Charter schools competitive landscape report - t. la badie
Sean CampbellTimothy LaBadieCompetitive IntelligenceApril 26, 2012 I. Key Intelligence Question (KIQ) and Executive SummaryKIQ: 1. What should the top three strategic priorities for Oregon Charter Schools (CSs) be? I.e., given a CS’s limited resources and harsh competitive environment, where should its focus lie?Executive Summary: This report is written primarily for high school CSs in the Portland, Oregon area competing withtraditional public schools (PSs). It proceeds in three main sections. The first section (I) presents the keyquestion this report addresses and a summary this reports findings and recommendations; the second (II)describes the general competitive environment or landscape for CSs competing against PSs, including keyplayers in Oregon and applies the Nine Forces model; and the third (III) section makes the argument forthe three priorities that CSs should focus upon in the following arenas: (1) political, (2) supply chain, and(3) marketing. (Sources are found in the endnotes section, starting on page 12). CSs not only operate in an austere environment, but it an inclement political one. The wholeraison dêtre for CSs, especially as far as Portland is concerned, is that they ought to serve the mostdifficult students, and are often viewed as an unwelcome medicine, at best. Portland CSs thus have an unenviable task. To take a military analogy, it’s as though they are beingdropped behind enemy lines in exceedingly hostile terrain, but were outfitted with half of the resources oftheir counterparts—yet expected to succeed. So it is imperative that CSs have a very disciplined focus.Therefore, although this report could address a number of forces within the educational sector (emergingtechnologies, innovations in pedagogical methods, for example), it aims for a more pragmatic approach,narrowing its scope to the top three priorities that CSs should focus their attention on in this environment.These priorities are a mix of offensive and defensive (anticipatory) maneuvers in three areas. They are: 1. Political/Legal – The most crucial, both in the short and long term. Prepare for adverse political forces. a. In the short-term, ensure that a CS has strong community buy-in and participation from parents, students, and other stakeholders. In Portland, this type of grass-roots support and mobilization has allowed several schools to exist in the first place and survive. 1 b. In the short term, moreover, CSs should form strategic partnerships with each other, pooling their resources, to provide legal and PR support corresponding to the powerful legal resources that their PS competitors have at their disposal.
c. Changing the rules of the game to make the industry more competitive and robust is absolutely essential for the survival and success of CSs. So in the medium and long term, CSs should form strategic partnerships to lobby Oregon State policymakers, regulators, legislators, and executive-branch officials. 2. Student Supply Chain and Ecosystem Development – Partner with elementary and middle schools or even pre-elementary institutions to ensure that incoming students to high school have a realistic chance of meeting or exceeding the performance targets and mission of CSs. Because CSs can attract students outside of their districts, this is one of the few areas where they have a potential competitive advantage over their PS competitors. A list of primary-level CSs are provided as a starting point for this strategic partnership, as well as top-performing PSs in the Portland area (see below). Further, some schools have offered a number of services to parents, thus aiming to create a better educational ecosystem.2 3. Marketing and Benchmarking – In Portland, the burden is squarely on CSs to justify their existence. Although about 17% of CSs have achieved great results with their students and communities, in the mass, about 50% are no more successful than traditional public schools across the country.3 Therefore, it is imperative that CSs have a number of measures in place to aid in marketing—both to policymakers and to parents. Benchmarks from a CS leader, KIPP, is provided in addition to Oregon-specific measures. II.Introduction and Competitive Milieu American Public Schools used to be among the best in the world 40-50 years ago, in the time ofthe post-WWII era.4 Europe was rebuilding itself and the rest of the world was largely poor andundeveloped.5 But over time, globalization has resulted in fierce, worldwide competition.6 Consequently,America has been lagged behind in education.7 U.S. policymakers have responded largely by throwingmoney at the problem. Since 1970, the U.S. has doubled the average amount spent per student from about$4,200 to over $9,000 (controlled for inflation).8 Yet in 2012, about 30% of U.S. students don’t graduatehigh school on time9, and U.S. students have flat lined in reading and math scores. 10 As a response to the problem of public education, many states, starting in the 1990s, have tried toreverse the U.S.’s downward educational trend by experimenting with CSs, thereby hoping to introducemore competition and innovation to the educational sector. CSs are nominally public schools. Parents do not pay private, direct tuition, and so the schoolsare largely funded by tax dollars. They tend to be smaller than PSs in terms of student enrollment,allowing teachers to give students more attention and a more individualized, tailored education. On theground, CSs generally differ from PSs by requiring longer school days and academic years, their studentsto wear uniforms, frequent testing to track learing, and tutoring for students who are falling behind or notmeeting educational targets.
