results          Overall Outcomes Nut...
Background       Project Aims   Study Area   Methods   Results   Overall Outcomes Flood 2013        Marcus recovers ISCO s...
Background                        Project Aims            Study Area         Methods          Results       Overall Outcom...
Background                 Project Aims            Study Area         Methods          Results       Overall Outcomes Tota...
Background   Project Aims         Study Area     Methods        Results   Overall Outcomes Catchment Hydrological Model   ...
Background          Project Aims   Study Area    Methods     Results     Overall Outcomes What is a hydrological model?   ...
Background      Project Aims   Study Area    Methods      Results      Overall Outcomes Model Selection      The SWAT mode...
Background      Project Aims   Study Area    Methods      Results      Overall Outcomes Model Selection      The SWAT mode...
Background      Project Aims   Study Area    Methods      Results      Overall Outcomes Model Selection      The SWAT mode...
Background           Project Aims            Study Area        Methods       Results             Overall Outcomes Approach...
Background         Project Aims         Study Area            Methods                  Results          Overall Outcomes M...
Background         Project Aims    Study Area            Methods                  Results          Overall Outcomes Model ...
Background         Project Aims    Study Area            Methods                  Results          Overall Outcomes Model ...
Background          Project Aims   Study Area   Methods      Results       Overall Outcomes Example Catchment Model       ...
Background          Project Aims   Study Area                Methods                 Results                         Overa...
Background          Project Aims    Study Area        Methods   Results   Overall Outcomes      Preliminary Outcomes      ...
Background          Project Aims    Study Area        Methods   Results   Overall Outcomes      Preliminary Outcomes      ...
AcknowledgementsAndy Steven and Geoff Carlin, CSIRO– Logan/Albert subnode of the SoutheastQueensland Peri-Urban Supersite
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Martin Labadz_Influence of land use change on the catchment water balance and nutrient cycle of subtropical ecosystems

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Martin Labadz_Influence of land use change on the catchment water balance and nutrient cycle of subtropical ecosystems

  1. 1. Southeast Queensland Peri-Urban SupersiteInfluence of land use change on the catchmentwater balance and nutrient cycle of subtropical ecosystems 2013 TERN National Symposium Martin Labadz 1 David Rowlings 1 Michelle Gane 1 Peter Grace 1 1 HealthyEcosystems and Environmental Monitoring IFE, Queensland University of Technology Brisbane, Australia 19 February 2013
  2. 2. Outline 1 Background 2 Project Aims 3 Study Area 4 Methods 5 Results 6 Overall Outcomes Typical Landscape in the Samford Valley, QLD
  3. 3. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Peri-Urbanisation • Southeast Queensland fastest growing region in Australia • Land use change • Alteration of catchment water balance Cities Precipitation Industry • More nutrient input into Agriculture ecosystems Runoff Consequences ⇒ Algal blooms ⇒ Increase in runoff and Groundwater erosion ⇒ More polluted areas 1 / 26
  4. 4. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Peri-Urbanisation • Southeast Queensland fastest growing region in Australia • Land use change • Alteration of catchment water balance Cities Precipitation Industry • More nutrient input into Agriculture ecosystems Runoff Consequences ⇒ Algal blooms ⇒ Increase in runoff and Groundwater erosion ⇒ More polluted areas 1 / 26
  5. 5. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Project Aims 1 Determine baseline conditions of the surface water: Physico-chemical indicators and all inorganic and organic forms of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) at an undisturbed site ⇒ Most studies in this area only focus on nitrate – limited information on other inorganic and organic N and P forms 2 Compare baseline conditions with physico-chemical properties and nutrient concentrations in the surface water of a more disturbed site. ⇒ Shows the effect of urbanisation 3 Develop a hydrological model for the catchment to simulate effects of future land use changes on catchment water balance, sediment and nutrient transport. 2 / 26
