Camera ModesDone by : Roqaya Abdullah Al-AbriID:86759
Most digital cameras support a number of digitalcamera modes for use in various situations.Professional DSLR cameras modes focus more on manualmodes, consumer point-and-shoot cameras focus on automaticmodes, and amateur prosumer cameras often have a wide varietyof both manual and automatic modes.Manual-enabled modes give the photographer control over thevarious parameters of an exposure. There are three exposureparameters – aperture, time (shutter speed), and sensitivity(ISO), and in different modes these are each set automatically ormanually; this gives 23 = 8 possible modes. For a givenexposure, this is an underdetermined system, as there are 3inputs but only 1 output. Accordingly, there are manycombinations that result in the same exposure – for example,decreasing the aperture by one stop but increasing the exposuretime or sensitivity to compensate, and there are various possiblealgorithms to automatically choose between these.Most often, ISO is considered separately, being either setmanually or set to Auto ISO, and then only aperture and shutterspeed need be determined – either determines the other.The four main modes, sometimes abbreviated "PASM", are: P: Program mode has the camera calculate both shutter speed and aperture (given a manually or automatically selected ISO). Higher-end cameras offer partial manual control to shift away from the automatically calculated values (increasing aperture and decreasing shutter time or conversely). The difference between Program mode and Full Auto mode is that in program mode, only the exposure is automatic, while other camera settings (e.g., shooting mode, exposure compensation, flash) can be set manually; in Full Auto mode everything is automatic. A or Av: Aperture priority or Aperture value enables manual control of the aperture, and shutter speed is calculated by the camera for proper exposure (given an ISO sensitivity).
S or Tv: Shutter priority or Time value enables manual control of the shutter speed, and aperture is calculated by the camera for proper exposure (given an ISO sensitivity). M: Manual mode both shutter speed and aperture and independently set manually (with ISO sensitivity also set manually), where proper image exposure requires accurate manual adjustment. Together with setting ISO manually or automatically, this yields the 4×2 = 8 possible combinations of manual/auto. Common camera modes Shutter mode Aperture mode Program mode Manual modeAutomatic mode
Auto/Program Camera Modes:Icons Description Auto The camera will completely control flash and exposure. On most cameras this is labelled "auto", on others simply "A". Some cameras only have (P)rogram. Program automatic-assist, just point and shoot. Unlike full auto mode, you can usually control flash and a few other camera settings. Aperture Priority Photographer sets the aperture (f-stop) and the camera will attempt to deliver a good exposure. Some cameras use an "A" icon instead of "Av" Shutter Priority Photographer sets the shutter, and the camera will attempt to deliver a good exposure. Some cameras use an "S" icon instead of "Tv" Manual Full manual mode, the photographer must set both the shutter and the aperture mode. Photographs by different camera modes This photograph captured by Aperture mode
This photograph captured by Manual modeThis photograph captured by Shutter speed mode