As far as political and social momentum goes, acceptance of CSs has probably never beenstronger. Broadly, CSs have become a cause célèbre of various entertainers and philanthropists, such asBill Gates.11The Nine Forces Model The foregoing background or environment of CSs is summarized in the Nine Forces model inAppendix, below.12 This model is useful for seeing the varied factors that affect the educational industryholistically. The chart below ranks the forces from most salient (1) to least (9). The model reinforces that the educational industry is marked by the government (at all levels)playing a strong role in the educational industry, and an intense rivalry between CSs and PSs. Further,barriers to entry are fairly high because of the lack of access to funds to start and maintain a CS. Federalgrants (up to $500,000) are available, but these can be hard to come by.13 Thus, it is not an attractiveindustry for new entrants. Usually, low customer (parent) buying power favors an industry. But here, theopposite is true. Low-income parents have little choice because of financial constraints. Substitutesinclude home schooling and private schools, but again for low-income parents, these substitutes are notfeasible. In sum, the Nine Forces model further illustrates the harsh nature of the competitive landscapefor CSs. Force Force Explanation Ranking 1 Political/Legal Government, laws, regulations, Laws and regulations lobbying efforts, public policy favor PSs. PSs have a lot more political/legal resources. 2 Competitors (PSs) Very high Teachers’ unions are Power extremely powerful politically at all levels of govt. 3 Potential Entrants Very high Raising funds is very (Barriers) difficult, mostly dependent upon state and federal grants. Hostile local school boards are gatekeepers and can revoke a school’s charter.
4 Social Demographics, culture, Acceptance of CSs and lifestyle, education, values the need for innovation in education has probably never been higher.5 Economic Resources, global economy, Most developed employment, Disposable y countries outcompete Low to medium the U.S. in education.6 Customer Power Low Low-income parents cannot afford private schools and are thus left with a bad PS or an often new, untested CS.7 Technological Impact of science/tech on Edu is awash with new production (edu) & process technological innovation approaches, but this nearly always requires capital and expertise that most CSs do not have.8 Supplier Power Medium Teachers are the most important supplier to a good school. Because 50% of PDX CS teachers can be non- union, these teachers tend to have lower bargaining power.9 Substitutes Low Home-schooling and private schools are not an option for most low- income parents because of time, financial, and educational constraints.CSs and the Educational Landscape at the State Level
An Overview of Public Education in Oregon Oregon has almost 200 public school districts, which operate about 1,350 public schools andenroll about 560,000 K-12 students.14 Out of these 1,350 schools, a mere 115 are CSs15 , which firstappeared in Oregon in 1999. 16 These CSs have between 17-20,000 students enrolled currently, accordingto the Oregon Department of Education (ODE). Oregon’s public-school system employs about 30,000teachers, amounting to a teacher-to-student ratio of 19 to 1, which is higher than the national 2008average of about 15 to 1. 17 Demographically, minority students constitute 32% (national 2008 average is 45%) of Oregonstudents.18 Students who qualified for free and reduced-price lunch made up 49% of all students in 2009(national 2008 average: 44.6%). 19 Special education students made up 13% of the total in 2009-2010(national 2008 average, the same). 20 About 12% Oregon need language assistance services becauseEnglish was not their first language (national average: 25%). 21 How well does the Oregon educate its students? Roughly 72% of students earn a high schooldiploma within five years, tracking the national average. About 20% go on to earn a bachelor’s degree orcollege credential. And only 59 percent of Oregon high school grads ever merely attend college for atime. 22Political and Regulatory Players and Competitors at the State and Local Level The regulatory apparatus needed to support public education in Oregon is exceedingly complex.There are at least four agencies at the state level that regulate education—the State Board of Education 23,the Teacher Standards and Practices Commission (teacher licensing) 24, the Oregon Department ofEducation and Superintendant of Public Instruction (statewide testing and curriculum)25, and the QualityEducation Commission (governs state education budget)26. This does not even include the federalagencies and the mare’s nest of federal statutes, agencies, grants, etc. that impact and influence state-leveleducational policy and regulation. Lastly, local school boards, are very important. They are most often the “sponsor” to which theCS has to report. The school board must grant the initial charter before a CS can open its doors, andaudits the CS an ongoing basis.27 As we will see, this is a major battleground for CSs in the Portlandarea, and will be detailed in the next section. 1. It’s all politics, really… CSs are not, economically speaking, masters of their own destiny. In fact, intense rivalry in thepolitical arena is the key competitive feature of the CS landscape. Hence, it is appropriately addressedfirst out of the first three competitive strategies. To even open their doors, they must have their “charter”approved by the state. “Charter” is particularly appropriate because it implies that the school is allowedto exist at the will and pleasure of the state. It is a mere privilege, to be granted or withheld by thegovernment, not a right you can enforce. Oregon is an inclement political environment for CSs, which makes it fairly typical among states.Only three states have laws that tend to foster a highly competitive environment between CSs and PSs,according to the Center for Education Reform, or CER.28 Oregon is also typical in that CSs receive only