  6. 6. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Study Area – Catchment Location 152 00E 153 00E 154 00E N Bris ba ne Bribie Island Ri 27 00S ver Moreton Moreton Island Bay e th Pin Sou Samford Valley BRISBANE North Stradbroke r ive Island er R iv er Brem Lo n R South Stradbroke ga Island 28 00S 0 25 50 100 Kilometres 3 / 26
  7. 7. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Study Area – Catchment Location 152 00E 153 00E 154 00EWhy Samford Valley? N Bris⇒ Easily accessible: only 30 km ba nefrom Brisbane Bribie Island Ri 27 00S ver⇒ Established resources network at Moreton Moreton Island BaySERF e th Pin⇒ Historically rural but: Sou Samford Valley⇒ 50% increase in population BRISBANE North Stradbroke r ive Island er R(1996 to 2006) iv e r Brem Lo n R South Stradbroke ga Island 28 00S 0 25 50 100 Kilometres 3 / 26
  8. 8. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Study Area – Catchment Location 152 00E 153 00E 154 00EClimate (subtropical) N Bris• Mean min–max temperature ba ne range: 8 – 29 ◦ C Bribie Island Ri 27 00S ver• Average annual rainfall: Moreton Moreton Island Bay 1060 mm e th Pin Sou• Average monthly rainfall: Samford Valley BRISBANE r North Stradbroke highest (December): ive Island er R r 150 mm iv e Brem Lo n R South Stradbroke lowest (July): ga Island 28 00S 29 mm 0 25 50 100 Kilometres 3 / 26
  9. 9. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Topography 152°480"E 152°500"E 152°520"E 152°540"E ¯ GH # * 27°220"S 27°220"S High: 425 m ASL PS Low: 45 m ASL # * 27°240"S 27°240"S 0 0.5 1 2 3 4 Kilometres 4 / 26
  10. 10. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Study Approach – Sample Collection Effects of Peri- urbanisation on Catchment Hydrology Surface Water Sampling Physico-chemical Nutrients Parameters Spatial and Climatic Catchment Information: Soil, Hydrological Model Land Use, Rainfall etc. 5 / 26
  11. 11. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Surface Water Physico-chemistry • 2 sampling sites: Pumpshed and Glasshouse • Sampling started in January 2011 • Instrument: YSI Sonde • Parameters: Temperature, specific conductivity, pH, temperature, DO • High-resolution 10-minute data • Automated recording to Campbell logger Sampling setup at the Pumpshed site 6 / 26
  12. 12. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Surface Water Physico-chemistry • 2 sampling sites: Pumpshed and Glasshouse • Sampling started in January 2011 • Instrument: YSI Sonde • Parameters: Temperature, specific conductivity, pH, temperature, DO • High-resolution 10-minute data • Automated recording to Campbell logger Sampling setup at the Pumpshed site 6 / 26
  13. 13. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Surface Water Physico-chemistry • 2 sampling sites: Pumpshed and Glasshouse • Sampling started in January 2011 • Instrument: YSI Sonde • Parameters: Temperature, specific conductivity, pH, temperature, DO • High-resolution 10-minute data • Automated recording to Campbell logger Sampling setup at the Pumpshed site 6 / 26
  14. 14. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Surface Water Creek Discharge • 2 sampling sites: Pumpshed and Glasshouse • Sampling started in January 2011 • Instrument: Sontek Argonaut • Parameters: Water level, flow velocity, creek discharge (m3 s−1 ) • High-resolution 10-minute data • Automated recording to Backup: Pressure sensor Campbell logger 7 / 26
  15. 15. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Surface Water Sampling • Sampling fortnightly from September 2011 • Stormwater sampling with ISCO automated sampler Major Ions Cations: Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ Anions: Cl− , SO2− 4 Nutrients • inorganic N (NO− , NH+ ), organic 3 4 N, tot dissolved N, total N Surface water sampling • PO3− , tot dissolved P, total P 4 8 / 26