about 60% of the funding per student that PSs get, or $6,500 vs. $10,700. 29 Even though Oregon CSsfirst appeared in 1999, as of 2009, 22 CSs have already failed, or around a 25%.30Portland School Boards and PSs Political-Legal Comparative Advantage But if you zoom in from the state level, the environment becomes even more hostile to CSs inPortland. Of the 20+ CS have applied for charter school sponsorship since 1999, the Portland schoolboard has rejected 10. This is more rejections than all other districts in the state combined.31 And thestate has granted appeal to review these rejections in only four cases (or 18% of the time). 32 Thishighlights the importance of Portland CSs making sure that they are well prepared for the competitivelandscape politically. Portland PSs biggest comparative advantage is their legal-political arsenal. Besides having publicofficials and agency staff, the public schools and teachers unions have access to some of the best legalcounsel in the area via the Legal Assistance Trust. The Trust helps public educators maneuver offensivelyor defensively in Oregon courts. The fund is substantial, and maintains a minimum balance of$120,000.33Any advice for someone starting a charter school? Yes, check your sanity. –Adam Reid The first major hurdle CSs face is having their charter accepted, or being granted existence, in thefirst place. Founders must present essentially a business plan, which can run 200+ pages to the localschool board34 . This not only leaves a lot of room founders to make mistakes, but it gives the schoolboard great latitude to second-guess and add onerous conditions. Further, there is an element ofarbitrariness. The Portland school board has rejected charters, when the state board has approved itunanimously on appeal.35 And the hurdles and oversight by the board are ongoing. The charter must be renewed after anumber of years (generally three to five), so a CS is never in the clear. Even prior to renewal, the terms ofeducation boards might find that a CS has violated the terms of their charter in the required annual report,on-site visit, and audit. 36 Thus, the board resembles more of a probation officer who can intervene atmost any time, rather than a mere licensor who rarely is involved in a meaningful sense. The ongoing opportunities for CSs to be found wanting in the eyes of the school board abound.Some common areas that have been particular stumbling blocks for CSs have been: buildings (where theschool is located), rental rates, and a mass of zoning regulations37; financial health and compliance38 ; theexistence of substitutes (such as “alternative schools”, which are offshoots of say, a high school, forspecial-needs and troubled students. Board officials often argue that the existence of alternative schoolsrender a new CS duplicate, and obviate the need for a CS. 39 These are but a few examples, and a creativeschool board, city attorneys, and bureaucrats can come up with many more; state law allows local schoolboards to add additional, novel standards that don’t apply to PSs.40Political-Legal Action to Take Therefore, it pays a CS to take act preemptively in the following ways. 1. Perform a competitive analysis of the local school board, member by member. Count the noses. Often, the difference between success and failure, as a local Portland CS high school found out, is a mere member or two, which change periodically.41
2. If possible, hire a consulting firm that specializes in CS, such as Charter Starters, Inc. out of Eugene, Oregon.42 Such firms are well aware of all the common sticking points. 3. CSs need to rev up the PR machine early, and if possible, work with PR firms before the fact. 4. Have the lawyers ready and waiting. This means proactively seeking their advice early to anticipate problems and plan, rather than hiring lawyers reactively. As pointed out above, Portland school boards have rejected almost half of CS applicants, so one should frankly expect this, and plan for the appeals process to the State Board from the get-go. 2. Student Supply Chain and EcosystemEqual opportunity to me more than anything means a great education. Maybe even moreimportant than a great family life, but I don’t know how to do that…But it pains me because wedo know how to provide a great education. We really do. –Steve Jobs43A lot of our expectations of our kids are sometimes unrealistic. See, our timeframe is immediate.Fourteen years the kids don’t understand this [sic]. You think they’re going to understand it inseven months? For so many of our children, they know nothing about discipline, commitment,and responsibility and perseverance and service and excellence. So now we expect them, on adime, to become this different person. How real is our timeframe with this work? We really needto understand that. Edward Tom, Principal of Bronx Center for Science and Mathematics44 In Oregon, CS’s raison dêtre is to work with the most challenging, difficult students. Call iteducational alchemy. Some schools have performed this daunting task well, but in the aggregate mostCSs have not gotten better results than their PS competitors. Yet, high schools can only do so much withstudents that have learned little to nothing thus far and who have serious personal- and family-relatedproblems. So a crucial strategic priority is that CSs have to start managing their student supply chain andecosystem better. This report recommends they implement this strategy in the following ways. 1. In the short term, CSs should attract the best students already existing. But a major risk to this strategy is that they will be accused of cherry picking the best students, leading to more vigorous political and PR attacks. But to some degree CSs must deal with this criticism. They do have to attract at least a critical mass of good students, for purposes of “good infection.” The alternative to not culling the best students is to risk their long-term survival and legitimacy by trying to perform impossible alchemy. Further, CSs have a comparative advantage over PSs in that students from other districts can attend any CS they wish. Although CSs serving low-income students are unlikely to convince, say, your average Lake Oswego parent to send their kid to a school on Burnside, CSs that specialize (e.g., in engineering or the fine arts) have a fighting chance of culling top-performing students.
2. In the short and medium term, CS should partner strategically with elementary and middle-school level CSs in cultivating students. 3. In the long term, CSs should consider backward integrating, namely, opening their own separate elementary and middle schools or going “cradle to grave” by serving K-12. Schools might even start with K-3rd grade and then add grades sequentially. Indeed, one of the industry leaders for CSs, Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP), has taken the backward integration tack starting just several years ago.Top-Ranking Primary-Level Schools in Portland The good news is that there is ample open-source data and measures by which a CS can start targetingpotential partners and suppliers (primary schools).45 For the short and medium term, the best primary-level schools are given below as a starting point for high-school CSs for better managing their supplychain and creating a better ecosystem for CS students: • Top-ranked elementary schools in Portland area in terms of reading and math scores for 5th graders46 :Astor Elementary, Bethany, Bolton Primary School, Bonny Slope, Clackamas, Emerson School (CS),Farmington View, Findley, and Hallinan. • Top-ranked middle schools in Portland area in terms of reading and math scores for 8th graders47 :Jane Goodall Environmental Middle (CS), Winterhaven School, West Sylvan Middle School, ThreeRivers (CS), Sheridan Japanese School (CS), International School of Beaverton Middle School,Laurelhurst Elementary School, and Beverly Clearly School. 3. Metrics, Benchmarks, and Marketing Metrics and benchmarks are essential to CSs on two marketing fronts. First, political marketing: convincing local school boards, regulatory agencies, and higher-levelpolicymakers that CS are worth investing in, and that the rules of the game need to be changed to allowCS to compete on a level playing field. Second, the classical marketing front: convincing parents to test a less-customary educational option.This is important because convincing Portland parents that gambling entrusting their child’s future to aCS is a big challenge. 48 Further, in Portland, CSs are forbidden from directly marketing to students.49Because that segment is off-limits, this underscores the necessity of marketing to the other segmentseffectively. Because CSs are outmatched in terms of political, lobbying, and legal firepower at this point,their lobbying is less likely to be effective if it is largely rhetoric-based. Like with other effectivereforms, it must be evidence-based to counter the status quo and conventional wisdom. So empiricalsupport is the best way to build the case for CSs and to influence policymakers.Benchmarks
What metrics should CSs focus on? One of the CS industry leaders is Knowledge Is Power Program(KIPP). KIPP started in Harlem, founded by Geoffrey Canada, who was featured in the Waiting forSuperman documentary. KIPP has been a model. It has rather remarkably been able to scale its schools,and has spread about 110 CSs across the country (though not to Oregon yet)50. KIPP thus is anappropriate benchmark. From the metrics that are available (such as graduation rates), Portland-area CSs vary widely whencompared to these benchmarks. Because of this wide variation and the scarcity of other data (such asteacher retention and turnover rates), comparable data are not given for any particular CSs. Rather, theimportant thing for CSs is to (1) start measuring the benchmarks given below and (2) aim for thesuccesses that KIPP has been able to achieve. With that said, the (a) five key benchmarks are givenbelow51 . 1. Serving the under-served students benchmarks (Demographic information) a. Race/ethnicity (60% black, 36% latino) b. Eligible for free or reduced-price meals (poverty measure) (75% free, 11% discounted), Special-needs or eduction students (10%), and c. English Language learners (14%) 2. Student Graduation, attendance, and attrition benchmarks a. 84-89% of students graduate or return to the same school per year 3. Benchmarks measuring whether students are progressing and achieving academically a. National Level: At the end of 8th grade, 62% of KIPP students outperform their national peers in math; 57% do so in reading b. Local Level: At the end of 8th grade, 94% and 96% outperform their local districts in reading and math respectively c. On average, 100% of students outperformed their district’s average on SAT or ACT scores d. Percent of students meeting growth targets in reading and math, compared to a national average by grade: Nearly all grades fall between 55% and 80% of students meeting growth targets, compared to a national average of about 50% of students e. 82% of high-school students took SATs. Their average score was 1426 f. 66% of seniors took AP classes, with 36% scoring a “3” or higher i. Percent of students who graduate high school versus low-income average and U.S. average nationally