  16. 16. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Results – Physico-chemical Indicators Ranges of physico-chemical values measured at the Pumpshed and Glasshouse sampling sites from January 2011 to January 2013a . Sample Site Temperature Sp. Conductivity pH Turbidity Diss. Oxygen (◦ C) (µS) (NTU)b (%Sat) Pumpshed 11.4–26.9 (19.8)1 111–799 (460)1 6.4–7.5 (7.2)1 0–616 (2.1)1 12–92 (77.1)2 Glasshouse 11.1–27.8 (20.5)2 111–904 (480)2 6.1–7.9 (7.1)1 0–710 (4.3)2 6–92 (76.3)1 a Median values in parantheses. b NTU=Nephelometric Turbidity Units Numbers in superscript show significance in differences between the two sampling sites. 9 / 26
  17. 17. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Results – Physico-chemical Indicators Temperature Conductivity pH 800 25 7.5 600 µS cm -1 20 °C 7.0 400 15 200 6.5 Turbidity Diss. Oxygen Location Pumpshed 600 80 Glasshouse 60 400 %Sat NTU 40 200 20 0 10 / 26
  18. 18. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Flow at Pumpshed 60 0 50 100 40 Flow (m sec ) Rainfall (mm) 3 -1 30 200 Blah 20 300 10 0 400 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 12 03 06 09 12 03 06 09 12 03 11 / 26
  19. 19. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Flow at Glasshouse 60 0 50 100 40 Flow (m sec ) Rainfall (mm) 3 -1 30 200 Blah 20 300 10 0 400 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 12 03 06 09 12 03 06 09 12 03 12 / 26
  20. 20. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Typical Median Nutrient Concentration Ranges Australia 0.1 and 1 mg N L−1 (Richmond estuary, NSW) 0.009 to 0.16 mg N L−1 (Rous River catchment, NSW) 0.01 to 0.2 mg P L−1 (Richmon estuary, NSW) Northern Hemisphere 3.4 to 5.4 mg N L−1 (Spain, UK) 0.02 and 0.78 mg P L−1 (Germany) 13 / 26
  21. 21. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Nutrients Ranges of nutrient concentrations measured at the Pumpshed and Glasshouse sampling sites from September 2011 to January 2013a . Sample Site NO− -N 3 NH+ -N 4 tot. diss. N tot. N (mg N L−1 ) (mg N L−1 ) (mg N L−1 ) (mg N L−1 ) Pumpshed 0.02–0.16 (0.02)1 0.004–0.09 (0.04)1 0.29–1.75 (0.7)1 0.32–1.75 (0.7)1 Glasshouse 0.02–0.3 (0.05)2 0.01–0.16 (0.05)1 0.19–1.54 (0.76)1 0.38–1.6 (0.73)2 Sample Site PO3− 4 tot. diss. P tot. P (mg P L−1 ) (mg P L−1 ) (mg P L−1 ) Pumpshed <0.1 (DL) <0.009 (DL) <0.02 Glasshouse <0.1 (DL) <0.009 (DL) <0.02 a Median values in parantheses. Numbers in superscript show significance in differences between the two sampling sites. 14 / 26
  22. 22. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Flood 2013 Marcus recovers ISCO sampler. 15 / 26
  23. 23. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Total N 2.0 Pumpshed 1.8 Glasshouse 300 Rainfall 1.6 1.4 Rainfall (mm) -1 1.2 200 mg N L 1.0 0.8 100 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 2 2 3 2 3 O c t1 De c 1 Fe b1 No v 1 Ja n1 16 / 26
  24. 24. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Total P 0.30 Pumpshed 0.25 Glasshouse 300 Rainfall 0.20 Rainfall (mm) 0.15 -1 200 mg P L 0.10 0.05 100 0.00 0 2 2 3 2 3 O c t1 De c 1 Fe b1 No v 1 Ja n1 17 / 26
  25. 25. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Catchment Hydrological Model Spatial and Climatic Catchment Information: Soil, Hydrological Model Land Use, Rainfall etc. Find Most Sensitive Parameters Model Calibration Model Performance Indicators Calibrated Model Model Validation 18 / 26
  26. 26. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes What is a hydrological model? • Water balance driving force of catchment processes • Real data such as climatic data, soil properties and land use as input • Continuously measured stream flow • Model simulates stream flow, nutrient and sediment transport • Degree of uncertainty in results unknown ⇒ Calibration and validation of simulated parameters to reduce un- certainty 19 / 26
  27. 27. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Model Selection The SWAT model • Soil and Water Assessment Tool developed by USDA • Applied worldwide for most climatic zones • Frequently updated (currently SWAT 2012) • Physically-based, semi-distributed and highly parameterised • Accounts for spatial variations in physical catchment properties • Simulates interaction between physical and climatic parameters • Incorporates shallow groundwater systems • Simulates water balance, and nutrient and sediment transport (HRUs) 20 / 26