1. 94% of KIPP students graduate, compared with 73% of low-income students who graduate across the country (the national average generally is that 83% of high school students graduate)4. College benchmarks a. Number of KIPP graduates who start college b. 36% of KIPP graduates complete four-year degrees 36%, compared to only 11% of low- income students nationwide, and 31% of students nationwide generally5. Benchmarks measuring whether a CS’s business model sustainable in terms of human capital and financially a. Sustainability of Human Capital (teachers and administrators) i. Leadership and talent-development programs 1. 73% of persons in leadership positions once taught at a KIPP school and have moved on to play an administrative role ii. Retention (turnover) rates 1. 73% of teachers stayed within KIPP’s network of schools 2. 68% of teachers returned to the same school, and 5% moved to a non- teaching position within the network of schools b. Financial Sustainability 52 iv. Staff-to-student ratios v. Facility costs and ratios vi. Financial forecasting (fiscal) 1. An average KIPP school pays 85% of annual operating expenses from public funds (taxes) vii.Private funding and donations 1. An average KIPP school receives only 15% from private donations, or non-public funds viii.Break-even point where a CS no longer has to rely on a certain level of donations. ix.KIPP’s school expenses include:
1. Instruction 2. Student services such as transportation and meals 3. Extra expenses from longer school days and years as well as end-of-year field lessons 4. KIPP Through-College programs 5. Facilities, and 6. Administration Lastly, Oregon has its own metrics, including the Oregon State Achievement Index. Thesemetrics are important largely as a table stakes (necessary but not sufficient conditions for success).Oregon CSs should of course start with getting the basics down and meeting local and state standards, butthe whole point of benchmarking is to emulate the best globally, not just locally.A Concluding Note on Educational Technology - Because of the harsh operating environment facing CSs and their limited resources, thisreport has purposefully limited its scope. However, the importance of educational technology isworth mentioning. Unlike the public-school market, “edu-tech” is extremely competitive andinnovative. Application of novel edu-tech offers not only quality improvements, but also cost-savings as well (e.g., distance-learning options that could cut down on fixed costs, such asbuildings and facilities). It is an area in which CSs, once they have become financially stable,can probably gain a comparative advantage vis-à-vis their slower-moving PS competitors.
Sources:1 Interview with Adam Reid, co-founder of Portland’s Leadership and Entrepreneurship Public Charter School(LEP) on 3/8/12. See http://lephigh.org/site/about/staff-directory/. See also: Rejected by Portland district, group’splan for Southwest center gets second life”. Portland Tribune. Updated October 30, 2009:http://www.portlandtribune.com/news/print_story.php?story_id=117736183585972800.2 See Self-Enhancement, Inc., as CS in North Portland. http://www.selfenhancement.org/what_we_do.html.3See Stanford’s Credo report: “Multiple Choice: Charter School Performance in 16 States.” 2009. http://credo.stanford.edu/reports/MULTIPLE_CHOICE_CREDO.pdf.4 “Waiting for Superman” documentary.5 Ibid.6See e.g., “Fear of China: Welcoming the competition, like it or not” The Economist. June 10, 2010. (http://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2010/06/fear_china).7 Waiting for Superman, above.8 Ibid.9 “High school graduation rate rises in U.S.” Washington Post. March 18, 2012: http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/education/high-school-graduation-rate-rises-in-us/2012/03/16/gIQAxZ9rLS_story.html.10 Waiting for Superman, above.11See e.g., “Nine Cities Commit to New Partnerships Between Local School Districts and Public Charter Schools”.Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Dec. 7, 2010 (http://www.gatesfoundation.org/press-releases/Pages/new-charter-school-partnerships-101207.aspx).12 The “Ecological” force is omitted in this analysis because of its marginal relevance here.13 See interview with Adam Reid, above.14 Oregon Blue Book: Public Education in Oregon. (http://bluebook.state.or.us/education/educationintro.htm).15“2011- 2012 Charter Schools Contact List” ODE: (http://www.ode.state.or.us/opportunities/grants/nclb/title_v/b_charterschools/2011-2012-charter-schools-contact-list.xls).16 “Charter schools in Portland: Boon or bane?” The Oregonian. Saturday, June 27, 2009 (http://www.oregonlive.com/news/index.ssf/2009/06/charter_schools_in_portland_bo.html).17 Oregon Blue Book, above. These are 2008 numbers.18 Ibid.19 Ibid.20 Ibid.21 Ibid.22“Only 59 percent of Oregon high school grads even try college, putting college degree goals far out of reach” TheOregonian. April 16, 2012: (http://www.oregonlive.com/education/index.ssf/2012/04/only_59_percent_of_oregon_high.html#incart_mce).23 See ORS 338.025.