  28. 28. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Model Selection The SWAT model • Soil and Water Assessment Tool developed by USDA • Applied worldwide for most climatic zones • Frequently updated (currently SWAT 2012) • Physically-based, semi-distributed and highly parameterised • Accounts for spatial variations in physical catchment properties • Simulates interaction between physical and climatic parameters • Incorporates shallow groundwater systems • Simulates water balance, and nutrient and sediment transport (HRUs) 20 / 26
  29. 29. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Model Selection The SWAT model • Soil and Water Assessment Tool developed by USDA • Applied worldwide for most climatic zones • Frequently updated (currently SWAT 2012) • Physically-based, semi-distributed and highly parameterised • Accounts for spatial variations in physical catchment properties • Simulates interaction between physical and climatic parameters • Incorporates shallow groundwater systems • Simulates water balance, and nutrient and sediment transport (HRUs) 20 / 26
  30. 30. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Approach – Model Selection Precipitation Irrigation Typical Depths Evapotranspiration Soil Profile Su Soil Moisture 2m Root rfa Zone ce Lateral Flow Redistribution Ru no Revaporation ff 25 m Return Flow Percolation from Shallow/ Transmission Recharge to Deep Aquifer Shallow Aquifer Losses Deep Aquifer After Neitsch et al. (2005) 21 / 26
  31. 31. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Model Input – Land Use 152°500"E 152°520"E 152°540"E GH # * ¯ 27°220"S 27°220"S Grazing Intensive animal production Residential PS Nature conservation # * 27°240"S 27°240"S 0 0.5 1 2 3 4 Kilometres 22 / 26
  32. 32. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Model Input – Subcatchments 152°500"E 152°520"E 152°540"E GH # * ¯ 27°220"S 27°220"S PS # * 27°240"S 27°240"S 0 0.5 1 2 3 4 Kilometres 23 / 26
  33. 33. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Model Input – Subcatchments 152°500"E 152°520"E 152°540"E GH # * ¯ 27°220"S 27°220"SModel setup• 21 subcatchments• Multiple numbers of HRUs PS # * 27°240"S 27°240"S 0 0.5 1 2 3 4 Kilometres 23 / 26
  34. 34. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Example Catchment Model 95 PPU Observed streamflow Best simulation 3 After Calibration R2 : 0.96 EF: 0.95 p-factor: 0.92 r-factor: 1.25 Coochin Creek Catchment 24 / 26
  35. 35. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Example Catchment Model 95 PPU Observed streamflow Best simulation 3 After Validation R2 : 0.84 EF: 0.83 p-factor: 0.79 r-factor: 0.78 01/2009 04/2009 07/2009 10/2009 01/2010 04/2010 07/2010 10/2010 01/2011 Coochin Creek Catchment 25 / 26
  36. 36. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Preliminary Outcomes • Physico-chemical indicators and nutrient concentrations show minimal anthropogenic disturbance at both sampling sites. • Effect of peri-urbanisation visible: ⇒ Significantly higher physico-chemical indicators at the more disturbed site ⇒ Significantly higher total N at the more distrubed site ⇒ Organic N dominant form of N Future Work • Sensitivity analysis and calibration of SWAT model • Validation of the SWAT model • Simulation of future land use change scenarios on catchment hydrology, and nutrient and sediment transport 26 / 26
  37. 37. Background Project Aims Study Area Methods Results Overall Outcomes Preliminary Outcomes • Physico-chemical indicators and nutrient concentrations show minimal anthropogenic disturbance at both sampling sites. • Effect of peri-urbanisation visible: ⇒ Significantly higher physico-chemical indicators at the more disturbed site ⇒ Significantly higher total N at the more distrubed site ⇒ Organic N dominant form of N Future Work • Sensitivity analysis and calibration of SWAT model • Validation of the SWAT model • Simulation of future land use change scenarios on catchment hydrology, and nutrient and sediment transport 26 / 26
  38. 38. AcknowledgementsAndy Steven and Geoff Carlin, CSIRO– Logan/Albert subnode of the SoutheastQueensland Peri-Urban Supersite

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