24See the Oregon Blue Book: http://bluebook.state.or.us/state/executive/Teachers_Standards/teacher_standards_home.htm.25See Id. and (http://bluebook.state.or.us/education/educationintro.htm and the ODE’s website: http://dasapp.oregon.gov/statephonebook/display.asp?agency=58100&division=00010).26 See Oregon Blue Book, above.27 See ODE website, “Charter Schools, Title V-B: http://www.ode.state.or.us/search/results/?id=124.28 “Charter Schools” http://www.movingtoportland.net/schools/charter-schools.29Ibid. See also the interview with Adam Reid, who reported that his school in particular receives just over half ofthe funds per student that other Portland-area PSs receive.30 “Charter schools in Portland: Boon or bane?”, cited above.31 (http://www.movingtoportland.net/schools/charter-schools32 “Charter schools in Portland: Boon or bane?”, cited above.33 (http://www.osba.org/News%20Center/Announcements/2012-03-09_SLN_Legal_Assistance_Trust.aspx).34“Oceanview Charter School strives for acceptance” The Daily Astorian. March 2, 2012: http://www.dailyastorian.com/free/oceanview-charter-school-strives-for-acceptance/article_31ec853e-649a-11e1-b0e9-0019bb2963f4.html.35 Rejected by Portland district, group’s plan for Southwest center gets second life”. Portland Tribune. UpdatedOctober 30, 2009:http://www.portlandtribune.com/news/print_story.php?story_id=117736183585972800.36 See ORS § 338.095.37 See Adam Reid interview, above, and Rejected by Portland district, group’s plan for Southwest center gets secondlife”. Portland Tribune. Updated October 30, 2009:http://www.portlandtribune.com/news/print_story.php?story_id=117736183585972800.38 Adam Reid interview, above.39“Oceanview Charter School strives for acceptance” The Daily Astorian. March 2, 2012: http://www.dailyastorian.com/free/oceanview-charter-school-strives-for-acceptance/article_31ec853e-649a-11e1-b0e9-0019bb2963f4.html).40 “Charter schools in Portland: Boon or bane?”, cited above.41 Adam Reid interview, above.42 See http://charter-starters.com/.43 As quoted in a 1996 interview with Wired magazine’s Nick Carr.44 As quoted in “Whatever it Takes”, a documentary film. Directed by Christopher Wong. 2009.45See e.g.., http://www.greatschools.org/oregon/portland/and the Oregonian’s service, Schooldigger.com, citedbelow.46 (Top 10 elementary schools by 2010-11 OAKS Math & Reading scores, or NLBA scores, 5th Grade) (http://www.schooldigger.com/go/OR/schoolrank.aspx?pagetype=top10&level=3).
47 (Top 10 middle schools by 2010-11 OAKS Math & Reading scores, or NLBA scores, 8th grade: http://www.schooldigger.com/go/OR/schoolrank.aspx?pagetype=top10&level=3).48 Adam Reid interview, above.49 Ibid.50 See http://www.kipp.org/schools.51 All of the benchmarks below can be found in KIPP’s 2011 annual report, or “report card”. See http://www.kipp.org/report-card-2011.52Not all of the actual benchmarks are given (e.g., staff ratios and facility costs), but KIPP apparently does measurethese. CSs should as well.